consumer behavior ch. 11

All of the following phenomena occur after a purchase is made except
a. expectation formation.
b. dissatisfaction.
c. customer satisfaction.
d. product performance.
e. learning about products by direct experience.
a. expectation formation
Consumers are ___________ their acquisition, consumption, or disposition decisions.
a. rarely able to process information about
b. may express dissonance or regret over
c. always able to process information about
d. almost always satisfied with
e. closed to expectations after
b. may express dissonance or regret over
Post-decision dissonance is
a. an interesting association related to the product formed after acquisition.
b. an interesting association related to the product formed after disposition.
c. a feeling of anxiety over whether the correct decision was made.
d. the SEVA emotions elicited after acquisition.
e. impulsiveness.
c. a feeling of anxiety over whether the correct decision was made
Kimberly bought a digital camera at what she thought had the best price and features, but felt uncertain about her choice. This is likely an example of
a. impulsiveness.
b. response derogation.
c. post-decision dissonance.
d. response uncertainty.
e. decision disposition.
c. post-decision dissonance
Post-decision dissonance is particularly likely to occur when
a. MAO is low.
b. involvement is low.
c. the need for cognition is low.
d. the number of associations tied to a brand is high.
e. there is more than one attractive alternative.
e. there is more than one attractive alternative
Post-decision dissonance can impact consumer behavior primarily because it
a. creates anxiety that the consumer would like to reduce.
b. increases the ability of the consumer to process information.
c. increases the recall of the consumer for attributes.
d. can attract customers who are habitual purchasers of other brands.
e. decreases motivation to process information about other brands.
a. creates anxiety that the consumer would like to reduce
After Ned bought an IBM desktop computer, he felt uneasy and sought out information from magazines and friends that was favorable to IBM and unfavorable to Compaq or Apple. Ned was probably trying to
a. increase brand awareness for IBM.
b. reduce dissonance.
c. decrease brand awareness for the other brands.
d. increase brand knowledge for that product category.
e. increase his involvement in processing information about other brands.
b. reduce dissonance
A feeling that one has made the wrong purchase decision is known as
a. impulsiveness.
b. response derogation.
c. post-decision dissonance.
d. post-decision regret.
e. decision disposition.
d. post-decision regret
Consumer learning from marketer-controlled communication is often limited because
a. of a lack of processability.
b. consumers cannot relate it to their lives.
c. it often does not match consumer decision-making patterns.
d. memory is limited.
e. of the low credibility of the marketing message.
e. of the low credibility of the marketing message
Testing consumer expectations through experience is known as
a. consumer hypothesis testing.
b. sensation experiencing.
c. operant conditioning.
d. classical conditioning.
e. modeling.
a. consumer hypothesis testing
All of the following are basic stages in hypothesis testing except
a. hypothesis generation.
b. repetition of evidence.
c. integration of evidence.
d. exposure to evidence.
e. encoding of evidence.
b. repetition of evidence
Suppose a consumer is watching TV and sees an exciting ad for a new Meg Ryan movie. She also fondly remembers previous Meg Ryan movies, such as Hanging Up or You’ve Got Mail. Based on these sources of information, she ___________ about the quality of the movie (“It must be great”).
a. generates evidence
b. creates affect
c. generates a hypothesis
d. creates evidence
e. creates counterarguments
c. generates a hypothesis
While a consumer is watching a movie, she can assess whether or not it is a good movie. This is known as
a. generating evidence.
b. generating hypotheses.
c. creating counterarguments.
d. encoding the evidence.
e. integrating evidence.
d. encoding the evidence
All of the following factors significantly affect learning from experience except
a. motivation.
b. familiarity.
c. ambiguity of the information environment.
d. processing biases.
e. information retrieval.
e. information retrieval
In learning from experience, consumers will ___________ when motivation is low.
a. generate few or no hypotheses
b. rapidly make connections
c. retrieve information
d. encode information
e. not make purchases
a. generate few or no hypotheses
Kimberly’s knowledge of candy was high, and she knew what she liked. Thus, regarding consumer learning, she would be
a. unlikely to be closed to new ideas or experiences.
b. unlikely to generate new hypotheses.
c. more likely to experience products vicariously.
d. unable to process older information.
e. unable to process newer information.
b. unlikely to generate new hypotheses
Thad cared little about whether he bought Bingo or Bango detergent. Both brands seemed almost exactly the same, and there was little information to distinguish the two. His problem is most likely
a. lack of a schema.
b. lack of ability.
c. ambiguity of information.
d. dissatisfaction.
e. dissonance.
c. ambiguity of information
When a consumption experience is ambiguous and it is hard to determine product quality, consumers
a. usually form positive evaluations.
b. usually form negative evaluations due to the lack of strength of associations.
c. find it difficult to form any evaluation of the product.
d. tend to support hypotheses derived from advertising or word of mouth.
e. find attribute recall very difficult.
d. tend to support hypotheses derived from advertising or word of mouth
For many years, consumers believed that Listerine prevents colds and that STP oil treatment improves engine performance because these claims could not be disconfirmed by usage. This is an example of consumers supporting hypotheses derived from advertising because
a. the memory for attributes is high.
b. the memory for brand evaluations is high.
c. there is a lack of postpurchase dissonance.
d. the motivation to process information is high.
e. the consumption experience is ambiguous.
e. the consumption experience is ambiguous
When evidence is ambiguous, the confirmation bias and overconfidence can lead consumers to
a. avoid negative and highly diagnostic information.
b. confirm only highly diagnostic information.
c. underweigh positive information.
d. recall highly vivid information.
e. avoid marketing stimulus.
a. avoid negative and highly diagnostic information
__________ is (are) advantageous to top dogs because consumers will simply confirm existing beliefs and expectations.
a. Avoidance biases
b. Limitations to learning
c. Advertising
d. Bad product experiences
e. Ambiguity biases
b. Limitations to learning
Coca Cola is considered the “top dog” in the soft drink product category. Coca Cola does not want its customers to even try Pepsi because
a. Pepsi does not taste as good and Coca Cola does not want its customers to be disappointed.
b. consumers may prefer Pepsi and switch brands.
c. the taste of a soft drink is ambiguous information.
d. Pepsi will attempt to block further exposure to the Coca Cola brand.
e. consumers will limit their learning because of high MAO.
c. the taste of a soft drink is ambiguous information
The marketer will want to __________ when consumers are highly motivated to learn and have a high level of prior knowledge about the top dog.
a. infill information
b. create a framework
c. reinforce the agenda
d. block exposure to evidence
e. explain the experience
d. block exposure to evidence
When the consumer is highly motivated to learn, and evidence about the top dog is unambiguous, the marketer simply needs to try
a. information infilling.
b. creating a framework.
c. reinforcing the agenda.
d. blocking exposure to evidence.
e. explaining the experience.
e. explaining the experience
Comparative advertising can help underdogs by
a. disrupting the message of the top dog.
b. facilitating comparisons with the market leader.
c. facilitating new schemas about the product category.
d. blocking the evidence.
e. decreasing motivation to learn.
b. facilitating comparisons with the market leader
Walnut Crest advertised to create expectations for its Chilean Merlot wine by encouraging U.S. consumers to take the “$1,000,000 Taste Challenge.” This is an example of an underdog trying to
a. block exposure to evidence.
b. increase ambiguous information.
c. use promotions to get consumers to try the brand.
d. avoid comparisons with the market leader
e. explain the experience.
c. use promotions to get consumers to try the brand
After consumers have made acquisition, consumption, or disposition decisions, they can also evaluate
a. their prepurchase decision-making process.
b. the brand evaluation process.
c. their judgments.
d. the marketing communications process.
e. the outcomes of their decisions.
e. the outcomes of their decisions
In terms of customer satisfaction, low-involvement consumers,
a. express higher satisfaction immediately than low-involvement consumers.
b. develop hypotheses to test product performance.
c. extensively evaluate product attributes.
d. are likely to have satisfaction decline over time.
e. exhibit lower satisfaction at first, but their satisfaction increases over time.
e. exhibit lower satisfaction at first, but their satisfaction increases over time
Sally feels happy with her decision to sell seashells. She is clearly feeling
a. satisfaction.
b. goal congruence.
c. expectation disconfirmation.
d. incongruous matching.
e. schema connection.
a. satisfaction
If you did not enjoy a movie or if you were unhappy with a salesperson, __________ has occurred.
a. goal incongruence
b. dissatisfaction
c. expectation confirmation
d. incongruous matching
e. schema disconnection
b. dissatisfaction
Most of the research on satisfaction and dissatisfaction has focused on products and services for which the consumer can make an evaluation in terms of
a. schematic properties.
b. utilitarian and hedonic dimensions.
c. hedonic dimensions.
d. utilitarian dimensions.
e. brand associations.
b. utilitarian and hedonic dimensions
Derrick only cared about whether (and how) the DVD player worked. He was concerned with
a. the amount of stimulation of the neural networks that occurs before purchase.
b. the fun or excitement he has with a product or service.
c. how a product or service makes him feel.
d. the utilitarian dimension.
e. the function of the neural networks that occurs before problem recognition.
d. the utilitarian dimension
Evaluations and feelings for products and services are
a. generally permanent and stable over time.
b. generally temporary but more stable than attitudes.
c. free of specific consumption situations.
d. likely to depend heavily on the brand name.
e. generally temporary and unstable over time.
e. generally temporary and unstable over time
Fred felt a high level of satisfaction with his new computer right after purchase, but his satisfaction steadily declined over time. He is most likely what is known as a __________ consumer.
a. highly affective
b. high-involvement
c. low-involvement
d. high need for cognition
e. low need for cognition
b. high-involvement
Ying was really frustrated with laundry detergent at first, but she came to be really satisfied with it over time. Most likely Ying was a __________ consumer.
a. highly affective
b. high-involvement
c. low-involvement
d. high need for cognition
e. low need for cognition
c. low-involvement
Satisfaction is critical because it leads to
a. advertising.
b. advertising and high-elaboration processing.
c. brand-based evaluation of the alternatives.
d. repeat purchase, brand loyalty, and positive word of mouth.
e. attribute-based evaluation of the alternatives.
d. repeat purchase ,brand loyalty, and positive word of mouth
Dissatisfaction would likely lead to all of the following except
a. habitual purchase.
b. lost sales.
c. negative word of mouth.
d. complaints.
e. lower profits.
a. habitual purchase
Within the disconfirmation paradigm, __________ are desired product and service outcomes and include “pre-consumption beliefs about overall performance or the levels or attributes possessed by a product (service).”
a. purchases
b. cognitions
c. expectations
d. performances
e. confirmations
c. expectations
Within the disconfirmation paradigm, performance determines
a. consumers’ perceptions of risk.
b. ambiguity.
c. expectations for product outcomes when motivation is high.
d. whether expected outcomes have been achieved.
e. expectations for product outcomes when motivation is low.
d. whether expected outcomes have been achieved
Performance can be either
a. affective or cognitive.
b. based on expectations or on advertising.
c. confirmed or disconfirmed.
d. attribute based or brand based.
e. objective or subjective.
e. objective or subjective
Nathan was pleasantly surprised with his computer game. It had better graphics than he expected and good replayability. This is an example of
a. positive disconfirmation.
b. negative disconfirmation.
c. subjective expected outcome.
d. reinforcement.
e. objective expected outcome.
a. positive disconfirmation
A negative disconfirmation is when
a. expectations are lower than expected.
b. performance is worse than expected.
c. retrieval is low.
d. there is a negative confirmation bias.
e. there is a positive confirmation bias.
b. performance is worse than expected
AT&T advertises that it provides the highest quality phone service. In recent years, however, their phone service has gone dead for large blocks of consumers on a number of occasions. This is an example of
a. positive disconfirmation.
b. negative disconfirmation.
c. subjective unexpected outcome.
d. a disconfirmatory subjunctive experience.
e. objective unexpected outcome.
b. negative disconfirmation
__________ can help to explain satisfaction or dissatisfaction judgments independent of disconfirmation.
a. Reinforcement
b. Positive expectations
c. Post-decision feelings
d. Negative expectations
e. Subjective judgments
c. post-decision feelings
The difference between the disconfirmation paradigm and the learning process is that in the disconfirmation paradigm, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are based on
a. affective considerations.
b. expectations.
c. formal evaluation and feelings.
d. performance.
e. confirmation rather than disconfirmation.
c. formal evaluations and feelings
__________ was developed in social psychology to understand how individuals find explanations or causes for effects or behavior.
a. Schematic theory
b. Cause-and-effect modeling
c. Equity theory
d. Cognitive dissonance
e. Attribution theory
e. Attribution theory
Ted discovered that the white dust on his donuts was not powdered sugar but mold. The supermarket gave him two free boxes of donuts and explained that the problem was temporary and related to the supplier and therefore, was not under their control. This is best thought of as an application of
a. schematic theory.
b. cause-and-effect modeling.
c. equity theory.
d. cognitive dissonance.
e. attribution theory.
e. attribution theory
Attribution theory was developed to
a. understand how individuals find causes for effects or behavior.
b. understand the impression formation process.
c. explain cognitive dissonance.
d. explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior.
e. understand why brand loyalty occurs.
a. understands how individuals find causes for effects or behavior
According to attribution theory, the following factor(s) influence attributions of causality.
a. Accessibility
b. Stability, focus, and controllability
c. Effect size and strength
d. Formal evaluations, feelings, cognitions, and behaviors
e. Effect size, strength, and formal evaluations
b. stability, focus, and controllability
It was discovered that several children in the Seattle area had developed food poisoning from eating a hamburger at a Jack-in-the-Box restaurant. In a message to the public, the company reassured consumers that this problem was temporary and would never occur again. This message was appealing to the
a. product evaluations of customers.
b. locus of control of the problem.
c. permanence of the problem.
d. evaluation of the service.
e. behavior of the customers.
c. permanence of the problem
The last time she went to the dentist, Laura did not feel she had received good enough service for her money. ________ would say that there was not a perception of fairness in this exchange.
a. Schematic theory
b. Cause-and-effect modeling
c. Cognitive dissonance
d. Equity theory
e. Attribution theory
d. Equity theory
Equity theory focuses on
a. understanding how individuals find causes for effects or behavior.
b. understanding the impression formation process.
c. explaining cognitive dissonance.
d. explaining the relationship between attitudes and behavior.
e. the nature of exchanges between individuals and the perceptions of these exchanges.
e. the nature of exchanges between individuals and the perceptions of these exchanges
For equity to occur, the buyer must perceive that
a. the product or service meets expectations.
b. there is a fairness in the exchange.
c. the objective cause of the marketer-related problem is equivalent to the subjective cause.
d. the locus of control of the problem is with the customer.
e. there is at least a mildly positive evaluation of the product
b. there is a fairness in the exchange
Dissatisfied consumers could likely do all of the following except
a. take no action.
b. discontinue purchasing.
c. engage in habitual purchasing.
d. complain.
e. engage in negative word of mouth.
c. engage in habitual purchasing
When MAO is high and consumers are dissatisfied, they are more likely to
a. keep quiet but not return.
b. be upset but try the product again.
c. not care because they already have strong positive biases.
d. complain.
e. not care because they are highly motivated.
d. complain
All of the following are different classifications of complainers except
a. passives.
b. voicers.
c. irates.
d. activists.
e. individualists.
e. individualists
Which of the following behaviors of dissatisfied customers is the most damaging?
a. negative word of mouth
b. discontinuing purchasing
c. repeat purchasing
d. complaining
e. taking no action
a. negative word of mouth
Customer retention is
a. less important than customer satisfaction.
b. a goal for marketers who want to develop long-term relationships with their customers.
c. the result of marketing promotions.
d. an impossible goal that marketers cannot achieve.
e. more important before a sale than after it.
b. a goal for marketers who want to develop long-term relationships with their customers
All of the following are strategies for customer retention except
a. caring about your customers.
b. remembering your customers between sales.
c. increasing advertising to reach your target market.
d. building trusting relationships with your customers.
e. monitoring the service-delivery process.
c. increasing advertising to reach your target market
Disposition refers to
a. consumers’ moods while shopping.
b. getting rid of products once their useful function is over.
c. using products after acquisition.
d. acquiring products to improve one’s mood.
e. None of the above are correct.
b. getting rid of products once their useful function is over
According to the typology of voluntary disposition, all of the following are examples of disposition except
a. donating an organ.
b. breaking up with a girlfriend or boyfriend.
c. giving a baby up for adoption.
d. throwing away an empty tube of toothpaste.
e. using a new brand of shampoo.
e. using a new brand of shampoo
Two types of disposition of shared possessions have been identified: disposition ________ and ________.
a. of products / services
b. to break free / hold on
c. to complain / repurchase
d. for brand loyalty / repeat purchase
e. for symbolism / hedonism
b. to break free/ hold on