Consumer Behavior Chapter 16-20

The fact that consumers have limited capacity for processing information is referred to as
Bounded Rationality
_____ requires knowledge of specific attributes and involves attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands.
Attribute-Based Choice
A choice based on the “how do I feel about it” heuristic is referred to as
Affective Choice
The motives that underlie behaviors designed to achieve a second goal are termed
Instrumental Motives
Advertising can affect the importance of evaluative criteria by
increasing attention and elaboration of the evaluative criteria
The _________ decision rule establishes a minimum level of performance for each important attribute (often a fairly high level), and all brands that meet or exceed the performance level for any key attribute are considered acceptable.
The ________ decision rule requires the consumer to rank the criteria in order of importance, and then the consumer selects the brand that performs best on the most important attribute.
The consumer decides what their acceptance levels are on various features; Price Grabber
only presents the set of brands that meet those criteria
________ underline behaviors that are intrinsically rewarding to the individual involved.
Consummatory Motives
________ are the various dimensions, features, or benefits consumers look for in response to a specific problem.
Evaluative Criteria
Firms with limited reputation sometimes
form brand alliances with a reputable firm in order to gain from the quality associated with the known brand.
Consumers are not aware of product brand names in _______
blind tests
A consumer might infer that since a product has a relatively high price it must also
be high quality
_______ relates to an individual’s ability to distinguish between similar stimuli.
Sensory discrimination
________ can dramatically influence choice as when a new brand in the set makes an existing brand a compromise option, thus increasing its chances of being chosen.
Competitive context
Catalog Age, as reported in the text, found that consumers shop online for reasons similar to those for shopping from catalogs. The major reason consumers shop online and from catalogs is due to
no time to go to the store
is a shopping motivation of consumers
Recreation, social aspects, utility, minimizing shopping time
Which of the following is a segmentation of shoppers who are motivated primarily by getting exactly what they want in the least amount of time?
basic shoppers
Which of the following is a segmentation of shoppers who are motivated by many aspects of shopping?
enthusiast shoppers
Which of the following is a component of store image
Store atmosphere, store size, store location, and store advertising
Spillover sales refer to
sales of additional items to customers who came to purchase an advertised item
Shelf talkers are a type of
point-of-purchase material
Catalogs and the Internet appear to work in a complementary fashion.
Consumers who browse and/or purchase in more than one channel
Multi-Channel Shoppers
________ is a shopping style that puts particular emphasis on certain activities or shopping motivations.
Shopping Orientation
Major _______ purchases such as automobiles or specialty items such as wedding dresses generate greater willingness to travel.
The best approach for retailers seems to be to present the sale price and the dollar amount saved if it is large
________ are motivated primarily by getting exactly what they want in the least amount of time.
Basic Shoppers
Bossing around retail clerks is a nonpurchase reason for shopping.
Individuals go shopping for more complex reasons than simply acquiring a product or set of products
_______ are purchases consumers make in a retail outlet that are different from those they planned to make prior to entering that retail outlet.
Unplanned purchases
Which of the following is not generally an outcome for a satisfied customer?
Brand Switching
Doubt about the wisdom of a purchase shortly after the purchase is referred to as
Postpurchase Dissonance
Which of the following is an alternative if a consumer decides to retain a product’s package?
store it and use it for a new purpose
Which of the following is true regarding the Net Promoter Score (NPS)?
it appears to tap attitudinal loyalty, it tends to be predictive of growth, it works well in only some industries
Satisfaction with a purchase is primarily a function of
Perceived performance relative to expectations
Satisfaction with a product is primarily a function of
Symbolic Performance and Instrumental Performance
The styling of a suit represents
Symbolic Performance
A ___________ occurs when one consumer sells a product directly to another with or without the assistance of a commercial intermediary.
consumer-to-consumer sale
The first step a firm should most want from a dissatisfied customer is
for them to complain to the company and no one else; this gives the company a chance to resolve the problem.
The dissatisfied customer is likely to have a less favorable attitude toward the store or brand when
no external action is taken
________ is centered on understanding consumer needs at the individual consumer level.
Relationship Marketing
_________refers to the fact that repeat and specifically committed customers tend to buy the brand consistently rather than waiting for a sale or continually negotiating price.
Price Premium
When customers are committed to the brand it is known as
brand loyalty
____________ are the costs of finding, evaluating, and adopting another solution.
Switching Costs
deal directly with consumers
Frontline Employees
The organizational culture of a business firm is often referred to as
Corporate Culture
Segmenting an organizational market based on unique needs associated with firmographics is referred to as
Perhaps the most powerful type of reference group in industrial markets is that of
Lead Users
Large organizations generally involve
more individuals in the decision-making process
Roles that may be played by any member of a decision-making unit include all of the following
Key influencer, user, decision maker, information gatherer
Which factor(s) influence(s) whether a relationship will be transactional or relational?
Industry structure, decision-making culture, risk tolerance
Healthy business relationships depend on _______.
legitimacy and compatibility, social relations, economic and shared values, learning bonds
Organizations develop _______ that influence the behavior of their members
unique rules and cultures
A ____________ consists of the types of individuals who work in the organization.
Organization’s composition
_______ are categorized as routine, complex, or technical
Organizational Activities
_______ are as important to organizations as demographics are to consumers for understanding purchase behavior
______ is much like lifestyle in the organizations vary dramatically in how they make decisions.
Organizational Culture
Payments, warranties, delivery dates, and so on are
purchase terms and conditions
One expert estimates that only ____ of buyers fall into the most valuable customer category.
10 percent
From a seller’s point of view, all buyers are worth developing relational exchanges with.
As in the B2C domain, some customers are worth having strong relationships with, some should be managed as transactional clients, and some should be terminated
Much of the basis of concern over marketing to children derives from
Affective Response Development
CARU stands for
Children’s advertising review unit
Which of the following are not prohibited, discouraged, or subject to special rules by CARU guidelines?
using advertising to portray adults or children in unsafe conditions, using advertising to portray or encourage behavior inappropriate for children, using advertising to convey to children that possession of a product will result in greater acceptance, urging children to ask a parent to buy a product for them
_____ is a type of mobile marketing used to reach children.
ringtones, text-in contests, mobile games
Critics contend that
the affect of numerous ads all promoting the acquisition of products distorts children’s values.
Words that pragmatically imply something not literally stated are known as
Hedge Words
Two unrelated statements put together in a way that makes them seem related and changes the meaning are known as
Juxtaposed Imperatives
The regulation of marketing activities to children includes
product safety, advertising and promotions, and privacy protection
“Part of a nutritious breakfast” and “Batteries not included” are known as warning labels.
______ can be ineffective with pre-school children who have a difficult time understanding these phrases.
According to _________ children are not fully able to process and understand marketing messages until about age 12.
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
_________ is the basis for most regulation of advertising aimed at children and according to critics, for some marketing programs that deliberately exploit children.
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
______ serves as the American advertising industry’s primary self-regulatory body.
The National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus
The impact on commercial messages on ________ are areas of concern due to the amount of time children spend watching television.
children’s values and health and safety
CARU reviews thousands of advertisements every year and has an _________ in resolving issues related to children’s advertising.
95 percent success rate
The FTC’s new framework and guidelines are currently
______ are implied meanings that are neither directly stated nor logically implied
Pragmatic Implications