Construction Management

Advertisement for bids
A public notice, usually published in newspapers, trade magazines, and journals, providing information regarding bidding procedures for public projects.
Best Value
Any selection process by which proposals contain both price and qualitative components and the award is based upon a combination of price and qualitative considerations.
Closed Bid
Used with private projects and is not open to the public. Bidding is by invitation only, via an invitation for bids, to a selected list of contractors
Invitation for bids
A notification sent to a selected list of contractors, furnishing information on the submission of bids on a private project.
Notice to proceed
The owner authorizes the contractor to begin work on a project on a particular day or as soon as possible. This notice is linked to the duration of the project.
Open Bid
A competitive bidding requirement for all public projects. An open bid is one that is advertised publicly and allows any qualified contractor to submit a bid on a project.
Prequalification
The process in which an owner, based upon minimum financial, management, and other qualitative data, determines whether a construction firm is fundamentally qualified to compete for a certain project or class of projects.
Price Proposal
The part of a design-build proposal that stipulates the price at which the design-builder will provide the design and construction services necessary to complete the project.
Public-private partnership
A business venture approach whereby a public sector authority and a private enterprise join forces and combine resources to deliver government projects aimed at serving the public good.
Request for proposals
RFP) A solicitation document, written by the owner requesting pricing and a technical solution for design and/or construction services
Request for qualifications
A document issued by the owner prior to an RFP to solicit contractor or design-builder qualifications. The RFQ may be used by the owner to shortlist potential proposers, or it may be used by itself as the final competitive submittal employed in qualifications-based selection.
Responsive bid (or proposal)
A bid or proposal package that meets all of the requirements of the solicitation instrument.
Shortlisting
Narrowing the field of offers through the selection of the most qualified proposers on the basis of qualifications
Technical proposal
The part of the design-build proposal that contains the conceptual design for the project. It may also include information regarding schedule, team makeup, or overall management plan for the project.
Weighted Criteria
An evaluation method used in best-value selection in which maximum point values are assessed for qualitative and price components of a proposal. Contract award is based upon the highest total points earned.
Why is open bidding required on public projects?
Public projects use public funds which require that certain regulations be followed.
Name a tool used to reduce the number of bidders on a public project and increase the quality of the contractor pool.
Prequalification uses financial, management and other qualitative data to determine whether a contractor is qualified for a job.
What is the purpose of a labor and materials payment bond?
A labor and materials payment bond is a guarantee, backed by a surety, that the labor and materials used in completing a project will be made.
Identify the notice document that informs the public of upcoming construction projects funded with taxpayer dollars.
An advertisement for bids is an announcement, usually posted electronically through a construction leads service, that informs the public of upcoming projects.
Name the three selection methods used to buy construction services, and identify the solicitation instrument used for each one.
• Low-Bid Selection is commonly associated with tradition design-bid-build project delivery and utilizes the invitation for bids.
• Best-Value Selection commonly utilizes a Request for Proposals.
• Qualifications-based selection utilizes a Request for Qualifications.
Which procurement method is the most commonly used today, and what the selection criteria used to determine the winner?
Design-bid-build is the most common used procurement method used and utilized the low-bid selection criteria.
What is the name of the official document that the owner uses to notify the contractor to start construction?
The notice to proceed informs the contractor of when to start construction.
Name the two primary selection criteria categories considered when using the best-value method.
The two primary selection categories are price (quantitative) and technical aspects (qualitative).
Describe how the weighted criteria evaluation process works.
Weighted criteria is a form of best-value selection in which maximum point values are pre-established for qualitative and price components and award is based upon high total points earned by the proposers for both components.
List at least three factors that are commonly considered before deciding to bid on a construction job.
Who the owner is, who the architect is, location of the project, type of project, size of project
Agency CM
A fee based service provided by a construction management company in which the construction manager is responsible exclusively to the owner and acts in the owner’s best interest at all stages of the project. The construction manager offer advice and project management to the owner but is not financially responsible for the construction.
Architectural Programming
The research and decision-making process, initiated by the owner, usually with the help of an architect or other programming specialist, that identifies the basic needs of the client and the parameters of the project to be designed and ultimately built by a construction professional
At-risk CM
A project delivery method where the construction manager acts as a consultant to the owner in the development and design phases but as the equivalent of a general contractor during the construction phase
o GMP (Guaranteed Maximum Price)
Constructability Reviews
Contractors and managers meet with designers to determine if the details of design can actually be built in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Includes reviews of materials, application, installation techniques, field execution and building systems
Construction Management
Planning, scheduling, evaluation and controlling of construction tasks and activities to accomplish specific objectives outlined in the contract documents
Design-Bid-Build
A project delivery method in which the owner holds two contracts; one with the design firm and one with the construction firm. Also known as the traditional project delivery method
Design-Build
A project delivery method in which there is only one contract between the owner and the design-build entity. Also known as single-source project delivery
Fast Tracking
A practice used to speed up the construction process by overlapping the design and construction phases. This method is often applied in design-build or construction management project delivery
Integrated Project Delivery
Any form of project delivery that brings the contractor on board at the onset of the design process
Multiple Prime
A contracting methodology in which the owner bypasses the tradition general contractor and instead chooses to contract the different specialty contractors individually. Ex. Concrete, Framing, Electrical Each of these now becomes a prime contractor
Value Engineering
A process in which various alternative approaches are evaluated and considered regarding design, product selection, or building system in an effort to provide the most efficient, cost-effective solution possible relative to value in response to the desires of the owner
Distinguish between construction management as a function and construction management as a project delivery method.
Construction management as a function entails various tasks performed by the contractor such as estimating, scheduling, cost control, and contract administration in order to monitor, manage and control the work of the contract for which the contractor is obligated. Construction management as a project delivery method is a contractual arrangement whereby the construction manager is hired by the owner to provide services to the owner, such as design review, overall scheduling, cost control, value engineering, constructability reviews, and construction coordination. Under CM project delivery, the construction manager may or may not be financially obligated to carry out the construction work itself.
Identify at least three characteristics that make the construction project unique from other industry sector projects.
Every construction project is a one-of-a-kind facility. They are in and of themselves the prototype and the finished project.
o The workforce consists of primarily transient practitioners of various trades coming in and out of the project at various stages. The work is done by human hands.
o Materials are nature made and react to hot, cold and humidity on a daily basis.
Name the four primary project values to be managed, monitored, and controlled.
Time, Safety, Quality, Cost
Why is scope definition so important in the construction process?
Scope definition gives us the target to shoot for. The ultimate goal is end-user satisfaction and without proper scope we would be unable to determine the space, materials, and design the user desires.
What is meant by the term project delivery?
Project delivery is the means by which the construction will take place.
o The process by which all the procedures and components of designing and building a facility are organized and put together in an agreement that results in a completed project.
Identify the three primary project delivery methods and discuss how they differ contractually.
Design-bid-build
• Owner contracts a designer/engineer
• Owner contracts the GC
o Design-Build
• Owner contracts the GC
• GC contracts Designer/Engineering -or-
• Owner contracts the Designer
• Designer contracts the GC -or-
• Owner contracts a GC/Designer firm -or-
• Owner contracts both the GC and Designer under one contract
o Construction Management
• Owner contracts with CM to oversee process
• Owner contracts with GC
• Owner Contracts with design team
Explain how agency CM is different from at-risk CM.
Agency CM is a fee-based contract with the owner to oversee the design and construction of a project while keeping the owner’s interests in mind while an at-risk CM is contracted by the owner to oversee the design phase but then assumes the risk building the project by guaranteeing to keep cost at or below GMP.
What is meant by the term fast tracking?
Beginning the building process prior to all the plans being done in order to accelerate the process.
Name the three basic ways in which a design-build entity may be configured.
Designer and Contractor Partnership
• Most prevalent form of design build
• Owner contracts either the design firm or the construction firm. The remaining entity then becomes a subcontractor of the prime contract holder.
o Full-Service Design-Build Firm
• The construction professionals and design professionals are one company under the same roof.
o Joint Venture
• Similar to the designer and contractor partnership the only difference being that both companies are at-risk within a prime contract.
Identify eight functions of the construction management.
o Estimating the project
o Administering the contract
o Managing job site and construction operations
o Planning and scheduling the project
o Monitoring daily performance
o Managing project quality
o Managing project safety
o Assessing project risks
Base Isolators
shock absorbers placed in a building foundation to allow movement without causing damage
Brownfield Sites
reclaiming and building on sites that have been previously abandoned or underused because of historic environmental contamination
Constructability Review
reviewing the plans to determine if it is feasible to build
Cofferdam
temporary watertight structure that allows for construction to occur in a water free environment
Curtain wall
exterior cladding structure that is entirely supported by the frame of the building rather than being self-supporting or load bearing E.g. – like hang a puzzle on an exterior of a building
Infrastructure
the basic roadways, bridges, and railroad networks that support a community or society
Lean principles
principles that focus on creating more value for customers with less work and the elimination of waste
Program
the start of every design. A written statement that identifies and describes an owner or end user’s needs and requirements for a facility
Project delivery
a comprehensive process by which a building, facility or structure is designed and constructed
Self-performed work
Non-contracted work, work that the general contractor completes themselves with their own force or labor
Slip forms
concrete forms that slide up a wall as more of it is completed
Specifications
the written instructions from an architect or engineer accompanying the project plans pertaining to the quality of materials and workmanship required for the project
What is the name of the first building code?
Code of Hammurabi – not only the first building code but set of laws for a community
By what specific measurement is construction used as an economic indicator for the U.S. economy?
Housing starts are measured by building permits issued and are a major indicator reflecting the overall health and direction of the economy
What are the five primary sectors of the construction industry?
Residential, commercial, heavy civil, industrial, environmental
What is the name of the organization credited with promoting construction management as a legitimate and unique area of study at four-year universities?
Representatives from nine universities met in Florida in 1965 to form the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC).
What is the role of the owner in the construction process?
Owners are the driving force of the construction industry
What is the name of the weekly magazine dedicated solely to the construction industry?
Engineering News Record (ENR)
Name three associations affiliated with the construction instustry?
o American Institute of Constructors (AIC)
o Associated General Contractors of America (AGC)
o United States Green Building Council (USGBC)
o The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)
What does LEED stand for, and what is its purpose?
Leadership in Engineering and Environmental Design – Its purpose is to evaluate environmental performance from a “whole building” perspective over a building’s life cycle.
What two construction associations offer voluntary certification programs for construction managers?
o The Construction Management Association of America (CMAA)
o The American Institute of Constructors (AIC)
What is lean construction, and from what industry does its concepts stem?
Lean construction is construction practice that prioritize the customers needs while expediting efficiency and waste control. This concept stems from the auto industry.