Consumer Behaviour Week 5: Consumer Involvement

Involvement (per Krugman; Rhodes)
Involvement as a mode of attention, the inner participation a well as the deepness and quality of information process of a consumer engaged in a purchase situation (Krugman, 1966; Rhodes, 1997).
Involvement (per Roosen’s glossary definition)
The degree of personal relevance a product, brand, object or behaviour has for a consumer. Experienced as feelings of arousal or activation and interest or importance. Determined by intrinsic and situational self- relevance.
High-Involvement Product
Something a consumer believes has important personal consequences or will help achieve important personal goals.
Low-Involvement Product
Something that is not strongly linked to important consequences or goals of the consumer.
Felt Involvement
Self-reported arousal or interest in an offering, activity, or decision. Emphasises that involvement is a psychological state that consumers experience only at certain times
Types of consumer involvement
1) Product and brand
2) Purchase-descission
3) Message-Response (advertising)
4) Cognitive
5) Felt
6) Enduring
Message-response involvement
Involved in advertising message without necessarily involved in product
Enduring Involvement
Importance of the product to the consumers’ concept of self. Something that lasts and relates to self-knowledge.
Basis of Means-End Chains for Involvement
Consumer involvement or self-relevance depends on two aspects of the ___ that are activated:
1) Importance of self-relevance of the ends
2) Strength of connections between product knowledge level and the self-knowledge level
Means-End Chains for Involvement (with graphical representation)
Means-End Chains for Involvement (with graphical representation)
Like a normal means-end chain, but the first two steps (attributes and functional consequences) are categorised into one overarching theme (Product knowledge); and the last two steps (psychosocial consequences and values) are categorised into a second overarching theme (Self-knowledge).
Implications of Means-End Chains for Involvement
1) Self-knowledge stages of the means-end chain must be stimulated to activate a kind of involvement.
2) If means-end chain does not go further than functional components, the consumer has not experience deep level of involvement.
Possible results of consumer involvement
• Elicitation of counter-arguments to ads
• Effectiveness of ad to induce purchase
• Relative importance of the product class
• Perceived differences in product attributes
• Preferences for a particular brand
• Influence of price on brand choice
• Amount of information search
• Time spent deliberating alternatives
• Type of decision rule used in choice.
Involvement Profile and its characteristics
The personal interest and concept of self-relevance a consumer has in a product category – its meaning or importance.
1) The perceived importance of the potential negative consequences of a bad purchase.
2)The probability of making bad discussions
3) The pleasure value of the product category
4) The sign value of the product category
Purpose of Involvement Profile
1) Allow consumer researchers to capture the diversity of the involvement, construct and use involvement as segmentation base.
2) Allow marketing strategists to assess the extent of the involvement in marketing messages and with the purchase situation.
Measurement of enduring/deep involvement at the product category level
Measurement of enduring/deep involvement at the product category level
“I generally feel sentimental about the cars I own” Is an example of a what kind of involvement measurement?
Enduring/deep involvement at the product category level
“Cars offer me relaxation and fun” Is an example of a what kind of involvement measurement?
Enduring/deep involvement at the product category level
Measurement of deep involvement in a specific brand
Measurement of deep involvement in a specific brand
“Apple holds a special place in my life” is an example of what kind of involvement measurement?
Deep involvement in a specific brand
Measurement of involvement as information interest
Measurement of involvement as information interest
“I would be interested in reading about this product” is an example of what kind of involvement measurement?
Involvement as information interest
Measurement of baseline involvement in a product
Measurement of baseline involvement in a product
Semantic differential test
A question format that asks respondents to rate their place on a scale between two bipolar adjectives, for example: happy or sad.
Factors influencing level of involvement
Two sources of self-relevance
1) Intrinsic
2) Situational
Situational involvement
Temporary or dynamic involvement resulting from a particular set of circumstances.
Means that the circumstances of a purchase may temporarily transform a low involvement decision into a high-involvement one.
Levels of intrinsic involvement
Market segments with differing long-term levels of intrinsic self-relevance to a product:
1) Brand loyalists
2) Routine brand buyers
3) Information seekers
4) Brand switchers
What marketers want to understand about involvement
1) The focus of a consumer’s involvement
2) Sources that create involvement
Marketing implications of understanding involvement
1) Understand the key reasons for purchases
2) Understand the consumer-product relationship
3) Four market segments with different levels of intrinsic self-relevance for a product category and brand
4) Influencing intrinsic self-relevance
5) Influencing situational self-relevance
Basic Model of Consumer Product Involvement
Basic Model of Consumer Product Involvement
Intrinsic involvement and advertising
Advertising attempts to increase intrinsic involvement
Strategies to increase intrinsic involvement
1) Appeal to consumer’s hedonic needs
2) Use novel stimuli
3) Use prominent stimuli
4) Include celebrity endorsers
5) Build a bond with consumers by maintaining an ongoing relationship with them
6) Personalising products/strategies online
CGC
Consumer Generated Content
Consumer Generated Content (CGC)
Where ordinary people voice their opinions about products, brands and companies on blogs, podcasts and social networking sites. It is probably the biggest marketing phenomenon of the last few years.
Brand Loyalty in different product categories
Brand Loyalty in different product categories
Cigaretts, mayonnaise, and toothpaste are the highest. Athletic shoes, Canned vegetables and garbage bags are the lowest.