csc 105 chapter 1

information age
a period in history when information is easy to access and affects many aspects of everyday life
digital revolution
ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology, such as computers and the Internet
data processing
input-processing-output
personal computing
small, standalone computers powered by local software
local software
any software that is installed on a computer’s hard drive
computer network
group of computers linked together to share data and resources
internet
global computer network originally developed as a military project, and was then handed over to the National Science Foundation for research and academic use
world wide web
a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over the Internet
cloud computing
provides access to information, applications, communications, and storage over the Internet
convergence
several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product
social media
cloud-based applications designed for social interaction and consumer-generated content
anonymizer tools
Software and/or hardware that cloaks the origin of an e-mail or a Web page request
intellectual property
the ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations
pirating
illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted material
open source
projects that promote copying, free distribution, peer review, and user modification
globalization
worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries
digital divide
the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not
computer
multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions
input
whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system. Input can be supplied by a person, by the environment, or by another computer
output
the result produced by a computer
data
the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas
processing
the many ways in which computers manipulate data
ex: preforming calculations, modifying documents
central processing unit
where most processing takes place
microprocessor
electronic component that can be programmed to perform tasks based on data is receives, the central processing unit of most modern computers
memory
an area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output
storage
the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing
file
a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium, such as a hard disk, CD, DVD, or flash drive
computer program
The series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks
software
sets up a computer to do a specific task
stored program
a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory
application software
set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task
system software
help the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently
computer operating system
the master controller for all the activities that take place within a computer
personal computer
microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual
are handheld devices personal computers?
ONLY if they allow users to install software applications (apps)
workstations
powerful desktop computers used for high-performance tasks, such as medical imaging and computer-aided design, that require a lot of processing speed
servers
serve computers on a network (such as the Internet or a home network) by supplying them with data
client
Any software or digital device, such as a computer, that requests data from a server
download
process of copying a file from a server to your own client computer
upload
the process of copying files from your client computer to a server
mainframe computer
large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users
supercomputer
if at the time of construction, it is one of the fastest computers in the world
computer intensive problem
requires massive amounts of data to be processed using complex mathematical calculations
microcontrollers
special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls
data representation
the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted
are microcontrollers computers?
they are processors, not computers
digital data
text, numbers, graphics, sound, and video that have been converted into discrete digits such as 0s and 1s
analog data
represented using an infinite scale of values.
bit
a 0 or 1 used in the digital representation of data
numeric data
consists of numbers that can be used in arithmetic operations
character data
composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that are not used in arithmetic operations
ASCII
requires only seven bits for each character
extended ASCII
uses eight bits to represent each character
byte
group of eight bits
integrated circuit
a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements, such as wires, transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors
semiconducting materials
substances with properties between those of a conductor (like copper) and an insulator (like wood)
system board
houses all essential chips and provides connecting circuitry between them
source code
The human-readable version of a program created in a high-level language by a programmer
compiler
converts all the statements in a program in a single batch, and the resulting collection of instructions is placed in a new file (Figure 1-34)
object code
resulting instructions after compiler converts statements into single batch
interpreter
converts and executes one statement at a time while the program is running
instruction set
collection of preprogrammed activities in microprocessor
machine language
list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set
machine code
set of machine language instructions for a program
op code
command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump
operand
specifies the data, or the address of the data, for the operation
registers
hold data that is being processed
ALU
performs arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtractionand logical operations, such as comparing two numbers to see if they are the same
control unit
fetches each instruction
authentication protocol
any method that confirms a person’s identity using something the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the person is
biometrics
fingerprint, facial features (photo), or a retinal pattern
user id
series of characters—letters and possibly numbers or special symbols—that becomes a person’s unique identifier, similar to a Social Security number… it is PUBLIC
dictionary attack
helps hackers guess your password by stepping through a dictionary containing thousands of the most commonly used passwords
brute force attack
exhausts all possible combinations of letters to decrypt a password
sniffing
intercepts information sent out over computer networks
phishing
hacker poses as a legitimate representative of an official organization such as your ISP, your bank, or an online payment service in order to persuade you to disclose highly confidential information
keylogger
software that secretly records a user’s keystrokes and sends the information to a hacker
password manager
stores user IDs with their corresponding passwords and automatically fills in login forms
____ is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices.
digitization
____ media are cloud-based applications designed for social interaction and consumer-generated content.
social
____ software refers to any software that is installed on a computer’s hard disk.
local
____ tools cloak a person’s identity online.
anonymizer
1,024 bytes is a ____.
kilobyte
1,048,576 bytes is a ____.
megabyte
A ____ is a series of characters that becomes a person’s unique identifier.
user ID
A group of computers linked together to share data and resources is a(n) ____.
network
A named collection of data that exists on a storage medium is known as (a) ____.
file
A set of computer programs that helps a computer monitor itself and function more efficiently is ____.
system software
A set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task is ____.
application software
A super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements is a(n) ____.
integrated circuit
A(n) ____ converts and executes one statement at a time.
interpreter
According to the text, a key aspect of ____ is that it adds content and substance to ____.
the internet, the web
Data becomes ____ when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use.
information
During the period from ____, computing was characterized by the Web, e-mail, multiplayer games, music downloads, and enormous software applications.
1995-2010
In 1982, the percentage of households that had a computer was closest to ____ percent.
10
Initially sales were slow for the personal computer because of ____.
lack of software
Password management functions include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
recording keystrokes
Storage is typically expressed as ____.
bytes
Technology ____ is a process by which several different technologies with distinct functionality evolve to form a single product.
convergence
The ____ phase of the digital revolution materialized in the 1990s when the Internet was opened to public use.
third
The binary number 10 represents ____ in the decimal number system.
2
The first digital computers were built during World War II for ____.
code breaking
The type of code that uses eight bits for each character is ____.
extended ASCII
When restrictions on commercial use of the ____ were lifted in 1995, companies such as AOL and CompuServe became popular services.
internet