types of exposure
intentional and accidental
levels of attention
levels of intentional exposure to marketing information are low, most are random and occur as consumers move through their environments and “accidentally” come into contact with marketing information.
selective exposure to marketing occurs when
consumers become more adept at avoiding exposure. Consumers do not maintain accidental exposure to marketing information.
factors influencing attention
affective states, involvement, environmental prominence.
low arousal reduces the amount and intensity of attention. A state of high affective arousal can narrow consumers’ focus of attention and make attention more selective.
motivational state guiding stimuli selection for focal attention and comprehension.
the most prominent marketing stimuli are most likely to attract attention.
how marketers affect intrinsic self-relevance
identify the product consequences and values consumers consider most important.
how marketers affect situational self-relevance
generate higher levels of involvement and motivation to attend to marketing information.
interpretation processes by which consumers understand or make sense of their own behavior.
the role of inferences
interpretations that product knowledge or beliefs that go beyond the information given. Play a large role in the construction of means-end chains.
primary factors affecting comprehension knowledge in memory
being an expert or a novice, marketers need to understand existing knowledge structures of target audience to develop effective strategies. Involvement- has a major influence on consumers’ motivation to comprehend marketing information at the time of exposure. Exposure environment- affect consumers’ opportunity to comprehend marketing information.
primary factors affecting comprehension
time pressure, consumers’ affective states, distractions.
marketing strategies to affect attention and comprehension
maximize and maintain exposure, capture and maintain attention, influence the target consumers to comprehend the marketing information at the appropriate level of depth and elaboration.