– The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
– A business philosophy based on consumer orientation, goal orientation, and systems orientation.
– The identification of and focus on the people or firms most likely to buy a product and the production of a good or service that will meet their needs most effectively.
– A focus on the accomplishment of corporate goals; a limit set on consumer orientation.
– The creation of systems to monitor the external environment and deliver the desired marketing mix to the target market.
– The planning, collection, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to management.
– The gathering and presentation of statements of fact.
– The explanation of data or actions.
– Specification of how to use descriptive and diagnostic research to predict the results of a planned marketing decision.
– Research aimed at solving a specific, pragmatic problem—better understanding of the marketplace, determination of why a strategy or tactic failed, or reduction of uncertainty in management decision making.
– Research aimed at expanding the frontiers of knowledge rather than solving a specific, pragmatic problem.
– Research conducted to develop marketing options through market segmentation, market opportunity analyses, or consumer attitude and product usage studies.
– Based on moral duty or obligation: from the Greek word “duty”- the philosopher Kant is associated with this position.
– It is not the consequences that make an action right or wrong but the principle or motivation on which the action is based that determines right or wrong.
– The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
– The determination of right and wrong in questions of conduct or conscience by the application of general ethical principles; specious argument.