Consumer behavior chp 15(exam 2)

How has the Internet changed consumers’ ability to search for information?
all of the above
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding information search?
Searching for information is free.
Once a problem is recognized, relevant information from long-term memory is used to determine if a satisfactory solution is known, what the characteristics of potential solutions are, what are appropriate ways to compare solutions, and so forth. This is referred to as _____.
internal search
Nakeisha wants to purchase some new make-up, but she wants something different from what she is currently using. Since she has experience with this product, she just thinks of the other products she has tried and decides to purchase one of those. Which type of information search has Nakeisha performed?
internal search
Which type of search can involve independent sources, personal sources, marketer-based information, and product experience?
external search
Nathan is purchasing a new computer, so he asks his friends and family for help in selecting one. He also has searched the Internet and visited the Dell, Gateway, and IBM Web sites and has consulted Consumer Reports. Nathan is conducting which type of information search?
external search
If, in response to a problem, a consumer recalls a single, satisfactory solution, no further information search or evaluation may occur. The consumer purchases the recalled brand and _____ has occurred.
nominal decision making
Every winter, Laurie’s skin becomes very dry and results in painful cracks in her skin on her fingers. Once this happens, Laurie remembers that Zim’s Crack Cream works really well for this problem, so she stops at the store to pick some up. Which type of decision making has occurred?
nominal decision making
When a consumer notices a new product in a store because of the point-of-purchase display, reads about the attributes of the product and recalls an unresolved problem that this product will solve, and then purchases the product, _____ has occurred.
limited decision making
Wendy was in Wal-Mart and noticed a display with baking items collected together and a little pad with recipes to tear off. She looked at the recipe and decided that this would make a nice dessert for Thanksgiving, so she purchased the products that were conveniently located on the display. Which type of decision making did Wendy undertake?
limited decision making
For which type of decision making is external information search relatively important?
extended decision making
Eric was in the store and started looking at riding lawn mowers. He didn’t come to this store for the purpose of purchasing one, but he started considering it once he was there. However, he did not purchase one on that trip. Instead he went to other stores to look at their mowers, he asked his neighbor and his brother-in-law about their mowers, and he searched the Internet before he decided on the brand to purchase. Which type of decision making did Eric undertake?
extended decision making
Deliberate external search that occurs in the absence of problem recognition and is done both to acquire information for possible later use and because the process itself is pleasurable is known as _____.
ongoing search
Barry is always searching information about wine. He reads Wine Spectator every month, has several books related to wine, visits wine-related Web sites frequently, and has visited several wine regions throughout the world. While he purchases wine frequently, he does not conduct this information search for just that reason. He just enjoys learning about wine. For Barry, his search for information about wine is a(n) _____.
ongoing search
A consumer decision requires information on which of the following?
a, b, and c
The desired features or characteristics required to meet a consumer’s needs are his or her _____.
evaluative criteria
Freddy is purchasing a new car, and he has decided that gas mileage, price, reliability, and styling are important to him. These attributes represent Freddy’s _____.
evaluative criteria
All of the brands that a consumer thinks of as potential solutions are known as the _____.
awareness set
Karl and his wife are considering putting a built-in pool in their backyard. They were discussing who they could get to do it for them, and they realized they knew of five pool contractors in their city. These five pool contractors that they thought of as potential contractors for them represent their _____.
awareness set
Which of the following is NOT a subcategory of the awareness set?
purchase set
The brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a particular consumer problem are called the _____.
evoked set
Thomas is aware of several different brands of electric shavers, but he is only considering seriously three different brands. These three brands that Thomas is evaluating represent his _____.
evoked set
The evoked set is also called the _____.
consideration set
Brands that are found completely unworthy of further consideration are members of the _____.
inept set
Darcy is considering the purchase of living room furniture. While there are several national-chain furniture stores in her city, she is not considering Haverty’s because she’s purchased furniture from this store before and has been dissatisfied. For Darcy, this furniture retailer is included in her _____.
inept set
Brands for which a consumer is aware but basically indifferent toward compose his or her _____.
inert set
Elaine is considering the purchase of a computer and is aware that Toshiba and HP are brands in this product category. However, she is basically indifferent toward them. These two brands represent Elaine’s _____.
inert set
To which set do alternatives the consumer does not know about belong?
unawareness set
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding appropriate alternatives?
Marketing strategy that focuses only on creating awareness is adequate.
Which of the following is a primary source of information available to consumers?
all of the above
Past searches, prior personal experiences, and prior low-involvement learning are examples of which source of information?
memory
Karen is going to the mall to purchase new shoes. Based on her prior experience with Nine West and her positive attitude toward them, she plans on looking at the Nine West store first. Her decision to visit the Nine West store is based on which source of information?
memory
Friends, family, and others are examples of which source of information?
personal sources
Kasi is seeking the advice of her parents in her decision on which college to attend. Which source of information is Kasi using?
personal sources
Magazines, consumer groups, and government agencies represent which source of information?
independent sources
Jon needed to purchase new tires for his SUV. He consulted Consumer Reports to see how the various brands were rated. Jon consulted which type of information source?
independent sources
Sales personnel, Web sites, and advertising represent which type of information source?
marketing sources
Stephanie and her husband are considering the purchase of a 52″ plasma television. They have visited several manufacturers’ Web sites, looked at the ads in the Sunday newspaper, and have spoken with sales people at several electronics stores. Which source of information are they using?
marketing sources
Which source of information includes inspection or product trial?
marketing sources
Lane is test driving several models of automobiles to help him decide which one to purchase. Which source of information does this represent?
marketing sources
Which information source is NOT actively acquired by consumers?
low-involvement learning
Susan actually knows quite a bit about some product categories that she doesn’t actively seek out information concerning and doesn’t even own. Which of the following is the most likely means by which she obtained this information?
low-involvement learning
Research shows that the most common use of the Internet is _____.
using e-mail
Which of the following is true regarding the Internet as a source of information?
all of the above
Which of the following is NOT a research finding regarding the Internet as an information source?
Over 90% of Americans use the Internet to research a product/service before buying it.
Which demographic characteristic describes the greatest percentage of U.S. adult Internet users?
Household income of $75,000+
Research has shown that most of the online search leading up to a purchase was _____.
generic
Consumers conducting a generic search in an Internet search engine use which type of terms?
general product-related terms
Bob is searching the Internet for information on digital cameras, so he types in the words “digital camera” in Google. Which type of search is Bob conducting?
generic
Services that aid consumers in their search and decision making on the Internet are known as _____.
bots
Amelia wanted to purchase a nice watch for her husband, but she was overwhelmed by the amount of information available on the Internet for this product. She visited one Web site that offered a service that would do the searching and comparisons for her, so she decided to use it. The service Amelia used is referred to as a(n) _____.
shopping bot
Which of the following is NOT a major issue marketers must deal with concerning the Internet’s role in information search and decision making?
How can they get more consumers to use the Internet instead of seeking information from salespeople?
Unsolicited e-mail that is a major concern and irritant and is known as _____.
spam
Lisa has to check her e-mail frequently to delete the unsolicited messages she gets, typically for loans and prescription drugs. If she doesn’t delete them, her inbox will fill up and e-mails that she wants to receive won’t get through. This unsolicited e-mail is known as _____.
spam
The percentage who clicks through a banner ad to the corporate Web site is known as _____.
clickthrough rate
_____ involves tracking consumer click patterns on a Web site and using that information to decide on banner ad placement.
Behavioral targeting
Ben is interested in golf, so he visits several golf-related Web sites, such as the USGA and the PGA. Unbeknownst to him, his surfing behavior is being tracked, and it’s no accident that he receives several banner ads for golf products and destinations. This is called _____.
behavioral targeting
Which of the following involves techniques designed to ensure that a company’s Web pages appear high on an Internet search result list?
search engine optimization
Kodak markets digital cameras and is aware that consumers search for information concerning this product on the Internet using one of the several search engines (e.g., Google). To ensure that Kodak appears on the first page of results, this company pays the search engine to become a sponsored link when consumers search the key words “digital camera.” This is an illustration of _____.
search engine optimization
Which of the following factors influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of search?
all of the above
The number of alternatives, price range, store distribution, and information availability are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of search?
market characteristics
Feature and quality variations across brands are referred to as _____.
product differentiation
Experience, familiarity, social status, shopping orientation and product involvement are examples of which factor that influences the expected benefits and perceived costs of search?
consumer characteristics
Consumers’ general approaches or patterns of external search are termed _____.
shopping orientations
Which of the following is NOT a type of knowledge where a low level of calibration frequently occurs to the detriment of consumers and firms?
all of the above
Perceived risk is a function of the _____.
a, b, and c
Perceived risk is high for products whose failure to perform as expected would result in a high _____.
all of the above
Which of the following is probably the most important situational variable with respect to search behavior?
temporal perspective
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for nominal decision making?
maintenance strategy and disrupt strategy
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for limited decision making?
capture strategy and intercept strategy
Which marketing strategies are appropriate for extended decision making?
preference strategy and acceptance strategy
If a brand is included in a consumer’s evoked set, which marketing strategy is NOT appropriate?
intercept strategy
Which marketing strategy is appropriate if the brand is not part of consumers’ evoked sets?
disrupt strategy
Which marketing strategy requires consistent attention to product quality, distribution, and a reinforcement advertising strategy because the brand is purchased habitually by the target market?
maintenance strategy
Coca-Cola has a large brand-loyal purchaser segment. Which marketing strategy is appropriate for this brand?
maintenance strategy
Which marketing strategy is appropriate if the brand is not part of the evoked set and the target market engages in nominal decision making?
disrupt strategy
If the target market engages in limited decision making and the brand is not part of their evoked set, the objective will be to _____.
intercept the consumer during the search for information on the brands in the evoked set
One marketer for a brand of shampoo learned through research that consumers in the target market engage in limited decision making but that this marketer’s brand is not part of their evoked set. Which marketing strategy is appropriate for this company?
intercept strategy
Extended decision making with the brand in the evoked set requires which marketing strategy?
preference strategy
Which marketing strategy is similar to preference strategy but is complicated by the fact that the target market is not seeking information about the brand?
acceptance strategy
Consumers continually recognize problems and opportunities, so internal and external searches for information to solve these problems are ongoing processes.
True
One reason a consumer does an ongoing search is because the process itself is pleasurable to him or her.
True
All of the brands thought of as potential solutions are known as the consideration set.
False
The brands found to be completely unworthy of further consideration comprise the excluded set.
False
Marketing strategy that focuses only on creating awareness may be inadequate.
True
The awareness set has generally been found to be smaller than the evoked set.
False
The five primary sources of information available to consumers are memory, personal sources, independent sources, marketing sources, and experiential sources.
True
Research has shown that the Internet is used equally by all segments of the adult U.S. population.
False
Online services use bots, which are software “robots” that do the shopping/searching for users, and are therefore often referred to as shopping bots.
True
Banner ads are one way to drive a firm’s information to consumers.
True
Search engine optimization involves tracking consumer click patterns on a Web site and using that information to decide on banner ad placement.
False
Most purchases are the result of extended decision making and therefore involve considerable external search prior to purchase.
False
Market characteristics that influence the expected benefits and perceived costs of search include the number of alternatives, price range, store distribution, and information availability.
True
A recent study found that a low level of calibration frequently occurs to the detriment of consumers and firms in the areas of memory of facts and events, belief polarization and validity, and personal forecasts.
True
The perceived risk associated with unsatisfactory product performance increases information search prior to purchase.
True
The maintenance marketing strategy is appropriate if consumers use extended decision making and the brand is in the evoked set.
False