Construction Management JumpStart- Jackson

Chapter 1: The Construction Industry
Base Isolators
Large shock absorbers made of alternating layers of rubber and steel attached to a buildings foundation to allow movement of the structure without causing damage.
Brownfield Sites
A property that is abandoned or underused because of historic environmental contamination.
Constructibility Review
A design review process in which experienced contractors and construction managers work with designers to ensure that the details of the design actually can be built in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The process entails review of materials, application, installation techniques, field execution, and building systems.
Cofferdams
Temporary watertight enclosures erected to prevent water from seeping into an area
Curtain Wall
Nonload-bearing exterior wall used as a weather barrier but not for structural support
Infrastructure
Basic roadways, bridges, and railroad networks that support a community or society.
Lean Principles
Customer focus
Culture and people
Workplace organization and standardization
Elimination of waste
Continuous improvement and built-in quality
Architectural Program
the research and decision making process, initiated by an owner, usually with help of an architect or other programming specialist, that identifies the basic needs of the client and the parameters of the project to be designed and ultimately built by a construction professional.
Project Delivery
process by which all the procedures and components of designing and building a facility are organized and put together in an agreement that results in a completed project.
Self-Performed Work
construction work that is performed with the general contractors own forces or labor. This work is not subcontracted
Slip Forms
concrete forms that rise up the wall as construction progresses
Specifications
detail the requirements/characteristics of a project
Review Questions:
What is the name of the stone carvings dating back to the pyramids that contained the first written regulations pertaining to construction, the first building code?
Code of Hammurabi
By what measurement is construction used as an economic indicator for the U.S. economy?
housing starts
Five Primary Sectors of Construction Industry:
Residential
Commercial
Heavy civil
Industrial
Environmental
Name of organization credited with promoting construction management as a legitimate area of study at a four year university:
Associated Schools of Construction (ASC)
Role of Owner:
driving force behind the industry.
develop the programs
define the scope
create budget
provide funding
Weekly Construction Magazine:
ENR- Engineering News Record
Three Associations Affiliated with Construction Industry:
1. Associated General Contractors
2. Associated Builders and Contractors
3.National Association of Home Builders
LEED
Stands for: Leadership in energy and environmental design.
Purpose: rating system that evaluates a building’s environmental performance over its life cycle.
Construction Associations that offer voluntary certification programs for construction managers
1. American Institute of Constructors
2. Construction Management Associated of America
Lean Construction
Stems from manufacturing industry- Toyota
Philosophy that focuses on adding value with less work and the elimination of waste in the building process
Chapter 2: What is Construction Management?
Six factors that must be controlled in order to ensure a successful project
Cost: determined through estimate or budget, contract. Change orders, poor weather, unforeseen conditions are challenges. Goal is stay within or below estimates.

Time: determined through schedule and contract. Goal is to complete tasks in timeframe set by schedule.

Quality: determined through contract specifications, punch lists, inspections. Quality standards must be established early in the project.

Safety: THE MOST IMPORTANT. Hazards are always present- fix them!

Scope: determined by architectural program. The ultimate requirement of an owner- functional, well-built, well designed building.

Function: determined by whether a project satisfies both short and long-term needs? Utilization Analysis: Efficiency of the process to be performed in the building.

ENR
Engineering News Record
Agency CM
Fee based service in which the construction manager is responsible exclusively to the owner and acts in the owner’s best interests at every stage in the process. CM does not perform any of the actual construction
Architectural Programming
Defining the owner’s needs.
The owners responsibility.
What is needed to meet their needs?

Who is responsible for what.

Owner ->
Architect & General Contractor
Engineers & Subcontractors

At-Risk CM
General contractor provides both pre-construction services and construction services.

A project delivery method where the CM commits to deliver the project within a guaranteed maximum price.

Benefits:
CM is involved in the project early in the design process.

Option for Value-Engineering input during the design process

Constructability Review during the design process

Constructibility Reviews
A design review process in which experienced contractors and construction managers work with designers to ensure that the details of the design actually can be built in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The process entails review of materials, application, installation techniques, field execution, and building systems.
Construction Management
entails the planning, scheduling, evaluation, and controlling of construction tasks or activities to accomplish specific objectives by effectively allocating and utilizing appropriate labor, materials, and time resources in a manner that minimizes costs and maximizes custimer/owner satisfaction.
Design-Bid-Build
The Traditional Method

Owner hires the Architect to design the structure and produce contract documents

Owner selects the General Contractor
GC selects Subcontractors
Characteristics

Linear structure – no contractor involvement during design

Owner warrants contract documents

Design-Build
Owner contracts with the design/build entity, which is responsible for the design and construction of the project

Advantages:
Ability to fast-track
Early contractor involvement
Single point of contact

Fast Tracking
a practice utilized to speed up a job by overlapping the design phase and the construction phase of a project.

its often applied in design build or construction management project delivery.

Integrated Project Delivery
an project delivery method that contractually engages the contractor responsible for constructing the project at the beginning of the design process. Both design-build and at risk cm are considered this method
Multiple Prime
A contracting methodology in which the owner bypasses the use of a general contractor and enters into multiple separate contracts with trade or specialty contractors for the various sections of the work associated with the project, such as concrete, framing, mechanical, and electrical work. Each of the specialty contractors involved becomes a prime contractor on the project.
Scope of Work
Generally defined in the Plans and Specs

Sets the parameters of the project, and identifies what work needs to get done.

Challenge: Ensure that the scope of the project is being delivered as intended

A well defined scope sets the project in the right direction

Review Questions:
Construction Management as a function:

Construction Management as a project delivery method:

As Function: tasks performed by contractor: estimating, scheduling, cost control, contract administration in order to monitor, manage, and control the work of the contract

As Project Delivery: contractual arrangement where the construction manager is hired by the owner to provide services to the owner such as design review, overall scheduling, cost control, value engineering, constructivtbily reviews, and construction coordination

Three characteristics that make the construction project unique from other industry sector projects:
1. One of a kind structure or facility
2. Different building site
3. building process takes place outside
Four Primary Project Values to be managed, monitered, controlled:
1. time
2. cost
3. quality
4. safety
Why is the ‘scope definition’ so important?
it describes the extent of work that is to be performed by contractor
Project Delivery:
The overall structural or organizational framework used to put all aspects of designing and building a project together
Three Project Delivery Methods & how they differ:
1. Design-Bid-Build: owner has separate contracts with the designer and contractor
2. Design-Build: only one contract between owner and the design-build entity
3. Construction Management: owner holds three contracts: construction manager, designer, contractor
How is Agency CM different from At-Risk CM?
Agency CM: construction manager has no liability for construction and acts only as an advisor to owner

At-Risk: construction manager acts as an advisor to the owner during design phase and is liable for construction

Three ways a design-build entity may be configured:
1. contractor and designer can create an informal partnership
2. full service design-build firm in which the designers and contractors work for the same company
3. or establish a legal joint venture for single project
Eight Functions of Construction Management:
1. estimating
2. contract administration
3. managing jobsite and construction operations
4. planning & scheduling
5. controlling performance
6. managing quality
7. managing safety
8. managing risks
Chapter 4: The Construction Contract:
CSI
Construction Specification Institute

founded in 1948 and serves all major disciplines involved in the design and construction industry.

Developed CSI MasterFormat which is the standard format for construction specifications.

Addendum
part of bidding documents
Change Order
Errors or omissions in the contract documents results in them

result in extra work and/or extra time, both of which result in extra cost to the owner. Change orders should be anticipated on any design-bid-build project.

Contract Documents
Contract documents consist of two major components:
Drawings (Plans) discuss the quantity of the work
Project Manual (Specs) discuss the quality of the work

In a traditional project delivery method, the contractor is typically not involved in the design or production of the contract documents.

GMP
Guaranteed Maximum Price

a variation of the cost-plus-fee contract, and is popular in design-build delivery.

Owner pays cost-plus-fee, but only up to the GMP.

Allows construction to start earlier since a price can be guaranteed before the plans are 100 % complete.

Perspective Drawings
3D drawing showing height width length
Time and Materials
Another name for cost + fee contract
Review Questions:
Two components that make up contract documents:
1. Drawings
2. Project Manual
When did artictects first begin to use drawings to communicate their design intent?
the Renaissance
CAD
Computer Aided Design
Order of Drawings in a Set of Plans:
Civil
Architectural
Structural
Mechanical
Electrical
Plan View:
horizontal cut through structure
Section View:
vertical cut through structure
Detail
Blown up picture of piece of buildinf
Order of importance:
Specifications
Details
Sections
Elevations
Plan

*specifications take precedence over all

Four Sections of a project manual:
1. bidding documents
2. general conditions
3. supplemental conditions
4. technical specifications
CSI Masterformat 2004:
Construction Specification Institute

48 Divisions

Building Insulation under which CSI division:
Division 7: Thermal and Moisture Protection
Four Types of Construction Contracts
1. Lump-Sum
2. Cost-Plus-Fee
3. Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP)
4. Unit-Price
1. Lump-Sum:
Most common type of contract.
Contractor agrees to complete the work for a single, lump-sum fee.
Contract assumes the plans and specs are accurate.
2. Cost-Plus-Fee:
Referred to as a time & materials contract

the owner reimburses the contractor for the labor and material costs of the project plus a fixed fee or percentage of the cost.

Often used when scope is hard to define.

Significant risks to the owner while it guarantees the contractor a profit.

3. Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP):
is a variation of the cost-plus-fee contract, and is popular in design-build delivery.

Owner pays cost-plus-fee, but only up to the GMP.

Allows construction to start earlier since a price can be guaranteed before the plans are 100 % complete.

4. Unit-Price:
Used when work to be performed cannot be accurately measured ahead of time.

Heavy civil and highway type jobs

Contractors apply a unit price to each bid item (e.g. a dollar amount per cubic yard of dirt excavation) and these unit prices are multiplied by the engineers estimate of the quantities.

Engineers estimates are ballpark figures but can be very inaccurate.

If the actual cost is less that the guaranteed cost under a GMP contract:
Owner receives the amount saved
Chapter 5: Project Stages
Needed for estimating
Point of reference
As-Built Drawings
Completed drawings turned over to owner with changes included
Commissioning
Process can be conducted by general contractor, subs under direction of GC, or the architect or engineers involved.

Testing
Training end users

Punch List
a tool used to keep track of loose ends, minor repairs, adjustments, and missing items
Substantial Completion
Punch list completed

Architect determines facility can be utilized for intended purpose

Marks the official end of project and establishes beginning of warranty period

All payments due to contractor are released

Unforeseen Conditions
Working Drawings
final detailed drawings

portion of contract document

Review Questions:
Four Stages of Construction Management after design:
1. Pre-Construction
2. Procurement
3. Construction
4. Post-Construction
Four Stages of the Design Process:
1. Programming and Feasibility
2. Schematic or conceptual design
3. Design development
4. Contract documents
The quality of design drawings and their impact on the quality of construction:
because the contractor has to build in accordance to the plans and change orders need to be submitted if there is an error. Owners would not be happy.
Due Diligence:
Identifying any problems associated with the project early on so that those problems can be factored into decision making during pre-construction
Two procurement instruments used to buy out the construction job:
1. Subcontracts: used to buy labor
2. Purchase Orders: used to buy materials and equipment
On Site Construction Management Team
1. superintendent
2. assistant superintendent
3. field engineers
What marks the official end of a project?
when the architect releases a certificate of substantial completion
Used to keep track of the completion of loose ends, minor repairs, adjustments, and missing items at the end of a project:
a punchlist
Value Engineering & its Purpose
is the process of analyzing the design, products, and materials associated with the project to determine if proposed application, installation, execution is the best approach or solution

purpose is to optimize resources to achieve greater value for money being spent

Why is it so important to have a clear distinction between the project punch out and the warranty period?
the completion of punch out denotes substantial competition of project

If items continually get added, it becomes difficult to mark the end of a project

Chapter 6: Estimating Project Costs
Add-Ons
Taxes, overhead, profit added into estimate after other costs have been calculated
Direct costs
– Costs that actually go into building the facility such as materials, labor, equipment and subcontracts.

“Hard”

Indirect costs
– Expenses incurred in order to manage and deliver the materials, labor, equipment, and subcontracts employed on any job. Often referred to as overhead or general conditions and include supervision, job trailer expense, temporary utilities, testing and inspections, and job photographs, security, etc.

“Soft”

Conceptual estimates
– Used when there are no drawings at all or when you are in the idea or concept stage of a project. Often the owner does no know if they’re project is feasible so they do not wish to start spending money on design.
Factors impacting cost
Size
Complexity
Site location
Time of construction
Quality of work
Market conditions

Management factors: good management can minimize effect of bad estimate

Preliminary estimates
– Used when you have a preliminary set of drawings with overall dimensions and it provides a somewhat higher level of accuracy to establish initial budgets and financing scenarios. However it should never be used to commit to a contract price.
Detailed estimates
– Used whenever you have a complete set of plans and specs. Counts every brick and stick but as accuracy of plans/specs increases, so does the time and effort and skill that is required to complete the estimate.
Digitizer
An electronic pen used with software to assist in quantity takeoff portion of estimating
Lead Time
Amount of time it takes for products or equipment to be delivered to job site
Liquidated Damages
amount of money per day the contractor is required to pay the owner if the project goes over schedule
Quantity Surveyors
People who count up and calculate quantities of materials, labor, and equipment
Query List
developed by estimator

List of questions needing clarification

Scope Sheet
identifies all items of work to be performed under a specific trade or category

ex. masonry, siding

Takeoff
Process of measuring plans to quantify materials, labor, equipment
WBS
Work Breakdown Structure:

establishes the basic building blocks of both the estimate and schedule.
The purpose is to organize and identify the work of the project by breaking down each divisions of work into a separate work package.

Work Packages
A work package is detailed items of work bundled together under a particular trade.
Review Questions:
What is a construction estimate?
summary of probable quantities and costs of materials, labor, equipment, and subcontracts to complete a project including taxes, overhead, profit
Four primary categories of cost in estimate:
1. materials
2. labor
3. equipment
4. subcontracts
How are estimates organized?
1995 CSI- 16 divisions
2004 CSI- 48 divisions
Type of estimate needed when meeting with a client for the first time and they wanted a rough idea about their project cost:
Rough order of magnitude

(ROM)

Four preparation steps taken to start the estimating process:
1. review plans and specs
2. develop query list
3. attend prebid meeting
4. visit site
General Conditions:
same thing as indirect costs

represent expenses incurred in order to deliver and manage materials, labor, equipment, subcontracts employed on any job.

supervision, cleanup, temp utilities, security fencing

Unit of measure used for pricing general conditions:
unit of time: hour, week, or month
Four characteristics exhibited in a quality estimate:
1. correct quantities
2. accurate labor hours
3. correct pricing
4. completeness
5. clear paper trail
6. proper overhead
7. proper profit
8. accurate calculations
When will you know the true accuracy of your estimate?
when the project is complete and costs and expenses have been added up.
Chapter 9: Project Planning and Scheduling
Backward Pass
begins at project must finish date and tells you the latest an activity can start and end to finish on time

late dates

Critical Path
a continuous chain of activities with the longest (combined) overall duration in the network diagram.

Critical to mangament because the critical path determines project duration and any delays along the way

Float/Slack
the amount of time that an activities start can be delayed without impacting completion date
Forward Pass
begins at start date and determines the earliest an activity can start or finish

early dates

Gantt Chart
Uses bars to show the length of each activity

Advantages:
Easy to understand and follow because it relates durations to calendar days

Disadvantage:
Doesn’t show relationships between activities

Network Diagrams
CPM (critical path method)

Advantages:
Shows activity relationships and durations

Disadvantages:
Don’t provide the visual clarity that Gantt Charts provide

Network Logic
you determine what activities must take place, what order they will take place
this results in network logic
Precedence Diagramming
AON Network Diagram
Short-Interval Schedules
LOOK AHEAD SCHEDULES

usually 3 weeks

acts as a work plan for crew on site

Special Purpose Schedule
Keep track of activities that support the work

Delivery schedules
Submittal schedules
Inspection schedules

Review Questions:
Most common types of schedules:
1. Gantt Chart (bar)
2. Network Diagram
Techniques used to create network diagram:
1. AOA- activity on arrow:

Activity is on the Arrow and nodes show relationships

Nodes between activity arrows show the start and end of the connected activities

2. AON- activity on node

Activity is noted on the node and the arrows show relationships

Most commonly used during sequencing stage

Another term for AON
Activity on Node Diagram or Precedence diagram

MOST COMMONLY USED

Lookahead Schedule
developed by superintendents and trade foremen to coordinate the work and activities over a short period of time (two weeks to a month)

often hand drawn
distributed to specific trades

Three stages of network diagram development
1. planning
2. sequencing
3. scheduling
Types of Activities included in schedule
Production: installing siding
Procurement: ordering windows
Administrative: obtaining building permits
Three scheduling activities needed to create critical path and duration
1. Forward Pass
2. Backward Pass
3. Total Float Calculations
Which activities are on critical path
activities with no float are on the critical path
Chapter 10:
Cost Code
reference number assigned to each work activity

based on CSI division and type of cost

Cost Control
Monitoring process used to track variances between actual and planned performance
Crashing the Schedule
compressing the overall schedule by accelerating certain activities within it so that they finish sooner
Earned Value Analysis
used to determine estimated value of work completed and make sure it is inline with the actual work completed
Escalation Clause
a special time clause negotiated in contract when there is suspicion that some pricing component is in a high state (flux). This clause allows for adjustments to be made to the estimate upon current pricing.
Forecast
periodic predictions of final costs and scheduling
Variance
Different between actual projects and planned performance
Review Questions:
Seven Steps in Project Control Cycle
1. develop project plan
2. establish benchmarks
3. monitor performance
4. identify performance deviations
5. evaluate corrective options (working 2 shifts/longer hours)
6. make adjustments
7. document, report, evaluate results
Two essentials of project control system
1. information
2. good reporting system
Three sources used to gather field information needed to develop project control
1. material invoices
2. time cards
3. subcontractor billing statements
Two CM functions needed to receive accurate and complete information from job site
1. field information
2. historical estimating databses
How is a cost code used
used to track all items of work contributing to overall project costs
Three Factors that can impact project performance
1. weather
2. quality of workforce
3. inadequate tools
4. defective models
5. overcrowded job sites
Riskiest element of project planning and control
estimating productivity
What does it mean to forecast in construction- regarding project controls
to predict the final costs and schedule outcomes on a project while work is still in progress.

Construction managers forecast final cost and competition dated on regularly

Chapter 13:
BIM Model
Building Information Modeling
-a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building displayed as 3D model
Clash detention
process for effectively identifying unintended material or system interferences in a 3D model
Central repository approach
Ideal- not practical
All project information can be loaded into one database to create single BIM model
Construction model
Contains construction specific information: cost & scheduling data
Design-intent model
Focuses on communication design information through 3D model
Distributed repository approach
BIM model consists of a collection of separate databases maintained within distinct programs
Review Questions:
Interoperability
the biggest challenge in the industry.

the capability of a system to interaction with other systems without limitations or restrictions

Virtual Construction
process in which a builder simulates, analyses, and plans a building project in a computerized environment before and during the actual construction process to try to avoid problems and accurately predict detailed costs, schedules and physical outcomes.
Difference between 3D CAD and BIM
A BIM Model is attached to a database that holds all pertinent information about the objects that make up a project.

A 3D CAD model is not linked to any database.

4D BIM
scheduling (time)
5D BIM
estimating (cost)
Ways contractors use BIM (10)
1. design visualization
2. design assistance & constructibilyt review
3. operations and maintenance
4. site planning & utilization
5. 4D scheduling
6. 5D estimating
7. integration of subcontractor and supplier data
8. systems coordination
9. layout and fieldwork
10. prefabrication
Stereoscopic Projection
3D video display of a computer-generated virtual reality environment