Consumer Behavior: Building Marketing Strategy, Chapter 9 Learning, Memory, and Product Position

Memory
The total accumulation of prior learning experiences; it’s critical to learning; and it consists of two interrelated components, short-term and long-term memory.
Learning
Any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior and is the result of information processing.
Short-Term Memory(STM) (Walking Memory)
The portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use.
Working Memory;
Where info processing happens, aka thinking;
Characteristics, limited capacity and short duration; 2 types of thinking, maintenance rehearsal and elaborative activities.
Maintenance Rehearsal
The continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferable to long-term memory.
Elaborative Activities
Are the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information.
What are the differences between Maintenance Rehearsal and Elaborative Activities?
Maintenance is learning by repetition and Elaborative is learning new info by relating it to memories.
Long-Term Memory(LTM)
The portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage.
Permanent Storage;
How knowledge can be organized. Schema and Script; Retrieval (remembering) depends on accessibility, strength of linkages and number of linkages, due to limited capacity memory is constructed.
Schema
The pattern of such associations around a particular concept. (aka schematic memory and knowledge structure)
Script
The memory of how an action sequence should occur. (a special type of schema)
Accessibility
The likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM.
How is memory constructed?
We retrieve what we think we need? Due to limited capacity memory is constructed.
Low-Involvement Learning
Occurs when the consumer has little to no motivation to process or learn the material.
Little or no motivation;
Non-focused and may be non-conscious;
Repetition Needed; and
Most consumer learning is low involvement.
High-Involvement Learning
Occurs when the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material.
High motivation, Conscious and deliberate, Deeper processing (more thinking), and
Remembered better.
Conditioning
A set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an association between two stimuli is formed or learned.
Classical Conditioning
The process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand).
Operant Conditioning
Involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behaviors.
Cognitive Learning
Encompasses all mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations.
Iconic Rote Learning
Learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning.
Vicarious Learning (Modeling)
Occurs when they observe outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjust their own accordingly. Similarly, they can use imagery to anticipate the outcome of various courses of action.
Analytical Reasoning
Creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts.??
Stimulus Discrimination
The differentiation, refers to the process of learning to respond differently to similar buy distinct stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization
Occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus. (aka rub-off-effect)
Brand Image
Refers to the schematic memory of a brand.
Product Positioning
The decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment.
Product Repositioning
Refers to a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product.
Perceptual Mapping
Offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product’s position.
Brand Equity
The value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product.
Brand Leverage
Refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products.
What factors affect strength of learning?
Importance,
Message Involvement,
Mood,
Reinforcement,
Repetition, and
Dual Coding.
Importance
The value the consumer places on the information to be learned.
Message Involvement
Occurs when a consumer is not motivated to learn the material, processing can be increased by causing the person to become involved with the message itself.
Mood
A positive mood during the reception of information appears to enhance its relational elaboration.
Reinforcement
Anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future.
Positive Reinforcement
A pleasant or desired consequence.
Negative Reinforcement
Involves the removal or the avoidance of an unpleasant consequence.
Punishment
The opposite of reinforcement. It is any consequence that decreases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future.
Repetition
Enhances learning and memory by increasing the accessibility of information in memory or by strengthening the associative linkages between concepts.
Dual Coding
Consumers can store (code) information in different ways. Storing the same information in different ways (dual coding) results in more internal pathways (associative links) for retrieving information.