Database Systems Design, Implementation, and Management 11e – Chapter 1 – Database Systems

data
raw facts
information
result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning
knowledge
body of information and facts about a specific subject
data management
discipline that focuses on the proper generation, storage, and retrieval of data
database
shared, integrated computer structure that stores a collection of end-user data and metadata; a collection of self-describing data; resembles a very well-organized electronic filing cabinet in which powerful software (the dbms) helps manage the cabinet’s contents
end-user data
raw facts of interest to the end user
metadata
data about data, through which the end-user data are integrated and managed
database management system (DBMS)
a collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data stored in the database; intermediary between the user and the database
data inconsistency
exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places
query
a specific request issued to the DBMS for data manipulation; simply put it is a question
ad hoc query
is a spur-of-the-moment question
query result set
answer to a query sent back by the DBMS to the application
data quality
comprehensive approach to promoting the accuracy, validity, and timeliness of the data
single-user database
supports only one user at a time
desktop database
a single-user database that runs on a personal computer
multiuser database NoSQL
supports multiple users at the same time
workgroup database
a multiuser database supporting a relatively small number of users (less than 50) or a department within an organization
enterprise database
when the database is used by the entire organization and supports many users (more than 50, usually hundreds) across many departments
centralized database
database that supports data located as a single site
distributed database
database that supports data distributed across several different sites
cloud database
database that is created and maintained using cloud data services
general-purpose databases
contain a wide variety of data used in multiple disciplines
discipline-specific databases
contain data focused on specific subject areas
database design
refers to the activities that focus on the design of the database structure that will be used to store and manage end-user data
data processing (DP) specialist
hired to create computer-based system that would
structural dependence
means that access to a file is dependent on its structure
structural independence
exists when you can change the file structure without affecting the application’s ability to access the data
islands of information
when the structure supports scattering the data into several location, each location is an island; often causes data to be in several different versions because the locations aren’t updated consistently
analytical database
focuses primarily on storing historical data and business metrics used exclusively for tactical or strategic decision making
business intelligence
describes a comprehensive approach to capture and process business data with the purpose of generating information to support business decision making
data anomaly
develops when not all of the required changes in the redundant data are made successfully
data dependence
when change to any of the file’s data storage characteristics change all data access programs
data independence
when you can change the data storage characteristics without affecting the program’s ability to access the data
data dictionary
used by the dbms to look up the required data component structures and relationship
data integrity
the condition in which all of the data in the database are consistent with the real-world events and conditions
data quality
a comprehensive approach to promoting the accuracy, validity, and timeliness of the data
data warehouse
a specialized database that stores data in a format optimized for decision support; contains historical data obtained from the operational databases as well as data from external sources
data redundancy
exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places
database system
an organization of components that defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, and use of data in a database environment
discipline-specific database
a database that contains data focused on specific subject areas
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A metalanguage used to represent and manipulate data elements. Unlike other markup languages, XML, permits the manipulation of a document’s data elements. XML facilitates the exchange of structured documents such as orders and invoices over the Internet.
field
an alphabetic or numeric character or group of characters that defines a characteristic of a person, place, or thing
file
a named collection of related records
logical data format
the way a person views data
online analytical processing (OLAP)
decision support system (DSS) tools that use multidimensional data analysis techniques; creates and advanced data analysis environment that supports decision making, business modeling, and operations research
online transaction processing (OLTP)
the systems that support a company’s day-to-day operations. Databases that support this are known as OLTP databases, transactional databases, or operational databases
online transaction processing (OLTP) database
supports online transaction processing for day-to-day operations of an organization
operational database
a database designed primarily to support a company’s day-to-day operations; also known as a transactional database or production database
performance tuning
activities that make a database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed
physical data format
the way a computer “sees” (stores) data
production database
main database designed to keep track of the day-to-day operations of a company; also known as transactional databases
query language
a nonprocedural language that is used by a DBMS to manipulate its data
semistructured data
data that have already been processed to some extent
single-user database
a database that supports only one user at a time
social media
web and mobile technologies that enable “anywhere, anytime, always on” human interaction
structured data
unstructured data that have been formatted to facilitate storage, use, and information.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
a powerful and flexible relational database language composed of commands that enable users to create database and table structures, perform various types of data manipulation and data administration, and query the database to extract useful information
unstructured data
data that exist in their original, raw state; that is, in the format in which they were collected
XML database
a database system that stores and manages semistructured XML data