Comp Exam #1

Sarah is a busy real estate agent with a growing clientele. She is looking to purchase a new computer and software so that she can keep track of her client’s accounts, access the Internet from anywhere in the city, and touch up photos of real estate properties.

Sarah has hired a programmer to create a Web page for her business. What type of programming language will the programmer most likely use?

XHTML
Jamie is interested in pursuing some aspect of computer technology as a career. He is very comfortable working with PCs and has a broad knowledge of the typical systems and applications software that people use. He has always enjoyed working closely with people and has a good facility for explaining how technical systems work.

From the description provided, what type of computer-related job would Jamie probably enjoy the most?

computer operations personnel
A(n) ____ is a computer used to host programs and data for a network
midrange server
Many schools, particularly college campuses, today have wireless ____ that allow students to connect their devices wirelessly to the Internet and to campus resources from anywhere on campus
hotspots
Some languages are traditional programming languages for developing applications; others, such as markup and scripting languages like HTML, XHTML, and ____, are designed to be used to create Web pages
javascript
To contact people using the Internet, you most often use their ____.
e-mail address
By their very nature, online communications lend themselves to ____.
anonymity
____ is typically free and virtually all ISPs used with personal computers include e-mail service in their monthly fee
web-based email
____ are illustrations of faces showing smiles, frowns, and other expressions that are created with keyboard symbols.
emoticons
Integrated circuits incorporate many transistors and electronic circuits on a single tiny silicon chip, allowing ____ to be even smaller and more reliable than earlier computers.
third-generation computers
A ____ is loosely defined as a small device that has built-in computing or Internet capability.
mobile device
Access control at many businesses and organizations is provided by ____, which allow only authorized individuals to enter an office building, punch in or out of work, or access the company network via an access card or a fingerprint or hand scan.
authentication systems
There are a number of special Web pages, called ____, available to help you locate what you are looking for on the Internet.
search sites
Ultraportables conforming to Intel’s standards can be marketed as ____.
ultrabooks
In the early 1980s, ____ were invented and computer use increased dramatically.
microcomputers
A personal computer or PC, originally called a ____, is a small computer designed to be used by one person at a time.
microcomputer
Sarah is a busy real estate agent with a growing clientele. She is looking to purchase a new computer and software so that she can keep track of her client’s accounts, access the Internet from anywhere in the city, and touch up photos of real estate properties.

What kind of computer would most likely fit Sarah’s needs?

a notebook computer
___ occurs when data is entered into the computer.
input
Because many mobile devices and personal computers today are continually connected to the Internet, securing those devices against computer viruses and ____ is essential for both individuals and businesses.
hackers
When data is processed into a meaningful form, it becomes ____.
information
Magnetic RAM (MRAM) uses ____ rather than an electrical charge to store data.
magnetic
Video data—such as home movies, feature films, video clips, and television shows—is displayed using a collection of ____.
frames
Like graphics data, ____—such as a song or the sound of someone speaking—must be in digital form in order to be stored on a storage medium or processed by a computer.
audio data
One measurement of the speed of a CPU is the ____, which is rated in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).
CPU clock speed
The bus width and bus speed together determine the bus’s ____.
bandwidth
Jess is a musician who has just bought a new computer. Now she need to figure out how to connect this computer to the devices that were connected to her old computer.

Jess has pictures from her old computer saved on a flash memory card. To transfer these to her new computer, she will insert the card into a(n) ____.

slot
Eight bits grouped together are collectively referred to as a ____.
byte
To synchronize all of a computer’s operations, a ____, which is located on the motherboard, is used.
system clock
One reason a computer might become inefficient is that when programs are uninstalled, pieces of the program are sometimes left behind or references to these programs are left in operating system files such as the ____.
Windows registry
____ have begun to replace ROM for storing system information, such as a computer’s BIOS.
flash memory chips
A computer ____ is the amount of data (typically measured in bits or bytes) that a CPU can manipulate at one time.
word
The key element of the microprocessor is the ____—a device made of semiconductor material that controls the flow of electrons inside a chip.
transistor
The ____ takes instructions from the prefetch unit and translates them into a form that the control unit can understand.
decode unit
A circuit board is a thin board containing ____ and other electronic components.
computer chips
Each place value in a binary number represents ____ raised to the appropriate power.
2
Jess is a musician who has just bought a new computer. Now she need to figure out how to connect this computer to the devices that were connected to her old computer.

To connect her external hard drive, in which all of her music files are stored, to the computer, Jess needs to use a ____.

USB port
To connect multiple USB devices to a single USB port, a ____ can be used.
USB hub
The JPEG images taken by most digital cameras today use 24-bit ____.
true color images
The term ____ refers to chip-based storage.
memory
The numbering system we commonly use is called the decimal numbering system because it uses ____ symbols to represent all possible numbers.
10
Often the storage device and storage medium are two separate pieces of hardware (that is, the storage medium is ____).
removable
The ____ cards used with mobile phones today are a special type of smart card.
SIM
CD-ROM discs and DVD-ROM discs are ____ optical discs that come prerecorded with commercial products.
read-only
Most Windows computers typically use ____, which supports much larger hard drives and files than the older FAT32 and includes better security and error-recovery capabilities.
NTFS
____ is a method of storing data on two or more hard drives that work together.
RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks)
The surface of a hard disk is organized into tracks and pie-shaped groups of ____.
sectors
Hard disks are permanently sealed inside the hard drive case, along with the ____ and an access mechanism.
read/write heads
Dan is a small business owner who depends on his computer to keep track of customer and sales data. He is investigating storage options because it is critical for him to ensure that his data is safe in the event of a computer failure.

As Dan is very concerned about maintaining the security of his business data, he should look for an external hard drive that comes with built-in ____.

encryption
___ means that data can be retrieved directly from any location on the storage medium, in any order.
random access
Enterprise storage systems typically use fast Fibre Channel or ____ connections and are scalable so more hard drives can be added as needed up to the maximum system capacity.
iSCI
To speed up magnetic hard drive performance, ____ is often used.
disk caching
Most computer tapes today are in the form of ____ tapes.
cartridge
Anything (such as a program, letter, digital photograph, or song) stored on a storage medium is referred to as a(n) ____.
file
Rodney owns a computer that he uses to work, keep in touch with friends and family, watch movies, listen to music, and use the Internet.

Rodney wants to be able to easily carry files with him wherever he goes but he also has a tendency to lose things. Knowing this, he should probably save those files on a ____ drive which he can then attach to his backpack.

USB flash
Conventional CD discs use ____ lasers.
infrared
To keep files organized, related documents are often stored in ____ (also called directories) located on the storage medium.
folders
Rodney owns a computer that he uses to work, keep in touch with friends and family, watch movies, listen to music, and use the Internet.

If Rodney wants to be able to write, erase, and overwrite the files on a CD, he should get a ____.

CD-RW
Some drive letters, such as the letter ____ that is typically used with the primary hard drive, are usually consistent from computer to computer and do not change even if more storage devices are added to the computer.
C
A ____ is a place to store something temporarily.
cache
___ devices are high-performance storage systems that are connected individually to a network to provide storage for the computers connected to that network.
network attached storage (NAS)
A ____ is an optical code that represents data with bars of varying widths or heights.
barcode
Print speed is typically measured in ____.
pages per minute (ppm)
A(n) ____ is a flat, touch-sensitive device used in conjunction with a digital pen.
graphics tablet
Some 3D projectors are designed to project ____.
holograms
Stacey is the office manager for a small business and is looking for a new printer and scanner for her office.

When buying a scanner, Stacey needs to make sure that the scanner has a high enough ____, usually measured in the number of dots per inch (dpi), for the business needs of the office.

optical resolution
Touch screens allow the user to touch the screen with his or her finger to select ____ or otherwise provide input to the device associated with the touch screen.
commands
A ____ typically rests on the desk or other flat surface close to the user’s computer, and it is moved across the surface with the user’s hand in the appropriate direction to point to and select objects on the screen.
mouse
In a printer, the print ____ affects the quality of the printed output.
resolution
___ are designed to scan flat objects one page at a time.
flatbed scanners
__ input data from special forms to score or tally exams, questionnaires, ballots, and so forth.
optical mark readers (OMRs)
A ____ is a large screen computer either built into a table or designed to be used on a table that allows multi-touch input from multiple users.
table PC
One of the most common 2D barcodes, the ____ code represents data with a matrix of small squares.
QR
The most common HD format is 1080p, which uses a screen resolution of 1,920 Χ 1,080 and displays screen images one line at a time, called ____.
progressive display
Digital camcorders are similar to conventional ____ camcorders.
analog
___ keys on a keyboard are used for issuing commands in some programs.
function
The ____ used to be the norm for desktop computers.
CRT monitor
The number of bits used to store color information about each pixel is called ____.
bit-depth
A(n) ____ uses a printhead consisting of pins that strike an inked ribbon to transfer the ink to the paper.
dot-matrix printer
Digital still cameras most often use ____ cards for storage.
flash memory
___ are the standard for business documents and come in both personal and network versions.
laser printers
Creating a(n) ____ means making a duplicate copy of important files so that when a problem occurs, you can restore those files using the copy.
backup
____ allow the user to issue commands by selecting icons, buttons, menu items, and other objects—typically with a mouse, pen, or finger.
graphical user interfaces
The ____ boots the computer, launches application software, and ensures that all actions requested by a user are valid and processed in an orderly fashion.
operating system
To restore a file or folder deleted from your computer’s hard drive, open the ____ and restore the file.
recycle bin
___ is the most widely used mobile operating system in the United States.
android
A ____ is an area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way in or out of the computer system.
buffer
___ memory allows you to use more memory than is physically available on your computer.
virtual
Dean has been using computers for some time now, but he is unfamiliar with a number of utility programs. In order to better maintain his computer, he decides to ask his coworker Andrea for advice on basic utility programs.

Andrea tells Dean that he should periodically perform ____ on his computer to optimize the hard drive so that it works more efficiently. This process works by rearranging the data on the hard drive so all files are stored in contiguous locations.

disk defragmentation
___ is one of the most widely-used versions of Linux.
Ubuntu
Filenames typically include a ____ at the end of the filename.
file extension
In DOS, the command ____ displays the files and folders in the current location.
DIR
An important task that the operating system performs is ____, which keeps track of the files stored on a computer so that they can be retrieved when needed.
file management
All programs and data located in RAM are divided into fixed-length ____ or variable-length segments, depending on the operating system being used.
pages
During the 1980s and early 1990s, ____ was the dominant operating system for microcomputers.
DOS (Disk Operating System)
Janet is studying operating systems as part of her Understanding Computers 101 class. After learning about the different types of operating systems, she realizes that she uses a number of them in her daily life.

Janet recently purchased a new Apple computer. The operating system of that computer is ____.

OS X
Windows 10 replaces older mobile versions of Windows, including ____ and Windows RT, as well as older embedded versions of Windows.
Windows phone 8
___ are designed to be used with everyday objects, such as home appliances, gaming consoles, digital cameras, e-readers, digital photo frames, ATMs, toys, watches, GPS systems, home medical devices, voting terminals, and cars.
embedded operating systems
Chrome OS is the first ____.
cloud operating system
The file management program incorporated into recent versions of Windows is ____.
file explorer
___ includes all the programs that allow you to perform specific tasks on your computer, such as writing a letter.
application software