CTVA 100 Final for CSUN 2015 for professor Dianah Wynter

1800’s Advertising model
By the late 1800s full page ads were common in magazines. And with them subtle but economic shift occurred. Magazines weren’t just being sold to readers; rather readers were being sold to advertisers.
advertising staff
Establishes a relationship with advertisers
est. relationships with right advertisers; make sales presentations; create advertising campaigns w/ ad agencies
advertorial
Ads in magazines and newspapers that take on the appearance of genuine editorial content
Akio Morita
Founder of SONY in Japan, started with betamax and compact disc… Eventually replaced with Nobuyuki Idei in the late 1980s- early 1990s during Sony’s huge financial loss.
Ambient or Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor advertising includes billboards, store signs, posters on public transportation, wearing brand-name clothing, are examples of _____.
Advertising
Any paid form of communication through mass media directed at identified consumers to provide information and influence their actions. It is the most known and used type of mass promotion.
analog – digital changeover
The broadcast TV industry changed to digital. Scanning lines are more than double the standard of the 525
Aristotle’s golden mean
According to Aristotle, virtue is “the mean between two extremes.” This is a philosophy of moderation and compromise, often called the golden mean. The
journalistic concept of fairness reflects
this idea.
Arpanet
A computer network developed by the Advanced Research Project Agency (now the Defense Advance Research Projects Agency) in the 1960s and 1970s as a means of communication between research laboratories and universities. ARPANET was the predecessor to the Internet.
Art comics
often created by single individuals, who usually retain the total copyright themselves; more inventive in visual
style, adventurous.
How to determine a website reliability for research?
1.Attribution: Are the author and publishing institution listed? Can the URL be traced?
2.Authority: What credentials are listed for the author?
3.Objectivity: What are the authors objectives?
4.Currency: How up-to-date is the information?
Bandura’s social learning theory
If person believes he/she is capable of performing a behavior/self efficacy and believes that behavior will lead to a desirable outcome, then the person will be more likely to perform the behavior. 4 methods develop or enhance self efficacy. example bobo the doll
BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation
In Great Britain Parliament set up an independent, public corporation, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), supported by licensing fees. Elsewhere in Europe the typical pattern was direct control by the government.
Tim Berners-Lee
Created the Internet protocol HTTP and the World Wide Web Language HTML
Blogs
Web-based journals often used by individuals to groups to maintain a record of thoughts, pictures and interests, an online diary.
Bobo doll
children watched a doll be treated in three different ways, when placed with the doll, they treated in the same way that they had seen. good example of modeling!
Boondoggle
a government project which wastes money due to inefficiency or corruption
Branding
A marketing function that identifies products and their source and differentiates them from all other products
Buffering
means downloading a file and saving it on a hard drive while it is being viewed.!
Catharsis
Theory that vicariously participating in other’s fictionalized hostility or aggression enables drama watchers, readers, or listeners to be purged of their anger and hostility and thereby become less aggressive (yet to be proven).
Circulation staff
find and keep subscribers; manage subscribers list; promote single-copy sales
Citizen United
Case in which the Court held that the First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions.
Comic Strips
-1850s -Wilhelm busch ‘founder of modern comic strip’ for max and moritz, 1st published in newspaper in 1965 -humorous social commentary (rooted from yellow kid)
Community relations
the activities that a business uses to acquire or maintain the respect of the community
Comparative advertising
A form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one or more specific attributes
Computer virus
a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer
Condé Nast
influential publisher, bought and redesigned “Vogue” in 1909, purchased “Vanity Fair”, “House & Garden” and founded the Conde Nast chain
Consumer Magazines
Magazines that are generally read by individuals as part of their personal media use
Cookies
A little piece of information that is put on your computer to allow communications with the server and that also allow some servers to track everything you go to on the Internet
Corporate aid
community relations activity in which a company helps society on a large scale
CPU
Abbreviation of central processing unit. The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place.
Crisis management
A coordinated effort to handle all the effects of unfavorable publicity or of another unexpected unfavorable event
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) , , an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn’t invade Cuba
Cultivation Theory
Argues that mass media exposure cultivates a view of the world that is consistent with mediated “reality”; consturcts a view for us. Exposure to violent messages leads to overestimating crime
DC comics
Founded in 1934. It is one of the largest and most successful companies operating in the market for American comic books. Its popular characters include Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, and more, and was widely popular because comic books were entertaining and easy to read. Comic books were further important because superheroes portrayed the ideal influence for the youth, moral, just, and wholeheartedly American.
Delinquent media use
depictions of a world in which unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, physical aggression and drinking, are glamorous and free of consequences.
Desensitization
Hypothesis that argues that repeated exposure to media violence causes a reduction in emotional responsiveness to violence in fiction, news, and reality fare, which then leads to an increased acceptance of violence in real life.
Difference between Advertising and PR
Advertising: An ancient form of human communication generally designed to inform or persuade members of the public with regard to some product or service.

Public Relations: The professional maintenance of a favorable public image by a company or other organization or a famous person.

Digital brand integration / digital product placement
Inserting a product into a off-network television show during syndication is an example of _____.
Disinhibition
Watching, reading, or listening to media violence may serve to undermine learned social sanctions against using violence that usually inhibit aggressive behavior.
Editorial staff
Be able to name and describe the work of the main groups that make up the editorial and business staffs at a newspaper.
Electro magnetic spectrum
the range of frequencies that can be used for transmitting radio waves electronically
Equal Time Rule
A rule of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) stating that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate for office, he or she must be willing to sell equal time to opposing candidates.
Ethos
the character of the speaker or writer as reflected in speech or writing; the quality or set of emotions that a speaker or writer enacts in order to affect an audience.
FCC
(Federal Communications Commission) regulates the television and radio industry, grants licenses to television and radio stations, and blocks monopolies.
FEC
Federal Election Commission: In 1975, Congress created the Federal Election Commission (FEC) to administer and enforce the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) – the statute that governs the financing of federal elections. The duties of the FEC, which is an independent regulatory agency, are to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, and to oversee the public funding of Presidential elections.
Fear Appeals
these can take the form of TV ads featuring former smokers.
Features Syndicates
commercial outlets or brokers that contact with newspapers to provide work from well-known political writers, editorial cartoonists, comic-strip artists, and self-help columnists
The Fourth Amendment
The Right to be protected against illegal Search and Seizure.
Freebies
anything given away by public relations practitioners to promote a favorable relationship with media gatekeepers and politicians.
Front Group
an organization that supports to represent one agenda while in reality it serves some other party or interest whose sponsorship is hidden or rarely mentioned
Future of Reading Video
??? digital readers like kindle or Ibook
General Magazines
Magazines designed to appeal to a wide, general audience by covering a variety of topics. Few of these remain, such as Reader’s Digest.
Gramophone
Developed by inventor Emile Berliner, it used a flat disc to record sound rather than the cylinder that was used up to that time.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
An operating system characteristic that utilizes graphics and the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making the OS much more user friendly
Hacker
A person who secretly gains access to computers and files without permission.
Henry Luce
Was editor of Yale Daily News. Late started Time Magazine. Was a conservative republican. Believed being objective was inhuman, but did believe in writing fair.
html
hypertext markup language
http
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Illustrated weekly
Harper’s Weekly created an important new form of publication, the illustrated newsweekly
Weekly periodical with illustrations, such as a magazine
indecency
FCC -for broadcast industry controls. Content was labeled indecent if it was “offensive to community standards for broadcasting.”
Infomercial
a program made up of exclusively commercial messages aka paid programming
interstitial ad
A way of placing a full-page message between the current and destination pages of a user.
Jack Abramoff
The most influential lobbyist in Washington D.C. responsible for millions of dollars of campaign donations to over 200 congressmen
John Stuart Mill’s utilitarianism
for the greater good: Mill’s theory might advocate
revealing the name of a sexual attack victim, because it could add poignancy to the news story, perhaps lead to improved public policy.
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Act in such a way that the action taken under the circumstances could be a universal law, or rule, of behavior “golden rule”, An act is immoral if it cannot be made into a rule for all humankind to follow
leak
The release of secret information by anonymous government officials to the media
Lobbyists
representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making
Lumiére Brothers
The brothers were the first filmmakers in history. They patented the cinematography, which in contrast to Edison’s “peepshow” kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties. Their first film, Sortie de l’usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture.
Mainstream Comics
those produced by the likes of Marvel and DC; Character franchises drawn by teams of illustrators.
Manga
originated in Japan 12 centrey and has its own unique communication style. Manga has opened up new markets among teenage girls and adults.
Marvel comics
the second great comic book publisher. Appeared in 1939. Many of these characters fought the axis powers even before the US became involved in WWII. For example Caption American
McClure’s
credited with creating muckraking journalism. Its story’s
brought about child labor laws, workers compensation and the very first”congressional investigations.”
Measuring “reach” ratings, CPM, click – through
the number of people reached and delivered to the
advertisers. In broadcast, it’s ratings and shares. In print and online advertising, it’s CPM, cost per thousand people.
Media Contagion
The potential for excessive media coverage and portrayals to incite copycat behavior i.e. Dr. Madelyn’s Gould’s research showing how susceptible vulnerable youth are to influence of reports and portrayals of suicide in the mass media.
Miscellaneous Magazines
Target various types of readers and include:
academic and professional journal,peer review/blind review, comic books and zines
modeling
A therapeutic technique in which the client learns appropriate behavior through imitation of someone else.
Munsey’s
featured original short stories, and “alluring” illustrations of women. But it changed its business model away from high cover prices to chasing mass audiences subsidized by advertising.
Edward R. Murrow
An American journalist on CBS who criticized McCarthyism and helped bring about the eventual censure of Joseph McCarthy by the U.S. government.
News of the World
British newspaper that was forced to close because they had hacked into the cell phone accounts of the British royals and 9/11 victims. Bought by Rupert Murdoch in 1969.
Obscenity
an offensive or indecent word or phrase
Oprah Winfrey
the first Black woman to host a nationally syndicated talk show on television.
Payola
An illegal payment by record labels to radio stations to persuade them to play the label’s records
Penny Dreadfuls
cheap and easily accessed by lower class, high literacy rate in England, cater to sensational fiction, appeal to poor people
Performance Based Advertising
Advertisers pay only for results, as in clicks on an online ad
Phishing
An attack that sends an email or displays a Web announcement that falsely claims to be from a legitimate enterprise in an attempt to trick the user into surrendering private information
Phonograph
machine in which rotating records cause a stylus to vibrate and the vibrations are amplified acoustically or electronically
Photojournalism
journalism that presents a story primarily through the use of pictures
Pornography
sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal
PR activities: research, counseling, communications
Research that occurs through the public relations
process is used to:
1. define problems,
2. identify publics,
3. test concepts,
4. monitor the progress of a campaign,
5. evaluate its effectiveness when it is over.
PR magazines
Also called corporate communications magazines. Most common of all. Tell employees what’s happening in organization, explain it to clients and smooth the way for organization to deal with outside agencies.
Press Release
A short statement concerning some newsworthy event related to the design firm that is sent to appropriate publications with the hope that the editors will use it.
Professional Magazines
aimed at physicians, lawyers, and other professionals
Protocol
(computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data
PSA
Public Service Announcement
Publics
Any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives
Publisher
A person or company whose business is the publishing of books.
Rawl’s Veil of Ignorance
if you had people behind a veil, those people would not know their race, gender, ethnicity, occupation, nationality etc… Rawls believed if you did this every person would contribute to each other. A system of justice had to protect the weak.
RCA
Radio Corporation of America
Rhetoric
the art or science of using speeh to persuade: can have negative connotations such as empty rhetoric.
Rock-n-roll
“Crossover” musical style that rose to dominance in the 1950s, merging black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country. Featuring a heavy beat and driving rhythm, rock ‘n’ roll music became a defining feature of the 1950s youth culture.
search engine
A software program you can use to find Web sites, Web pages, and Internet files.
Search Engine Marketing
automated presentation of ads that are related to either the results of an online search or the content being displayed on other webpages
Search Engine Optimization
is the use of web design, keywords and links to raise a websites ranking
Serialized Novels
periodical fiction, came out in sections in periodicals, one of most famous is Household Words, high emotion and excitement, creates new kind of desire and suspense in literature
sixth report and order
table of channel assignments was constructed, structuring provision of TV service to all parts of USA. FCC opened up channels in the ultra-high frequency(UHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum to join channels (2-13) already in use. Set standard for color TV. And 242 channels were set aside for noncommerical TV stations.
Social Marketing
The use of commercial marketing concepts and tools in programs designed to influence individuals’ behavior to improve their well-being and that of society.
Social Media
involves electronic technologies that link people to networks and allow the exchange of personal and professional information as well as common interests such as product and brand preferences
spam
unwanted e-mail (usually of a commercial nature sent out in bulk)
spyware
A type of Malware that locates and saves data from users without them knowing about it.
Streaming
A procedure for transmitting media files so they can start playing as soon as a computer begins receiving them rather than waiting for the complete files to download first.
Telegraph
A wire communication system which used Morse code to send messages over long distances.
Third Person Effect
Hypothesis that holds that individuals will perceive media messages to have greater effects on other people than on themselves.
Time, Life, Sports Illustrated magazines
Time inc and and Henry luce
Titanic disaster
largest luxury liner. hit an ice berg and sank and
led to Radio Act of 1912
Trade Magazines
periodicals published for specific types of businesses or industries
trial balloon
This type of leak may or may not be true, but it could become true if it becomes popular.
Tests the public reaction to policy or appointments by releasing information to the media and gauging public reaction
TV lines of resolution
the NTSC system 525 lines.
the a PAL system are 625 lines.
video news release (VNR)
a video segment made to look like a news report, but is instead created by a PR firm, advertising agency, marketing firm, corporation, or government agency. They are provided to television newsrooms to shape public opinion, promote commercial products and services, publicize individuals, or support other interests. News producers may air VNRs, in whole or in part, at their discretion or incorporate them into news reports if they contain information appropriate to a story or of interest to viewers.
violence
any overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force or the actual use of such force intended to physically harm to a living thing
Viral Marketing
AKA buzz marketing, guerrilla marketing, word of mouth marketing.

A strategy to get consumers to share a marketer’s message, often through e-mail or online video, in a way that spreads dramatically and quickly

Web 2.0
term invented by Web experts following dot-com crash of 2001; generation that allowed the internet to be highly interactive and highly participatory
wireless telegraph
invention by Guglielmo Marconi
Mark Zuckerberg
Founder of Facebook
Admonition
warning or advisement against something: judges advise juries not to read, watch, or listen to news reports
Barnes & Noble
only survived by closing most of its stores and entering into a joint operating agreement with Starbucks, going into internet retail, and introducing a reading tablet called Nook.
Blacklisting
151 people in the industry had this done to them for supposedly having communist ties, and were essentially no longer permitted to work in broadcasting or related industries
Blind booking
the forcing of exhibitors to book inferior films, sight-unseen, in order to book the high quality films
Block booking
the forcing of exhibitors to license poor quality films in order to have access to the high quality star-powered films
Bowdlerization
to amend text with moral purpose
Calligrapher
the craft skill of writing; the writer of a book
Canterbury Tales
a novel written in English that became famous in Europe in the 1300’s.
Censorship
(moral) reviewing to prevent inappropriate material from being exposed to an inappropriate audience. (political) sometimes considered to be at odds with freedom of speech, it is the governments control of monitoring and editing media as to protect state security and political ideas.
Chain Broadcasting Rule
1941 regulation that limited the number of local television stations a network could own to three. Also stopped networks from forcing their affiliates to only air their programming.
Change of Venue
moves the trial to a different location
Cinematographe
patented in 1895 by the Lumiere Brothers, it was a device that both photographed and projected action
Citizen Journalism
a grassroots movement wherein activist amateurs and concerned citizens, not professional journalists, use the Internet and blogs to disseminate news and information.
Citizens United
argued that the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act was unconstitutional. Had a landmark Supreme Court case v. the Federal Election Commission in 2010.
Clutter
the phenomenon of a marketplace being full or even overcrowded with products.
Codex
Latin for a “lump of wood”, the first book in a formal we now recognize: a collection of pages between wooden covers.
Communications Act of 1943
1943 act that changed the Federal Radio Commission into the Federal Communications Commission; contained the Equal Time Rule and Fairness Doctrine.
Conflict Oriented Journalism
metropolitan newspapers that define news primarily as events, issues, or experiences that deviate from the social norms; journalists see their role as observers who monitor their city’s institutions and problems.
Consensus Oriented Journalism
small town newspapers that promote social and economic harmony by providing community calendars and meeting notices, news on local issues, e.g. schools, social events, town govt., property crimes, and zoning.
Continuance
when a trial is postponed until publicity dies down.
Convergence
the coming together of two or more things in media.
Copyright
laws that grant the author or creator of a piece of intellectual property the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute copies of the work for a designated period of time.
Daguerreotype
the 1839 precess of recording images on polished metal plates that were covered with a thin layer of silver iodide. Once exposed, the emulsion would etch the image into the metal plate.
David Sarnoff
this man who received the telegraph transition from the sinking Titanic while working for the Marconi Company, suggested the use of radio waves for things other than telegraph transitions. This idea was called “radio music box”. He later would found NBC and RCA.
Defamation
illegal media messages that injure a person’s reputation if they are untrue.
Deregulation
the removal of government regulatory controls from an industry or commodity.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
1998 act that criminalized the circumvention of any anti-piracy encryption technology on commercial software, eBooks, videos, and music. It bans the sale and manufacture of devices used to illegally copy digital content.
Don Quixote
the first true novel written in 1605 by Miguel de Cervantes
Douglas Fairbanks
American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer best known for his roles in silent films.
Edwin Porter
Film projectionist and main American disciple of Melies. He created The Great Train Robbery, the first film to use back projection and camera movement.
Eisenstein
This man created montage editing by juxtaposing unrelated film shots to create new meaning.
El Diario – La Prensa
oldest Spanish-language daily newspaper
Fair Comment
the protection of opinion pieces, book reviews and satire if they are “unmistakably rhetorical” and “pure opinion” statements that cannot be proven true or false.
Fair Use
circumstances in which copyrighted material may be duplicated for non-commercial use, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, education, or scholarly research.
Fairness Doctrine
part of the Communications Act of 1943, it required that broadcast stations present all sides of social and political issues in order to keep the public as informed as possible.
Fatty Arbuckle
an American silent film actor and comedian who mentored Charlie Chaplan. His legacy and fame is mostly overshadowed by scandal as he was accused of raping and accidentally killing an actress, even though he was not found guilty.
Features Syndicate
commercial outlets or brokers, such as United Features and King Features, that contract with newspapers to provide work from well-known editorial cartoonists, comic-strip artists, political writers, and self help columnists.
Federalist Papers
a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the US Constitution.
Five Core Concepts of Media Literacy
1. All media messages are constructed.
2. Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.
3. Different people experience the same media message differently.
4. Media has embedded values and points of view.
5. Most media messages are organized to gain profit and/or power.
Folio
when a piece of parchment is folded in half to create a writing surface that is more convenient to write on and carry.
Format Wars
when differences in medium of media are competitive with one another and in some cases when they replace each other.
Frank Munsey
called the “great executioner of newspapers”, he recognized the public taste for good stories at low prices.
Frederick Douglass
An African-American slave who escaped from slavery and became a prominent abolitionist writer.
Future of Reading
In this program, host Alberto Manguel uses the history of the written text-from hand-copied codex, to machine-printed book, to digital document-as a vehicle to address large-scale efforts to preserve the world’s literary heritage, a dual challenge involving a rapidly deteriorating corpus of old books and an overwhelming proliferation of blogs and other significant writings on the Internet. In addition, the implications of cell phone fiction and interactive online novels are discussed; the One Laptop per Child initiative, bringing online reading to the developing world, is praised; and concern over Google’s proprietary book digitization project, which would make the company the de facto owner of the planet’s largest cache of published writings, is expressed.
Gatekeepers
network executives, advertising agencies, publishers, studio heads and others who control the media message.
Johanes Gutenberg
he invented mechanical printing
Hays Code
forbade the use of profanity, limited bedroom scenes, banned revealing outfits, limited the length of screen kisses to three seconds, banned scenes that ridiculed public officials or religious leaders, and banned a list of words.
Heinrich Hertz
in 1887, he ran an electric current through one coil, which produced a current in another coil across the room. This was the start of electronic sound transmission.
Horizontal Integration
when a corporation owns many different types of businesses. e.g: coffee, books, and music.
Illuminator
an illustrator for a book or novel
Index Librorium Prohibitorium
the list of banned books created in 1559 by Pope Paul IV
Information Overload
feeling overwhelmed by an indigestible or incomprehensible amount of information.
Interpretive Journalism
a type of journalism where the reporter analyzes and explains ket issues or events, placing them in a broader historical or social context.
Inverted Pyramid
a style of journalism that puts the most dramatic or newsworthy information at the top of the story.
James Franklin
an American man who was arrested for writing articles apposing British rule.
Jef Raskin
human-computer interface expert who started the Macintosh project for Apple.
Jeff Bezos
the founder of Amazon
John Peter Zenger
German writer who was put on trial for seditious libel against the Governor of New York.
Joint Operating Agreement
an economic arrangement that permits competing newspapers to operate separate editorial divisions while merging business and production operations.
Joseph Pulitzer
a journalist from Hungary who was originally known for writing sensational journalism. He funds what is now the most prestigious award in journalism.
Kinetograph
motion picture camera system created by William Dickson that used celluloid roll film to take pictures at 40 frames per second.
Kinetoscope
created by Thomas Edison, it was an early motion picture device in which the images were viewed through a peephole.
La Opinión
a Spanish language daily newspaper published in LA.
Lee de Forest
an American writer with over 180 patents to his name. Called “Father of Radio”
Lumieres
they patented the Cinematographe in 1895
Literary Journalism
news report that adapt fictional storytelling techniques to nonfiction material; sometimes called new journalism.
Marconi
The “Real” Father of Radio; he began developing a system to send and receive radio signals without wires in the 1890’s
Mary Pickford
an actress known as “America’s Sweetheart”
Melies
a French magician who experimented with stop action photography and editing. He produced the film called From the Earth to the Moon.
Monopoly
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service
Montage
the tying together of two separate but related shots in such a way that they took on a new, unified meaning.
Muckraking
the action of searching out and publicizing scandalous information about famous people in an underhanded way
Muybridge
invented the zoopraxiscope for projecting slides onto a distant surface
Nelly Bly
an investigative reporter or Muckraker . Pretended to be mad to expose the Women’s Lunatic Asylum.
Nicola Tesla
invented the first alternating current generator
Objective Journalism
a modern style of journalism that distinguishes factual reports from opinion columns; reporters strive to remain toward the issue or event they cover, searching out competing points of view among the sources for a story
Oligopoly
small number of sellers as a result of collusion which leads to higher prices
Oscar Micheaux
the first major African-American feature filmmaker
Papyrus
thin paper made from plants
Paramount Decision
U.S v. Paramount Pictures, Inc. 1939 lawsuit brought against several motion picture studios charging them with restraining and conspiring to restrain and monopolize interstate trade in the distribution and exhibition of films, by means of vertical integration
Parchment
writing material made from animal skins
Partisan Press
an early dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued one political party’s point of view.
Patent
exclusive right granted by the government to investors, conveying and securing to the the exclusive right to make and sell their invention, design, or formula.
Paywall
a metered system that allows free access to an online newspaper for a limited amount of content, which once exceeded requires payment for continued access.
Penny Press
refers to newspapers that, because of innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent beginnig in the 1830s, thereby making papers affordable to working and emerging middle classes and enabling newspapers to become a genuine mass medium
Persistence of Vision
the physiological phenomenon in which images gathered by the eyes are retained in the brain for 1/24th of a second. Thus, photographic frames moved at 24 a second are perceived by the brain as continuous motion.
Philadelphische Zeitung
German language newspaper
Prior Restraint
Violates the First Amendment. Government censorship.
Pulp
made out of wood to create a cheaper paper product
Radio Act of 1912
1912 act that was passed in the wake of the sinking of the Titanic. The act regulated broadcasting bands to allow for a greater number of stations to operate.
Radio Act of 1927
created a Federal Radio Commission which later became the FCC
RCA consortium
the first major broadcasting network. It survives today as NBC
Reginald Fessenden
he created the first radio broadcast. It was Poetry and Christmas Carols on Christmas Eve in 1905
Restraint of Trade
a common law doctrine relating to the restrictions on freedom to conduct business
Robinson Crusoe
First book regarded as a real English novel, published by Daniel Defoe
Rupert Murdoch
a man who is known for having monopolies in media
Safe Harbor Clause
A regulation that specifies that certain conduct will be deemed not to violate a given rule.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) has notable safe-harbor provisions which protect Internet service providers from the consequences of their users’ actions.
Samuel Morse
Inventor of Telegraph
Scriptorium
a place for writing
Sequestration
Shielding the jury from extensive media coverage; the jurors eat together, live in a hotel, and participate in weekend recreation together. Virtual quarantine. Reserved for those who can afford to be away from family and work for extended periods.
Shield Laws
statutory laws that allow reporters 2 keep sources’ identities confidential
Statutory laws
The body of law includes statutory laws, administrative laws, and common laws. Statutory laws are those developed and passed by legislative bodies such as federal and state governments.
Sunshine Laws
laws that insure the state, local, & federal meetings are open to public observation so that individuals may witness the meeting but not participate in the deliberations.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
removed restrictions set in place to guard against monopolies & restraint of trade and eliminated the number of TV stations that a person or entity could own, directly or indirectly
The Book of Kells
an illuminated manuscript
The Communications Act of 1934
replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.
The First Amendment
freedom of religion, expression, assembly, & the right 2 petition
The Hollywood 10
people part of film industry who refused to answer if they were ever members of the communist party
Thomas Edison
inventor, created the kinetoscope, and owner of Balck Maria Studios
trademark
any word, symbol, or logo which identifies a particular brand
Unconscious Exposure
unintentional absorption of unsought visual and audio advertisements and media content
vernacular
language of the streets, it is not latin
Vertical integration
Company took over all different businesses on which it relied for its primary function (Carnegie Steel came to control not only steel mills but mines, railroads, etc)
Walkman
personal stereo from Sony created by Aki Morita
Wallace Reid
silent film actor, appeared in Birth of a Nation
William Randolph Hearst
took over SF examiner – invested in it & made it the CTs dominant paper and got NY morning journal & had circulation war w/ Pulitzer’s NY world
wire services
commercial organizations, such as the Associated Press, that share news stories & info by relaying them around the country & the world, originally via telegraph & now via satellite transmission
yellow journalism
it emphasized sensational crime news, large headlines, & corruption, particularly in business and government
zoopraxiscope
a machine for projecting slides onto a distant surface
Code
as in computing or protocol