Contemporary Sport Management Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, & 15 Richard Rogers UCSB

501 (c) 3 Charitable Organizations
501 (c) 6 Business Leagues
501 (c) 7 Social Clubs
Ownership Forms
Not- For- Profits
Federal
State
County
City/Township
Joint Powers Authorities
Ownership Forms
Governmental Agencies
One owner
Simple to form
Business License
Fictitious name certificate
Personally Liable
Business Liability Insurance
General Liability
Malpractice
Product Liability
Umbrella Insurance on Homeowners Policy
Ownership Forms – Sole Proprietor
Two or more owners
Persons, partnerships, LLCs, corporations, trusts
Simple to form
Partnership Agreement
Oral
Written (and signed)
Contributions
Cash, assets, skills
Jointly and Severally Liable
Any partner can sign a contract and obligate all partners
Protecting Partners
“buy/sell” agreements
“Key man” life insurance
Taxes paid by partners proportionally
Ownership Forms – General Partnership
A partnership of two or more individuals may require the efforts of all the partners to succeed, especially in the early life of the business. If one of the partners withdraws or dies, the existence of the partnership may be threatened. To protect the partnership and the remaining partners, consider buy/sell agreements and key man life insurance policies on the partners.
Protective measures
how the value of a partner’s interest will be determined if a partner wants to leave the partnership. Minimizes disputes over value and soothes out the purchase of the withdrawing partner’s interest by the partnership or other partners
Buy/ Sell Agreement
a life insurance policy on the life of key members of an organization to provide cash in the event of the death of a key member. The beneficiaries are the organization or the organization members. In a partnership, can be purchased for all partners or on some designated class of partners such as senior partners. The life insurance proceeds can be used by the partnership to keep the business going in the absence of the key partner. The proceeds can also be used to buy out the deceased partne
Key Man Life Insurance
The partnership agreement is a complicated document that should be drafted by an attorney. At a minimum, address the following subjects in the partnership agreement:
Agreement Contents
the amount and time of contributions to be made by each partner should be specified.
Contributions
Identify whether some or all partners will manage and control the partnership.
Management Control
specify how the profits and losses will be allocated to the partners
Profit and Loss
indicate when distributions of cash or property will be made
Distributions
describe each partner’s responsibilities and duties.
Partner’s responsibilities and duties
Identify how a partner’s interest will be valued if the partner withdraws from the partnership
Withdrawl
Identify how a partner’s interest will be valued if the partner dies.
Additional topics to be included in a partnership agreement, if applicable
Death of Partner
indicate the process for admitting new partners into the partnership
Admission of New Partners
Specify that the partnership or individual partners will have the right to purchase a withdrawing partner’s interest before the partner can offer to sell the interest to someone outside the partnership.
Right of first refusal
– indicate the life of the partnership along with any events that may cause the partnership to dissolve prematurely.
Duration of Partnership
identify the criteria to enable the partners to continue the partnership if an event causing the dissolution of the partnership occurs.
Continuation of the partnership
General Partnership advantages and disadvantages
Advantages
Many owners
Simplicity
Flexible
Disadvantages
Unlimited Liability
Dissolution Issues
Ownership Forms – Limited Partnership
Two classes of partners
General partners
Operate business and personally liable for acts of partnership
Limited partners
No operating control
Share in profits
Losses limited
Liability limited
Formation process
Written Agreement
Filing with secretary of state
Taxes paid by partners proportionally
Limited partners limited on losses
Ownership Forms- Corporations
Corporation
Professional Corporation
Limited Liability Corporation
“S” Corp
“C” Corp
Ownership Forms – C Corporations
Four identifying characteristics
Continuity of life
Centralization of management
Limited liability
Free transferability of ownership interests
Types of Stock
Common stock
Preferred stock
Dividend preference
Cumulative
Asset distribution preference
Potential for conversion rights
Limited voting rights
Advantages & Disadvantages of C Corporation
Advantages
– Earnings can be retained- The corporation can retain its earnings for future investment or dividends.
-Limited liability – Corporate shareholders are generally not responsible for the debts and obligations of the corporation.
-Ease of formation- Forming a corporation is generally a mechanical process dictated by state law.

Disadvantages
– Formalities required. A corporation must follow certain formalities dictated by law to maintain its corporate status.
– Administration. The administration of a corporation is complicated since certain federal and state tax procedures are necessary and certain accounting methods may not be available.
– Cost. The cost to incorporate an entity can be considerable, and there are annual filing fees that must be paid in most states. Also, the administrative costs of accounting and tax preparation may be expensive due to the complexity of complying with corporate laws.
– Tax issues. In general, corporations are separate taxable entities that are subject to federal and state taxation. Corporate income is taxed at the corporate level. When that income is passed on to the shareholders as a distribution or dividend, it is taxed again on the shareholder’s individual tax return. Double taxation may be partially or completely avoided in a small business by paying a salary to the employee shareholder.
– Tax consequences upon dissolution of a corporation. With all forms of business entity except a C corporation, dissolution and distribution of the business’s assets to the owners is, at worst, a single taxable event. In a C corporation, a double tax may be due; the corporation may owe a capital gains tax on liquidation and the individual shareholders also must recognize a gain upon the transfer of proceeds from the corporate entity to the individual recipient. Consequently, dissolving a C corporation can have serious tax ramifications.

Limited Liability Company (LLC)
Hybrid between partnership and corporation
-Tax benefits of partnership
– Liability benefits of corporation
Formation
– Articles of organization filed with secretary of state
-Operating agreement (similar to partnership agreement)

* Most professional sports teams are LLC’s

Advantages and Disadvantages of LLC
Advantages
– Limited liability. Members are shielded from being personally liable for acts of the LLC and its members.
– Flexible membership. Members can be individuals, partnerships, trusts, or corporations, and there is no limit on the number of members.
– Management. Members can manage the LLC or elect a management group to do so.
Flow-through treatment. Income, losses, deductions, and tax credits flow through the LLC to the individual members.

Disadvantages
– One member LLCs. Many jurisdictions do not allow LLCs to have only one member, although the number of jurisdictions that do allow them is growing. Under federal law, a single-member LLC is treated as a sole proprietorship.
– Free transferability of interest. In older LLCs, transferability of interests was usually restricted to enable the LLC to be treated as a partnership.
– Nontraditional entity. An LLC is a new entity type for which there is little precedent available.
– Cost. An LLC usually costs more to form and maintain than a sole proprietorship or a general partnership. States may also charge an initial formation fee and an annual fee.

S Corporation
Similar to “C” Corporation except for
– IRS election requirement
– Tax treatment (similar to partnership)
– Can elect “cash method” of accounting if no inventory
– No personal holding company tax
– Limited to less than 100 shareholders
-Other ownership restrictions
– Limited loss deductibility for tax purposes
– Calendar year
– Only one class of stock
– Some tax issues related to fringe benefits
Advantages and Disadvantages of a S corporation
Advantages
– Cash method of accounting. Corporations must use the accrual method of accounting unless they are considered to be small corporations (a small corporation has gross receipts of $5,000,000 or less). S corporations, however, usually don’t have to use the accrual method unless they have inventory.
– Personal holding company tax. An S corporation does not have earnings and profits, which would allow it to accumulate passive income that is then passed to its shareholders. A corporation that does not elect S corporation status and accumulates passive income is at risk of being classified as a personal holding company. For federal tax purposes, a personal holding company is a corporation that is owned by a small number of individuals and that receives most of its income in the form of dividends, interest, and rents. From 2003 through 2008, undistributed personal holding company income is taxed at an additional 15 percent rate.

Disadvantages
– Limit on number of shareholders. An S corporations may only have up to 75 shareholders (100 shareholders for tax years beginning after 2004).
– Limited losses. Although shareholders of S corporations have the ability to deduct pass-through losses, shareholders may not be able to deduct all the losses allocated to them because such losses are only available to the extent of the shareholder’s basis in the S corporation. This is a tax accounting concept that basically limits the amount of losses that an S corporation shareholder can take. (However, C corporation shareholders ordinarily can’t deduct any losses at all, unless their stock becomes worthless or is sold at a loss).
– Calendar year. An S corporation must adopt a calendar year as its tax year unless it can establish a business purpose for having a fiscal year.
– One class of stock. An S corporation can only have one class of stock, which can impair the corporation’s ability to raise capital. Nonvoting stock is not considered a “separate class” for this purpose, however.
– Taxable fringe benefits. Most fringe benefits provided by the corporation are taxable as compensation to employee-shareholders who own more than 2 percent of the corporation.

Not-For Profits
– Allows companies to provide for a ‘social’ need
– Primarily member-owned, controlled
– Usually exempt from ‘Income taxes’
Social entities that are goal-directed, are designed as deliberately structured and coordinated activity systems, and are linked to the external environment
Organization
– where larger size helps deliver products/services at a lower cost
economies of scale
where more resources allows for more products/services at a lower cost.
economies of scope
rely on one individual to make decisions and provide direction for the company.
Centralized Organizations
have several individuals responsible for making business decisions and running the business. Rely on a team environment at different levels in the business. Individuals at each level in the business may have some autonomy to make business decisions.
Decentralized organizations
Effectiveness: The extent to which it achieves its goals (focus on results)
Efficiency: The achievement of goals using minimum resources (focus on activities). Ratio of output to inputs
Organizational Effectiveness
Includes federal and state government agencies or units as well as regional and local government departments responsible for the delivery of recreation and sport programs and the maintenance of sport fields, arenas, swimming pools and parks
o Goleta’s Parks and UCSB Rec Department
Public Organizations
volunteer executives are responsible for the operation and management of the organizations
o ex) US Olympic Committee, Tony Hawk Foundation
Non-profit Organizations
main goal is to make a profit
ex) Boston Celtics, Manchester United, Under Armour, Dick’s Sporting Goods, ski resorts, CSN
Commercial Organizations
– Environment: All elements outside the boundary of the organization that have the potential to affect all or part of the organization
– general environment: includes all elements that may not have a direct effect on the day-to-day operations of the organization. ex) economy, technology, politics, cultural influences
Organizational Environment
involves the examination of populations, including such elements as size, birth, deaths, migration and aging
Demography
individuals or groups that can affect or be affected by the organization or business
EX: customers, employees, management, owners, stockholders, suppliers, government, community, unions, creditors
Stakeholders
Evaluating Organizational Effectiveness -Traditional approaches
– goal approach: focuses on outputs
– resource based approach: focuses on inputs, need inputs to make outputs
– The internal process approach: focuses on considering the internal well-being, focuses on the transformation of inputs into outputs
– LACK NUANCE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE COMPLEXITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
– Competing values approach: combines elements of all traditional effectiveness approaches by focusing on the value dimensions of focus and structure
– dimension of focus is represented on a continuum from internal to external
– dimension of structure is represented on a continuum from stability to flexibility
– The Stakeholder Approach: based on the premise that several groups, entities and other organizations have an interest in the focal or
Evaluating Organizational Effectiveness
Contemporary Approaches
A formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use of resources to achieve organizational goals
Organizational structure
concerns the division of labor, or the extent to which tasks and duties are divided into separate roles
Specialization -Dimensions of Organizational Structure
the number of levels that exist between the top executive in the org and the lowest position and the units in hierarchy
Vertical complexity- Dimensions of Organizational Structure
is shown in the number of units that exist across the org
o Ex) NBA has WNBA, NBA Development League, NBA Entertainment
Horizontal complexity – Dimensions of Org Structure
number of geographical locations in which an org operates
o ex) UEFA includes 53 national soccer associations
Spatial Complexity – Dimensions of Org Structure
the amount of written documentation in the org such as descriptions, policies, procedures and regulations
Formalization
Process by which leaders select and manage aspects of structure and culture of the organization
Organizational Design
o Top management
o Middle management
o Technical core
o Administrative support staff
o Technical Support staff
Layers of Management – Organizational Design
– for small organizations that have only two major parts: top management and technical core
– low levels of specialization, standardization, high levels of centralization
Simple Structure – Organizational Design
appropriate for sporting goods manufacturers that have high levels of specialization, standardization, centralization
Machine bureaucracy – Organizational Design
– characterized by an important technical core and administrative support staff along with a limited technical support staff, middle management and top management
– professional sport teams in which coaches, sport psychologies etc. are responsible for the products or services
The professional bureaucracy – Organizational Design
allow greater flexibility than bureaucratic design while providing decentralization not found in entrepreneurial organizations
· power resides in the experts
· marketing agencies
Innovative Designs – Organizational Design
Designed around its ideology
· Olympic Games, Google
Missionary Org – Organizational Design
– extremely flexible
– temporarily created to this design so that they can address challenging transitions
– when org is bidding for resources
· bidding to host Olympics
Political Design – Organizational Design
· 1. Identifying the goals, objectives and mission of the org
· 2. Determining the strategy by using SWOT analysis
· 3. Identifying the resources required to implement the strategy
· 4. Establishing a timeline for implementing the strategy and identifying milestones to assess whether the org is on target to achieve its objectives

– gain competitive advantage when scare resources
– for sports: sponsorship opportunities, media visibility, participants or athletes

Strategy
o Asymmetry
o Reciprocity
o Necessity
o Legitimacy
o Efficiency
o Stability
Organizational motives behind partnerships
– Set of shared values and norms that controls organizational members’ interactions with each other and with people outside the organization
– Include stories, myths, symbols, language, ceremonies, physical settings, symbolic artifacts
Organizational Culture
The process by which organizations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness
Organizational Change
o Entrepreneurial Stage: based on the vision of the founder of the organization, eventually the founder needs help
o Collectivity Stage: leadership crisis has been addressed, now developing clear goals and establishing its direction
– need for delegation with control
o Formalization Stage: rules and procedures are developed, job descriptions are created and communication becomes more formal
– too much red tape
o Elaboration Stage: leaders and managers within the organization undertake collaboration and teamwork need for revitalization
Four Stages of Growth – Organizational Changes
The process of working with and through individuals and groups to accomplish organizational goals
Management
The primary responsibility of managers was to increase workers’ output
– workers who produced more than others would receive greater rewards
– ex) sales commission on tickets during game days
Scientific Management Approach
when employees feel they are important, they become more cohesive and productive
Human Relations Management Approach
focuses on managing the organization as a whole entity
Process Approach to Management
Five responsibilities of manager
o 1. planning
o 2. staffing
o 3. organizing
o 4. directing
o 5. controlling and evaluating
Management Functions
executive, senior-level managers, responsible for organization as a whole
Top-level Managers – Classifications of Managers
administrative-level managers, selected by top-level managers, responsible for those below them, usually in charge of a specific department
Middle-level managers -Classifications of Managers
responsible for employees that work in their units, operatives or technical specialists
Supervisory-level managers – Classifications of Managers
Conceptual Skills
o help to identify the root cause of problems rather than simply stating the symptoms of an issue
o creates solutions
Human relations skills
o help in leading, motivating, and developing cohesion among employees
Technical skills
o directly associated with everyday tasks on the job
o budget management, management of intern and external audits, financial planning etc.
Leadership
o the process of influencing the activities of an individual or group in an effort to achieve a goal in a given situation
Managerial Skills
– leaders differ from managers in their ability to cope with change

– theory suggests the most effective style of leadership is dependent on the situation or context
– leadership is multidimensional in that it includes
a) the leaders’ traits, power or influence and goals. Responsible for managing and introducing change
b) their followers’ expectations and values. There needs to be an alignment with followers’ expectations and values and the leaders’ goals
c) the leadership context defined by organizational complexity and task uncertainty. Organizational complexity: consists of the size of the org or group within which leaders and followers operate and the location of the workspace

Contingency Theory of Leadership
Leaders function where employees have little (if any) input in planning and decision-making
Directive leadership style:
leaders seek employee involvement in project planning and decision-making
Participative leadership style
Primarily concerned with the technical or formal aspects of jobs and considering followers primarily as the means for accomplishing the organization’s goal
Behaviors centered on tasks- Leadership Styles
Primarily concerned with interpersonal relations, meeting personal needs of followers and accommodating personality differences among followers
Behaviors centered on employees – Leadership Styles
· Transactional Leadership Style
– implies an exchange between leaders and followers whereby they agree on three types of performances that will lead to reward punishment for followers

· Nontransactional
– not actually a leadership style at all because the people who use this approach are extremely passive
– They avoid of leadership because the people who use this are neither monitor nor correct their followers

· Transformational style
– practice the four I’s
– idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration

Full Range of Leadership Model
· 1. Defining or framing the problem: if need a new stadium, must be able to completely understand why need a new stadium
· 2. Identifying criteria for decision: what’s the budget for this stadium? who is going to be involved in the planning?
· 3. Developing and evaluating alternatives: for every problem there are various solutions
· 4. Selecting an alternative: which solution met steps one and two
· 5. Implementing the alternative: implementing the decision in step 4
· 6. Evaluating the effectiveness of the decision: did decision lead to intended outcomes?
Decision Making
· the ability to influence others
· reward power: the person who has the ability to award employees
· coercive power: person who provides punishments
· referant power: power based on personality (charisma)
· access to information
Power
as the power to enforce rules and to expect subordination from whose who have no authority
Distinction between Power and Authority
· good to be diverse? duh
· biases: systematic use of information about others that leads to inaccurate perceptions
· Stereotypes: inaccurate beliefs about characteristics of groups of people
· Overt discrimination: denying diverse individuals’ access to opportunities and outcomes
Diversity in the Workplace
Plans to cope with environment
Steps in the development of plans
Organizational processes involved in developing a strategy to gain competitive advantage
Strategy
Knowing how to gather the info, decide which info is appropriate, how to interpret the info and then use that interpretation to make decisions.
Managerial Analysis
Not everyone likes risk. Some like it too much. Need systems to evaluate situations and make decisions as what risks are worth taking and which are not
Appetite for Risk
You learn as you go along. Mistakes help with the learning process and you develop a ‘6th Sense” of what works in new situations and what doesn’t.
Trial and Error
“How to” grow the business
“How to” attract and please customers
“How to” compete successfully
“How to” conduct operations
“How to” achieve target levels of organizational performance
The “Hows” of business
What makes a great strategy ?
– Good Fit
– Competitive Advantage
– Strong Performance
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time-bound
SMART Strategic Vision
– Perform at its full potential, delivering the best possible results
– Push the firm to be more inventive
– Exhibit more urgency to improve its business position
– Be intentional and focused in its actions
Stretch Objectives
– Relentless pursuit of perfection
– Everyone on the same page
– Operating mangers who
Push needed changes in their organizational units
Consistently deliver good results
– Success measured by:
Meeting or beating performance targets
Showing progress in achieving the strategic vision
Good Strategies
Managers that are great…

Communication Skills
Time Management and Organization
Team Orientation
Energy
Motivation
Determination
Confidence
Reliability
Honest/ Integrity
Pride
Dedication
Anayltical Skills
Goal Oriented
Profit Orientation
Efficiency
Procedure Oriented

Great Managers
How people within the sport industry deal with scarcity
Economics
Tangible Products
Goods
Intangible products
Services
Small Scale Economics: Studies variables such as price, revenues, costs, and profits
Microeconomics and the sport industry
The relationship between the price of a product and the amount of the product the consumers are willing to buy
Demand
the higher the price the lower the demand
Law of demand
the relationship between the price of the product and the amount of the product that suppliers are willing to produce and sell
Supply
the higher the price the higher the production
Obtaining market equilibrium
Law of supply
producers sell more than consumers will buy
Market surplus
consumers will buy more than producers will sell
Market shortage
Includes three categories:assets, liabilities, owner’s equity
– Assets include both long term and current assets
– Liabilities are obligations to pay money or provide goods or services
– Total assets=liabilities+owner’s equity (investment)
Balance sheet
– Provides the financial results of the organization’s operations over a specific period
– Includes revenues and expenses
Income statement
amount of revenue generated by X from the team’s main business
Operating Income
– Direct expenses:cost of sales, directly matched to main source of revenue
– Operating expenses:other normal business expenses such as salaries, rent, and utilities
– Other expenses:outside normal business, – unusual losses such as lost lawsuit
– Income tax expense:amount company pays to IRS
Four Categories of Expenses
The desires of an individual or group of people
Wants
The basic requirements of survival
Needs
A mechanism which helps allocate scarce resources to alternative needs or wants.
Competition
– The value of the next best alternative that was given up for the good or service chosen.
– Not necessarily an accounting concept, but an “economic” cost
Opportunity Cost
An assignment of worth; usually based on the utility (usefulness) or scarcity of a good or service (supply and demand.)
Value
The value of what is given up to derive a certain benefit.
Cost
guarantees that most of our wants (and sometimes needs) will never be satisfied.
Scarcity
the process whereby the consumer decides which want or need to satisfy.
Choice
reflects a decision about which wants/needs to satisfy
Demand
(buyers and sellers getting together) set prices; with price tending to rise when a good or service is scarce and fall when its supply is abundant. Without intervention, markets tend to operate efficiently and allocate scarce resources where they are most valued (“The Invisible Hand”.)
Markets
MB = MC
If cost exceeds the benefit, we do not do it
Marginal Benefit vs. Marginal Cost
simplified picture or map of some segment of a market or economy. It helps to better understand reality because it avoids the details (complexities) of reality. It contains assumptions of what is important and what is not.
Economic Models
– Individuals or organizations are rational, which means they understand what is in their best interest considering the information available at the time of their decision.
– Individuals or organizations always have options to choose from, even if they decide not to make a choice.
– Individuals or organizations strive to minimize opportunity costs.
Three basic elements of economic models
The study of decisions of individuals, groups and companies, their effect on individual markets and how those markets are affected by taxes and other regulations.
Microeconomics
The study of larger markets (national and international) and how economic activity is determined and how government intervention and world events effects the economy as a whole
Macroeconomics
Occurs when the good or service demanded or supplied changes even though the price remains the same
Shift
The degree at which a supply or demand curve reacts to change in price
Elasticity
An abstract concept to help us understand how an individual or market deals with scarcity
Utility
is the sum of benefit or satisfaction a person derives from consuming goods and services
Total Utility
is the increment or additional benefit or satisfaction gained from the next good or service consumed
Marginal Utility
Allows a seller to sell more than may have
Bundling
1st degree – each person a different price (scalping, airlines)
2nd degree – quantity discounts
3rd degree – based upon attribute (age, gender)
Price Differentiation
Matches price to demand more appropriately each game
Variable Pricing
Reselling Tickets

Teams usually do not like it

Reason teams should like it
– Reinforces demand
– Helps with utility issues caused by bundling
– Helps keep ancillary revenue up

Many teams doing themselves
– Can’t beat ’em, join ’em
– Helps to control market
– Best of both worlds

Scalping
Centralized
– League owns all teams and controls costs from one source
Individual team owners but centralized labor
– Players hired and paid by league
– Assigned to teams based upon mutually agreed rules
– Players have little control
Individual team owners with decentralized labor
– Players hired and paid by teams
– Players have more control
No teams, just players (i.e. golf, tennis)
– Players self-employed, contract with league
– Players have most control
League forms (four major forms)
When working more to make more money causes you to give up leisure time
Substitution Effect
The minimum amount a worker requires to enter the labor market
Reservation Wage
When you work less to enjoy the income you have earned previously
Income Effect
• Council of Europe – All forms of physical activity which through casual or organized participation aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well- being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels
• Any activity, experience or business enterprise for which the primary focus is fitness recreation, athletics and leisure related
Sport
• The study and practice of people, activities, businesses or organizations involved in ordering, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any sport related business or product
Sport Management
• Single sports (professional leagues, teams, orgs)
• Multi sports (athletic foundations, disabled sports orgs, high school sports, military sports, Olympic sports)
• College Sports (college associations, college athletics)
• Media (newspapers, magazines , TV, radio)
• Sports sponsors
• Professional services (event planning, sports medicine)
• Facilities (arenas and stadiums, facility management)
• Manufactures and retailers ( software manufactures, retailers)
• Events. Meetings, trade shows
Settings Sports are Found
• Product Type Model
– Sport Performance, Sport Production, and Sport Promotion
• Economic Impact Model
– Sport Entertainment and recreation such as events, teams, associated spending (money spent by sports participants, spectators and sponsors)
– Sports products and services
– Sport supports organizations (leagues, law firms, etc..)
• Sport Activity Model
– Produce sport activities
– Provide products and services to support the production
– Sell and trade products related to sports
prescriptive concerns about how the world out to be, concerns about the way the world, is, was
1. What are the issues and conclusion?
2. What are the reasons?
3. What words and phrases are ambiguous?
4. What are the value conflicts and assumptions?
5. What are the descriptive assumptions?
6. Does the reasoning contain fallacies?
7. How good is the evidence?
8. What significant information is omitted?
Critical Thinking Skills
Increased importance on comm skills, technological aptitudes and the ability to interact in a global and multicultural society
– Managerial Skills
– Critical Thinking skills
Sport Management Competencies
• Technology
– Sports products, protective helmets, etc..
• Ethics and Social Responsibility
– Use the sport for good and illuminate immoral/ illegal incidences
– Principled decision-making – basing decisions on trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, caring
• Environmental Sustainability
• Globalization of Sport
– Exploitation of poor people in other counties
Future Challenges and Opportunities
– General Education
– Major Courses in Sports Management
– Field Experience
– Graduate degree (make sure the program is a good fit for you)
Professional Preparation
• Explicit norms – formally communicated rules that govern behavior of group members
• Implicit norms – Unstated or informal rules understood and practiced by members of an organization
Ethical Decision making
• Challenge yourself to think, reflect, and learn have more of an opportunity to flourish
Critical thinking skills
• Appearance – grooming, attire and accessories, posture, social media image
Professional Image
• Etiquette
• Learn your job
• Understand Org Culture
• Develop Your Written Communication Skills
• Refine Your Teamwork skills
– Learn to manage conflict
– Embrace Diversity
– Assess Performance
• Continue Professional Development
Work Translation and Adjustment
• Telephone
• Voice-mail Messages
• Language
• Meeting Participation
• Dining Etiquette
• International experiences
• Introductions and greetings
• Office etiquette
• Romantic Relationships
Business Etiquette
• Self-awareness
– Understand your personal and work values, interests, etc..
• Occupational exploration
– Broad look at career fields
• Career decision- making
– Weighing the information and making a choice
• Career implementation
– Prepare for an effective resume and cover letter that can adjust to the position
Career Decision Steps
regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something.
Values
Activities that you engage in and find enjoyable
Interests
• Job content skills -Specialized knowledge or abilities needed to fulfill specific job duties. EX: knowing the rules to basketball
• Functional skills – General abilities that transfer to many jobs situations EX: referee uses functional skills to resolve player conflict
• Adaptive skills – Personal attributes and personality traits. EX: Remain calm and posed under stressful conditions
Skills