Cultural Resource Management Archaeology

Academic Archaeology
Archaeology undertaken for intellectual or scholarly reasons and based primarily in colleges, universities, and research museums and institutes.
Professional Archaeology
– Stewardship mandates maintained by federal and state entities
– planning requirements for development projects created by the marketplace
– research pursued by the archaeologists
– 80% of Archaeologists today
Antiquarians
Amateur collectors and speculators
Smithsonian
Formed in 1846 under the mandate to solve the mound builder problem, Cyrus Thomas, conducted excavations and established importance of excavation methodology, data collection, and problem oriented research.
Antiquities Act of 1906
1. Protects Prehistoric and historic antiquities on Federal Land
2. Establishes regulations and sanctions for protection
3. Allows designation of National Monuments
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Federal program aimed at providing employment for those suffering during the depression, while pursuing projects of benefit to the public and nation 1935-1943
Historic Sites Act of 1935
Preserve objects, buildings, and sites of “national significance” for “public use inspiration and benefit”
Benefits of WPA
Provided massive amounts of new data and developed professional standards and networks
Problems of WPA
1. inappropriate bureaucratic expectations set by the government
2. poor quality work done under tight deadlines
3. excavation conducted without a clear research agenda
4. too little analysis and publication of results
Post WWII
Federal funding opportunities increased through NSA
Pace of infrastructure development increased at the national level and preservation was incorporated into some.
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1954
The act passed by the US Congress in 1956 that planned and funded 90% the construction of the nation’s interstate highway system
Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960
1960: Saves sites from Dam construction. Directed the Secretary of the Interior to oversee the salvage of the resources in river basins flooded by dam construction
Cultural Resources
physical features, both natural and artificial, associated with human activity, including sites, structures, and objects possessing significance in history, architecture, or human development. Cultural properties are unique and nonrenewable resources
Cultural Resource Management
a branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA)
legislation intended to preserve historical & archaeological sites in the U.S. The act created the National Register of Historic Places, the list of National Historic Landmarks, & the State Historic Preservation Offices.The act requires Federal agencies to evaluate the impact of all Federally funded or permitted projects on historic properties (buildings, archaeological sites, etc.)
National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)
National Park Service maintains the properties listed on the U.S.’ official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects worth of preservation; more than 85,000 listing
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
A law passed in 1969 requiring agencies to issue an environmental impact statement before undertaking any major action affecting the environment. (Loophole in this policy focused narrowly on sites already listed in the National Register)
Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)
Aid in environmental policy and in writing the annual “state of the environment” report to Congress. The council makes sure that the federal agencies follow the nation’s environmental laws and presidential policy. It’s three members are also appointed by the president with the senate’s consent.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Statement required by Federal law from all agencies for any project using Federal funds to assess the potential affect of the new construction or development on the environment.
American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 (AIRFA)
Act passed by Congress in 1978. Intended to “protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise” their traditional religions. Well-intentioned, but lacked the necessary legal teeth for enforcement, which allowed the federal and state governments to continue to undermine the religious rights of Native Americans. (it brought attention to spiritual places and the ceremonial use of objects)
Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA)
1979. prohibits excavation, removal, or displacement of archaeological resources without permits
Abandoned Shipwrecks Act of 1987 (ASA)
1987, meant to protect historic shipwrecks from treasure hunters and salvagers by transferring the title of the wreck to the state whose waters it lies in
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA)
federal legislation intended to protect and return certain archaeological human remains and culturally significant artifacts to Native Americans
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP)
is an independent federal agency that promotes the preservation, enhancement, and productive use of our nation’s historic resources, and advises the President and Congress on national historic preservation policy.
National Park Service (NPS)
Manages land and historic sites, administers the national register, NAGPRA, heritage documentation program, architecture program, and grants for historic preservation
State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)
State level liaison to NHPA who carries out functions of maintaining site inventories, identifying and nominating properties to the NRHP, and administering NPA matching grants.
Tribal Historic Preservation Officer (THPO)
The official of a federally recognized tribe who oversees the tribes historic preservation program. When approved by NPS they carry out the functions of the shpo within the boundaries of the reservation.
The Human Environment
Natural environment, physical environment, and relationship of people with natural/physical environment.
Limitations of NEPA
Limited to Major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Allows some actions to go without an environmental assessment.