organized collection of logically related data.
stored representations of meaningful objects and events
numbers, text, dates
images, video, documents
data processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data.
data that describes the properties and context of user data.
Disadvantages of File Processing
– All programs maintain metadata for each file they use
Duplication of Data
– Different systems/programs have separate copies of the same data
Limited Data Sharing
– No centralized control of data
Lengthy Development Times
– Programmers must design their own file formats
Excessive Program Maintenance
– 80% of information systems budget
The DATABASE Approach
– Central repository of shared data
– Data is managed by a controlling agent
– Stored in a standardized, convenient form
Database Management System (DBMS)
manages data resources like an operating system manages hardware resources.