Consumer Behavior 11e Chapters 5-9

Subculture
a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior.
Ethnic subcultures
those whose members’ unique shared behaviors are based on a common racial, language, or national background.
Hispanic
a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
Acculturation
the degree to which an immigrant has adapted to his or her new culture.
Regional Subcultures
arise as a result of climatic conditions, the natural environment and resources, the characteristics of the various immigrant groups that have settled in each region, and significant social and political events.
Household
all the people who occupy a housing unit.
Family Household
having at least 2 members related by birth, marriage, or adoption, one of whom is the householder.
Nonfamily Household
a householder living alone or exclusively with others to whom he or she is not related.
Blended Family
a family consisting of a couple, one or both of whom were previously married, their children, and the children from the previous marriage of one or both parents.
Traditional Family
a married couple and their own or adopted children living at home.
Household Life Cycle (HLC)
based on the age and marital status of the adult members of the household and the presence and age of children.
HLC/occupational category matrix
The vertical axis is the particular stage in the HLC, which determines the problems the household will likely encounter; the horizontal axis is a set of occupational categories, which provide a range of acceptable solutions.
Family decision making
the process by which decisions that directly or indirectly involve two or more family members are made.
Consumer socialization
the process by which young people acquire skills, knowledge, and attributes relevant to their functioning as consumers in the marketplace.
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor intelligence 0-2 (primarily motor, no thinking), Period of preoperational thoughts 3-7 (development of language and rapid conceptual development), Period of concrete operations 8-11 (the child develops the ability to apply logical thought to problems), Period of formal operations 12-15 (cognitive structures reach their greatest level of development, able to apply logic to all classes of problems).
Consumer skills
those capabilities necessary for purchases to occur such as understanding money, budgeting, product evaluation, and so forth.
Consumption-related attitudes
cognitive and affective orientations toward marketplace stimuli such as advertisements, salespeople, warranties, and so forth.
Instrumental Training
occurs when a parent or sibling specifically and directly attempts to bring about certain responses through reasoning or reinforcement.
Modeling
occurs when a child learns appropriate or inappropriate consumption behaviors by observing others.
Mediation
occurs when a parent alters a child’s initial interpretaion of, or response to, a marketing or other stimulus.
Group
tow or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and hae certain implicitly or explicitly defined relationships to one anothersuch that their behaviors are interdependent.
Reference group
a group of presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior.
Primary Groups
family and friends, involve strong relationships and frequent interaction.
Secondary groups
professional and neighborhood associations, weaker ties and less frequent contact.
Aspiration Reference groups
also exert a strong influence. Buying similar products as the group has symbolizes belonging in the group.
Consumption Subculture
a distinctive subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of ashared commitment to a particular product class, brand, or consumption activity.1) identifiable, hierarchal social structure 2) set of shared beliefs or values 3) unique jargon, rituals, and modes of symbolic expression.
Brand Community
a nongeographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among owners of a brand and the psychological relationship they have with the brand itself, the product in use, and the firm.
Community
a characterized by consciousness of kind, shared rituals and traditions, and a sense of mroal responsibility.
Online Community
a community that interacts over time around a topic of interest on the internet.
Online social network site
a web-based service that allows individuals to 1) construct a public or sempublic profile within a bounded system 2) articulate a list of other users with whome they share a connection, and 3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.
Informational influence
occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of reference group members as potentially useful bits of information.
Normative influence
also known as utilitarian influence, occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction.
Identification influence
also called value-expressive influence, occurs when individuals have internalized the group’s values and norms.
Asch phenomenon
using a group to sway a person (peer pressure at its best)
WOM communications
individuals sharing information with other individuals in a verbal form.
Opinion leader
the “go-to” person. They actively filter, interpret, or provide product and brand-relevant information to their family, friends, and colleagues.
Two-step flow of communications
where one person receives the information from the mass media and passes it on to others.
Multistep flow of communication
involves opinion leaders for a particular product area who actively seek relevant info from the mass media as well as other sources.
Market Mavens
generalized market influencers, similar to opinion leaders without the specialization. Know about a range of topics.
Buzz
the exponential expansion of WOM.
Innovation
an idea, practice, or product perceived to be new by the relevant individual or group.
Adoption process
a term used to describe extended decision making when a new product is involved. Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial, Adoption
Diffusion process
the manner in which innovations spread throughout a market.
Adopter categories
Innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards.
Innovators
venturesome risk takers.
Early adopters
Opinion leaders in local reference groups. Willing to take a calculated risk, but are concerned with failure.
Early majority
cautious about innovations. They wait until the product is proven to be successful. Socailly active but seldom leaders. Somewhat older, less educated, and less socially mobile.
Late majority
skeptical about innovations. Usually adopt in response to social pressures or lack of previous products.
Laggards
locally oriented and engage in limited social interaction. Dogmatic and oriented towards the past. Reluctantly adopt.
Information Processing
a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored. Exposure, attention, interpretation, and memory.
Perception
Exposure, attention, and interpretation (no memory).
Perceptual defenses
individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages.
Exposure
occurs when a stimulus is placed within a person’s relevant environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves.
Zipping
fast-forwarding a commercial
Zapping
switching channels during commercials.
Muting
silencing the technology!
Ad avoidance
Zipping, zapping, and muting are mechanical ways for consumers to selectively avoid exposure to advertising messages.
Product Placement
provides exposure that consumers don’t try to avoid. It shows how and when to use the product and it enhances the product’s image.
Permission-based marketing
voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where consumers opt-in to receive e-mail-based promotions.
Attention
occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing.
Stimulus Factors
Size, intensity, Attractive Visuals, Color and movement, position, Isolation, Format, Contrast and Expecations, Interestingness, and Information Quantity.
Adaption level theory
if a stimulus doesn’t change, over time we adapt or habituate to it and begin to notice it less.
Information Overload
when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it.
Smart banners
banner ads that are activated based on terms used in search engines.
Brand familiarity
an ability factor related to attention.
Hemispheric lateralization
a term applied to activities that take place on each side of the brain.
Left hemisphere
primarily responsible for verbal information, symbolic representation, sequential analysis, and the ability to be conscious and report what is happening. Reason and logic.
Right hemisphere
deals with pictorail, geometric, timeless, and nonverbal informationwithout the individual being able to verbally report it. works with images and impressions.
Subliminal stimulus
a message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it.
Pereptual relativity
generally a relative process rather than absolute. Difficult for people to make interpretations in the absence of some reference point.
Interpretation
the assignment of meaning to sensations.
Cognitive interpretation
a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning.
Affective interpretation
the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad.
Contextual cues
play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus.
Stimulus organization
physical arrangement of the stimulus objects.
Rhetorical figures
involve the use of an unexpected twist or artful deviation in how a message is communicated either visually in the ad’s picture or verbally in the ad’s text or headline.
Proximity
stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category.
Ambush marketing
any communication or activity that implies, or from which one could reasonable infer, that an organization is associated with an event, when in fact it is not.
Closure
presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved.
Figure-ground
presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background.
Sensory discrimination
the phsiological ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli.
Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.)
the minimum amount that one brand can differ from another (or from its previous version)with the difference still being noticed.
Inference
goes beyond what is directly stated or presented.
Cross-promotions
signage in one area of the store promotes complementary products in another.
Brand extension
where an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name.
Co-branding
an alliance in which two brands are put together on a single product.
Learning
any change in the content or organizatoin of long-term memory or behavior and is the result of information processing.
short-term memory STM
orking memory, is tha portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use.
Long-term memory LTM
is that portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage. Viewed as an unlimited, permanent storage.
Maintenance rehearsal
consumers must constantly refresh information
Elaborative activities
the use of previously stored expreiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information.
Concepts
abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts.
Imagery
concrete sensory representations of ideas, feelings, and objects. Provides direct recovery of aspects of past experiences.
Semantic memory
the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept.
Episodic memory
the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated.
Accessibility
the likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM
Expicit memory
characterized by the conscious recollection of an exposure event.
Implicit memory
the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli
High-involvement learning
the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material
low-involvement leraning
the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material.
Conditioning
a set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an association between two stimuli is formed or learned.
Classical conditioning
the process of using an established relationship between one stimulus and response to bring about the learning tf the same response to a different stimulus.
Operant conditioning
involves rewarding esirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior.
Shaping
The process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response.
Cognitive learning
encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations. Involves learning ideas, concepts, attitudes, and facts that contribute to our ability to reason, solve problems, and learn relationships.
Iconic rote learning
Learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning.
Vicarious learning (modeling)
Using others’ experiences and using imagery to anticipate the outcome of various courses of action.
Analytical reasoning
Most complex. Individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new informatino to form new associations and concepts.
Analogical reasoning
an inference process that allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object.
Stimulus discrimination
the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.
Stimulus generalization
the rub-off effect, occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus.
Extinction
the term used in conditioned learning for forgetting.
Retrieval failure
what forgetting is often referred to in cognitive learning
Self-referencing
indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves.
Reinforcement
anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future.
Pulsing
when it is important to produce widespread knowledge or the product rapidly through frequent (close together) repititions.
Memory interference
when consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way.
Brand image
the schematic memory of a brand
Product positioning
a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment.
Perceptual mapping
offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product’s position. Perceptions of brand similarities through the eyes of the customer.
Product repositioning
a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product.
Brand leverage
also family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding. refers to marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products.