Contemporary Management Chapter 9

motivation
the psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence
direction
possible behaviors the individual could engage in
effort
how hard the individual will work
persistence
whether the individual will keep trying or give up
input
-anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization
-time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors
outcome
-anything a person gets from a job or an organization
-pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment
intrinsically motivated behavior
behavior that is performed for its own sake
extrinsically motivated behavior
behavior that is performed to acquire materi`al or social rewards or to avoid punishment
expectancy theory
motivation will be high when workers believe:
-high levels of effort will lead to high performance
-high performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes
expectancy
the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance
instrumentality
the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes
valence
how desirable each of the available outcomes from the job is to a person
need theories
-theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs
-basic premise is that people are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs
self-actualization needs
the needs to realize one’s full potential as a human being
esteem needs
the needs to feel good about oneself and one’s capabilities, to be respected by others and to receive recognition and appreciation
belongingness needs
needs for social interaction, friendship, affection and love
safety needs
needs for security, stability, and a safe environment
physiological needs
basic needs for things such as food, water, and shelter that must be met in order for a person to survive
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory
focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation an job sanctification, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction
motivator needs
relate to the nature of the work itself and how challenging it is
hygiene needs
are related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed
need for achievement
a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence
need for affiliation
extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other
need for power
extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
equity theory
focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack or fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs
equity
justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled
–outcomes/inputs=outcomes/inputs
inequity
lack of fairness
underpayment inequity
exists when a person perceives that his own outcome–input ratio is less than the ration of a referent
outcomes/input < (less than) outcomes/inputs
overpayment inequity
exists when a person perceives that his own outcome–input ratio is greater than the ration of a referent
outcomes/input > (greater than) outcomes/input
goal setting theory
focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects
learning theories
theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals
operant conditioning
people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences
positive reinforcement
giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors
negative reinforcement
eliminating undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors
extinction
curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them
punishment
administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs
social learning theory
a theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior
vicarious learning
learning that occurs when a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be reinforced for doing so
-observational learning
self-reinforcement
any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance
self-efficacy
a person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully
merit pay plan
a compensation plan that bases pay on based on individual, group and/or organization performance