Comparative Management

Management
A set of activities directed at an organizations resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner
Comparative Management
Analyses the similarities and differences between various management practices and business systems
Three approaches to Comparative Management
Universalistic
Economic Cluster
Cultural Cluster
Management Functions
Planning, Leading, Organising, Controlling (PLOC)
Management Levels
Top, Middle, First Line
Management Styles
Autocratic or particpatory
Performance Dimensions
Effiency and effectiveness
Organisational Innovastion
Ideal Champion > Sponsor > Orchestrator = Innovation
Culture
Learned, shared, transgenerational, symbolic, patterned, adaptive
Hofstendes Dimensions of Culture
Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, Masc/Fem, Short/Long term orientation
Power Distance
The extent to which less powerful members of institutions accept that power is distributed unequally
Uncertainty Avoidance
The threat of ambiguous situations
Individualism
Tendancy to look after themselves and their immediate family only
Trompenaars Five Dimensions
Individualism Vs Communitarianism
Universalism Vs Particularism
Neutral Vs Emotional
Specific Vs Diffuse
Achievement vs Ascription
Particularism
The belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied
Specific Vs Diffuse
In specific individuals have a larger public space and a small private space, in diffuse both are of similar size
Ascription
Status is attributed based on who or what a person is
Parochialism
being narrow in scope
Ethnocentric
Ethnocentric is a staffing policy that is used in companies that has primarily international strategic orientation. This policy is generally adopted by headquarters by sending employees from the home or parent countries to the host country. This approach is used best in some situations such as, a team is sent from the home country to help setting up a new plant as well as train subsidiary personnel to use new system.
Polycentric
Polycentric is the policy involved hiring and promoting employees who are citizens of the host countries that the subsidiary is operated. This policy is best used when companies want to keep hiring cost low. Moreover, employees who are hired at subsidiary level would not have any problem adapting to the culture
Regiocentric
Regiocentric staffing policy involves hiring and promoting employees based on specific regional context where subsidiary is located. This approach is used when regional employees are needed for important positions.
Geocentric
Geocentric staffing approach is used when companies adopt a transnational orientation. It is best used when companies need the best personnel to work at subsidiary. Employees are selected regardless where they come from. This staffing strategy is reliable for all subsidiaries because best employees are selected and sent from the company’s worldwide network.
Organisational Culture
Set of norms, climate and philosophy on treatment of employees and customers
Communication Process
Sender Meaning > Encoding > Medium > Decoding > Receiver Interpretation > feedback
Communication Flow
Downwards(Transmission of information from manager to subordinate) and Upwards (From subordinate to superior)
Contextual Communication
Focuses on the speaker and the relationship of the parties, highly formal. (High power distance, high context)
Personal Communication
Reduces barriers, commonly uses first names and informality (Low Power Distance, Individualistic)
Indirect Communication
Where the message is transfered through alternative means (Glances, bodylanguage)[High Context]
Direct Communication
Mass of information and communication is explicitly said (Low context)
Nonverbal Communication
Kinesics, Proxemics, CHronemics, Heptics, Chromatics
Proxemics
Using Physical space to convey messages
Chronemics
The way in which time is used in culture
Kinesics
Study of communication through body movement, facial expressions, eye movement and contact
Heptics
Communication through the use of bodily contact
Chromatics
The use of color to communicate messages
Negociation Strategies
Domination, Compromise, Integration/Problem Solving
Conflict Resolution
Determine who has more power, determine who is right, balance interests
Primary factors for strategy selection
Outcome, perception, actions, reputation and relationship
BATNA
Best alternative to a negociated agreement
Decision making styles
Democratic, Autocratic or delegated
Ethics
The standard of right and wrong which ought to be accepted by individuals
Morality
the standards that a person or society have or profess they have
Corporate Governance
Distribution of rights and responsibilities, rules and procedures for making decisions.
Cultural Relitivism
The values and ethical system of each society is neither better nor worse than the values and ethical system of any other society
Corporate Social Responsibility
The actions of a firm to benefit society beyond the requirements of law and the direct interest of the firm