Corrections AJC

parole
conditional release of inmates by a parole board prior to the expiration of their sentence
alexander maconochie
superintendent of the british penal colony on Norfolk Island from 1841 to 1844 who created a system of marks for good behavior and graduate from prison
mark system
credits against a sentence that allowed for inmates to be released once they earned the required level of marks through work and good behavior
ticket of leave
a form of release used by Maconochie: once prisoners earning required level of marks received a conditional pardon and released back into the community
Sir walter Crofton
director of the irish prison system in 1854 which implemented many of the ideas of Maconochies work
Zebulon Brockway
leading u.s. penologist who was a proponent of adopting the Irish system.First superintendent of the Elmira Reformatory
Elmira Reformatory
first reformatory in the U.S. opened in 1876 and used the principles of the Irish system, indeterminate sentences and parole
justice model
the model for sentencing proposed by Fogel that would use flat, determinate sentences, eliminate parole boards, and make all treatment voluntary
Just dessert model
model for sentencing proposed by von Hirsch that had fixed sentences for each crime so that the punishment fit the crime
Discretionary parole
release of inmates in which the decision to release is made by a parole board
supervised mandatory release
type of release in which inmates serve a determinate sentence and are the released, but with a period of supervision to follow
unconditional mandatory release
type of release which inmates serve full portion of their sentence and have no supervision after release from prison
parole guidelines
similar to sentencing guidelines, these use predictive factors to determine the offenders risk to the community and chance for success. guidelines prescribe presumptive time to serve based on the seriousness of the crime and factors predictive of success for each inmate.
salient factor score
point determination for each inmate for use with parole guidelines, the score is based on factors predictive of success on parole
hearing officer
officers who are not appointed parole board members yet they hold parole hearings and make recommendations to the parole board regarding inmates’ release.
presumptive parole date
a date the inmates can expect to be released on parole, even if it is 5 or 10 years later than the hearing
positive contact
face to face contact between a parole officer and an offender
violation
failure to follow conditions of parole supervision
Morrissey v. Brewer
1972 U.S. supreme court decision that once parole is granted, a liberty interest is created and offenders must have certain due process to revoke that liberty
prisoner reentry
process of an inmate leaving prison and returning to the community
racial disparity
the fact that minorities make up a greater percentage of those under correctional supervision than their makeup in the U.S. population
drug offenders
those convicted of crimes regarding the pocession or sale of drugs
male offenders
men who are convicted and sentenced; they constitute over 93% of all prison inmates
general population
inmates in prison who do not have any specific designation as a special type of offender
female offenders
women whoa re convicted and sentenced; just over 7% of prison inmates are female
parenting programs
prison programs to assist inmates to improve their parenting skills, even while in prison
Girl Scouts Behind Bars
Girl Scout troops that have their chapter based in a prison so inmates with children can participate as Scout parents
substance abuse programs
programs for offenders to reduce their likelyhood of further abuse of alcohol or drugs
Barefield v. Leach
1974 federal court decision that a disparity of programs for female inmates could not be justified b/c the small # of female inmates made it more costly to provide program parity
Pargo v. Elliot
1985 eighth circuit court case that allowed that differences in programs between male and female prisons does not necessarily violate the equal protection clause of the constitution
status offense
activity that is considered a crime only because the offender is under 18 yrs old and would not be a crime if committed by an adult; including activities such as running away from home, ungovernability, truancy, or underage drinking
Refuge period
1824-1899when delinquents or neglected children were placed in a home for training and discipline
Juvenile Justice system
handle juveniles separate from adult offenders, based on the concept of Parens patriace, which was used as the basis for giving the court the authority to take over supervision of children when parents fail to provide care and guidance
parens patriace
“parents of the nation” established to allow officials to take charge of delinquent children and place them in poor houses or orphanages to gain control of them; in more modern times, this doctrine was expanded and is basis for juvenile court. emphasis on reform and rehabilitation
deinstitutionalize
the move to remove juveniles from correctional institutions and place them in community alternatives
Superpredator
term created by Dilalio to describe a generation of violent youths who practiced almost indiscriminant violence on the street
wavier to adult courts
because the serious nature of a juvenile offender’s crime, statutory exceptions were granted to allow the movement from juvenile to adult courts for criminal processing
dependent children
children who, although committing no legal offense, may be without a parent or guardian, possibly b/c the parent is physically or mentally unable to act in that capacity
neglected children
children who have a family or guardian but are not receiving proper care or the situation in the home is harmful to them and their upbringing
delinquent children
children who have committed an act that would be considered criminal if committed by an adult
age of original jurisdiction
upper or oldest age that a juvenile court will have jurisdiction over categories of offenders
juvenile detention
temporary care of children in physically restricted facilities pending court disposition or transfer to another jurisdiction or agency
intake
determination if a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court
consent degree
informal handling of a juvenile justice case, in which the delinquent juvenile admits to wrongdoing and agrees to specific conditions of behaviors, informal probation
referral
formal processing of a juvenile offense through the juvenile court
delinquency petition
statement of the delinquent acts a juvenile is alleged to have committed; similar to an indictment for adults
adjudicate
to find a juvenile guilty of a delinquent act
order
sanction for a juvenile found delinquent by juvenile court; similar to the sentence for an adult
aftercare
supervision of a juvenile in the community after serving time in a juvenile correctional institution; similar to parole for adults
In re Gault
1967 U.S. supreme court case requiring that in hearings which a juvenile may be committed to an institution, they must have the right to counsel, to notice of the charges against them, question witness, protection against self-incrimination
Juvenile gangs
group of adolescents or young adults who see themselves as a group and have been involved in enough crimes to be of considerable concern to law enforcement and community
special offenders
offenders whose circumstances, conditions, or behavior requires management or treatment outside of the normal approach to supervision
blended sentencing
middle ground between juvenile and adult sentences that allows judges to choose from a broad array of both juvenile and adult sanctions
straight adult incarceration
form of incarceration in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in adult prisons with no separate housing or differentation in programming or job assignments
graduated incarceration
system in which juveniles handled by adult courts are placed in juvenile facilities until they turn 18; they are transferred to an adult prison to complete the sentence
segregated incarceration
form of incarceration which juveniles handled by adult courts are assigned to adult prisons, yet housed separately and are put in programs to meet their age and needs
drug use forcasting
surveys of jailed inmates by the U.S. Department of Justice to determine the extent of drug use related to criminality
anti-psychotic drugs
used to counteract symptoms of their mental illness, often allowing them to live successfully in the community rather than needing to be institutionalized
supermax prison
either freestanding or distinct units within other prisons that provide for the management and secure control of inmates designated as violent or seriously disruptive in other prisons
Bruscino v. carlson
1985 federal court decision that the lock down of inmates at the U.S. penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, was not a violation of the Constitution
Sex offenders
offenders who have committed a legally prohibited sex act
Containment Model
approach to manage sex offenders includes treatment to control deviant thoughts supervision and surveillance to control behavior
Director
chief executive officer of a state or federal department of corrections
Inspector
a person in a department of corrections who investigates allegations by inmates against staff
custody
the functions within a prison that come under the security activities and includes all “uniformed”employees such as correctional officers and correctional supervisors
treatment
the creation of an environment and provision of rehabilitative programs that encourage inmates to accept responsibility and to address personal disorders that make success in the community more difficult
services
functions required to operate a prison such as budget and financial, maintenance,human resource management, food and health services, work programs, commissary functions and laundry operation
employee awards program
program to recognize and reward staff who perform beyond their expected level
unit management
organizing a prison into smaller components by decentralizing the authority to manage the inmate population while making staff more accessible to inmates
unit manager
the staff person who is in charge of the unit, including housing security and treatment issues
case manager
sometimes called social worker or case worker; responsible for developing the program of work and rehabilitation for inmates assigned to him or her
correctional counselor
former correctional officer who works with inmates on prison issues such as creating a visiting or telephone list or getting a prison job assignment
American Correctional Association
largest professional organization for corrections in the U.S.
policy audit
a review to ascertain whether board agency policy is in place at the prison
policy implementation audit
a review to identify whether the procedures prescribed by policy are consistently being carried out by staff in their daily duties
ACA Accreditation
a process to promote and recognize improvement in the management of correctional agencies through the administration of voluntary standards
internal classification system
instruments used to assign inmates to housing or programs after they are placed in a particular prison
inmate disciplinary system
a policy that clearly prescribes the process required to find that an inmate committed a proscribed act and identifies allowable punishment for each act. key to controlling inmate behaviors
Administrative appeals process
informal process for inmates to appeal a disciplinary sanction or to seek remedy of any other injustice they feel they have received at the hands of correctional officials
integrity interview
interviews of candidates for correctional employment used to determine if the candidate has issues or conditions that could put them in a compromising situation or make them more likely to accept bribes to show favored treatment to an inmate
collective bargaining
formal recognition of employee organizations and their right to negotiate with management regarding workplace issues
seniority
the use of the length of employment to determine an employee’s assignment, days off, or other job-related functions