Leadership effectiveness is influenced by traits such as intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. This leadership theory favors the notion that leaders are born, not made.
Theory that assumes followers look for leaders who can make sense of turbulent condtions and crisis situations. Supports the notion that leaders and followers are drawn to their roles by virtue of personality type.
Leaders who can control their emotions and successfully solve problems.
Focuses on two types of leadership, task-oriented, and people-oriented. These leadership types concentrate on intiating structures and paths for followers to perform effectively, or focus on fostering good relationships between leaders and followers respectively.
Concentrates on two leader behaviors: directive and supportive. Low/high leader behaviors were used to establish four leadership styles: directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating.
Theory suggests that effective leaders are true to themselves and others, have positive psychological states, and adhere to strong morals and values.
Leadership behavior on the passive end of the spectrum describing an attitude of letting things take their course without interference. A desirable approach when a team is highly skilled, dependable, and reliable and leadership has to focus on more pressing issues.
Leadership behavior that falls in the middle of the spectrum based on connecting a transaction (social exchange) to motivation. Or rather, providing compensation in exchange for desired follower behavior, or consequences for undesired behavior. An approach which provides motivation, but fails to focus on personal development, and, if overused, can limit leadership potential and demoralize followers.
Leadership behavior that focuses on empowering followers and requires dedication and effort from leaders. Leaders: motivate followers by genuinely caring about concerns and appropriately addresses concerns through open channels of communication, inspires followers by establishing goals and challenges them to exceed them, stimulates creativity and original thinking by valuing opinions and perspectives, positively influences followers by setting examples and displaying strong commitment to organizational values.
Transactional behavior component more active than laissez-faire because leaders hold subordinates accountable if they fail to meet standards of performance or disregard policies and procedures. There is little effort to prevent events, and occasional acknoledgement when things are done correctly.
Transactional behavior component which focuses on preventing problems from occuring by keeping people and processes in control; leaders monitor subordinates’ activities by ensuring compliance with rules, regulations, and performance standards. This behavior component reduces uncertainties, avoids unnecessary risks, and ensures goals are met.
Transactional behavior component, it is the most active and focuses on agreements where leaders establish goals, identify ways to reach them, and support followers in meeting goals, which are task-oriented and are required to perform assigned tasks reaching specific performance levels. When expectations are met, a reward is provided to reinforce positive behavior. if expectations are not met, the reward is withheld.
Idealized Influence (II)
Transformational component which focuses on communicating the corrrect kind of influence. (Set the example.)
Inspirational Motivation (IM)
Transformational component which focuses on behavior to motivate and inspire followers via spoken word to elevate performance expectations and inspire followers to put extra effort int achieving leader’s vision. (Instill purpose.)
Intellectual Stimulation (IS)
Transformational component used to promote brainstorming ideas, finding creative solutions to problems. (Challenge innovation).
Individualized Consideration (IC)
Transformation component focused on knowing followers’ goals, ambitions, and concerns. (Sincere mentorship)