the meanings that are shared by most people in a social group; a society’s personality
ecology, social structure, ideology
the way a culture adapts to a habitat
people maintain an orderly life
the mental characteristics of a people and the way they relate to an environment
the sense of what is beautiful and what is not
influence of religious groups
they can influence companies’ decisions by encouraging their members to boycott products or stage protests
understand cultural meanings of concepts from the point of view of the consumers who create and use them
content analysis, ethnographic fieldwork, measures of values
what are the three procedures to measure cultural content?
abstract end goals that people strive to achieve in their lives
advertising, pricing, design, distribution
how are cultural meanings moved into products?
sets of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically
acquisition, bargaining, possession, exchange, grooming, divestment
what are six types of cultural rituals?
ritual — shopping on black friday
ritual — negotiation at auto dealership
ritual — china set
ritual — birthday presents
ritual — morning routine
ritual — remove address label on magazine before passing along
values, attitudes and lifestyles
what does VALS stand for?
to highlight/hide aspects of the self
why do we buy products?
product-related characteristics, product attributes, product imagery, sponsorships, age, symbol
what are the six ways to create brand personality
person, product, setting
what are the three things that influence an individual’s lifestyle?
through the integration process
how are attitudes formed?