Communications

Which of the following is most likely to account for your tendency to overlook the faults of your new romantic partner?

Answers:
A. gender roles
B. occupational roles
C. relational roles
D. cultural roles
E. none of the above

C
The Pillow Method is designed to
A. minimize an issue.
B. settle a dispute.
C. persuade someone to accept your viewpoint.
D. punctuate the cause and effect of an argument.
E. gain insight into another’s viewpoint.
E
Social scientists generally agree that there are four components to the phenomena we label as “feelings.” They are
Selected Answer:

A. physical changes, mental recognition, and verbal description.
B. stimulus, proprioception, emotional contagion, and response.
C. sensing, organizing, interpreting, and encoding.
D. physiological changes, nonverbal reactions, cognitive interpretations, and verbal expression.
E. verbal and nonverbal manifestations, physical depression, and catharsis.

D
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Correct
Identity and communication are related in that we
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. are drawn to communicators who test and challenge our identity.
B. find others’ identities become our own through communication.
C. control communication with our identity.
D. gain an idea of who we are from the way others communicate with us.

D
Which of the following is the best advice for expressing your emotions?
Selected Answer:
Answers:
A. Express your feelings as soon as they occur.
B. Accept responsibility for your own feelings.
C. Recognize that feeling and acting out the feeling are the same.
D. Express only primary feelings.
E. Tell yourself you shouldn’t feel bad.
B
The ability to manage identities in different settings and cultures is a feature of
Selected Answer:

A. social exchange theory.
B. high self-esteem.
C. too much self-disclosure.
D. equivocation.
E. communication competence.

E
Self-talk
Selected Answer:

A. can be facilitative or debilitative.
B. can determine how you feel.
C. includes identifying an event, your thought, and feeling.
D. allows you to have control over how you feel.
E. includes all of the above.

e
is the term described in the text as the process of managing and sometimes suppressing emotions.
Selected Answer:

A. Rumination
B. Reappraisal
C. Rational emotive therapy
D. Emotion labor
E. None of the above

d
Correct
People who hold excessively negative self-evaluations of themselves may do so due to
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. distorted feedback.
B. society’s emphasis on perfection.
C. obsolete information.
D. social expectations.
E. all of the abov

e
Relational dimensions of a message
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. are all that matter.
B. make statements about how the parties feel toward one another.
C. are usually expressed verbally rather than nonverbally.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.

b
The Johari Window is an important device to help explore the role
Selected Answer:

A. affection needs play in strong relationships.
B. interpretation plays in clarifying understanding.
C. feedback plays in negative relationships.
D. coding plays in communication.
E. self-disclosure plays in communication.

e
According to the text, which of the following is good advice about self-disclosure?
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. Wait for the other person to open up before you do.
B. Self-disclosure is most productive when delivered in a constructive manner.
C. Most relationships are characterized by almost constant amounts of self-disclosure.
D. The more self-disclosure, the better.
E. It’s best to accompany each piece of negative self-disclosure with a compliment to soften any hurt.

b
A particularly powerful form of debilitative self-talk that tends to increase sadness, anxiety, and depression is
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. deliberation.
B. rumination.
C. obsessing.
D. emotional memorizing.
E. none of the above.

b
The authors describe some of the social needs we strive to fulfill by communicating as
Selected Answer:

A. communicating both verbally and nonverbally.
B. empathy and sympathy.
C. encoding and decoding.
D. control and affection.
E. talking and listening.

d
We notice some stimuli over others in our environment because they are
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. singular.
B. mild.
C. contrasting or changing.
D. related to modular communication.

c
Which of the following does not characterize identity management?
Selected Answer:
A. It is always deliberate
B. Not all behavior is aimed at making impressions.
C. Collaboration in identity management doesn’t mean the same thing as agreement.
D. We construct multiple identities.
E. Identity management is collaborative.
a
According to your text, one reason people don’t express feelings is
Selected Answer:

A. it’s a waste of time.
B. many people rarely have feelings.
C. they lack awareness of their emotions.
D. interpretations are easier to understand.
E. they are rarely asked to do so.

c
Which of the following does the text offer as a guideline for expressing emotions?
Selected Answer:

A. Let others know that they have caused you to feel a certain way.
B. The sooner a feeling is shared, the better.
C. Try to avoid getting too emotional.
D. Try to avoid sharing negative feelings whenever possible.
E. Share multiple feelings when appropriate.

e
How is emotional intelligence defined in the text?
Selected Answer:

A. the ability to accept responsibility for our feelings
B. the ability to share multiple feelings
C. the ability to change negative self-talk to positive
D. a measure that indicates you have a large emotional vocabulary
E. the ability to understand and manage one’s own emotions and be sensitive to others’ feelings

e
Privacy management means
Selected Answer:

A. the choices we make to reveal or conceal information about ourselves.
B. weighing the pros and cons of self-disclosing.
C. making a conscious and deliberate decision to self-disclose.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.

d
In mainstream U.S. society, we don’t express our emotions very well or very frequently because
Selected Answer:

A. of inadequate self-concepts.
B. of social rules and roles.
C. we recognize so many emotions.
D. self-disclosure is already high enough.
E. others put us down.

b
in order to understand another person’s perception of a problem, it is necessary to
Selected Answer:

A. assume that person’s social role.
B. spend time in that person’s culture or subculture.
C. experience that person’s physiological differences.
D. all of the above.
E. none of the above.

e
Which of the following is not true about the effect of gender on emotions?
Selected Answer:

A. Women are more attuned to emotions than men, both within and across cultures.
B. Fathers mask their emotions more than mothers do, according to one study.
C. Women are less likely to use emoticons such as J in online communication.
D. Women express more affection on Facebook than men do.
E. All of the above are true about the effect of gender on emotions.

c
Research on the benefits and challenges of social media indicates that
Selected Answer:

A. some benefits of communicating via social media significantly outweigh the costs.
B. social media sites do not increase the amount of contact with loved ones.
C. the use of social media to communicate maximizes the perception of differences due to gender, age, social class, and ethnicity.
D. social media adds richness to interpersonal messages due to the lack of nonverbal cues.
E. all of the above.

a
An interpersonal relationship differs from an impersonal one because
Selected Answer:

A. we share our thoughts and feelings with each other.
B. the other person’s life affects ours.
C. we are sad when the relationship changes or ends.
D. we find the time spent in the relationship rewarding.
E. all of the above.

e
All of the following are alternatives to self-disclosure except
Selected Answer:

A. silence
B. lying
C. equivocation
D. hinting
E. reciprocity

e
Equivocating can be advantageous because it
Selected Answer:

A. can save face for both the sender and receiver.
B. provides an alternative to lying.
C. spares the receiver from embarrassment.
D. spares the teller from feeling guilty.
E. All of these answers are correct or true.

e
Which of the following factors might contribute to different environments?
Selected Answer:

A. experience
B. age
C. income level
D. ethnic group
E. all of the above

e
Using the skill of perception checking will help prevent
Selected Answer:

A. negative self-fulfilling prophecies.
B. physiological noise.
C. inaccurate decoding of messages.
D. excessive feedback.
E. none of the above.

c
When deciding how much to disclose, you should consider
Selected Answer:

A. if the other person is important to you.
B. whether the amount and type of disclosure is appropriate.
C. whether you have a moral obligation to do so.
D. whether the risk is reasonable.
E. All are factors to consider.

e
The social penetration model by Altman and Taylor
Selected Answer:

A. shows ways in which a relationship can be more or less intimate.
B. suggests how relationships can operate on superficial or more personal levels.
C. defines a relationship in terms of its breadth and depth.
D. helps identify why certain relationships are strong or weak.
E. All of these answers are correct.

e
All of the following are parts of the procedure for dealing with debilitative feelings except which one?
Selected Answer:

A. Record your self-talk.
B. Identify the activating event.
C. Analyze your motives.
D. Monitor your emotional reactions.
E. Dispute your irrational beliefs.

c
The tendency to seek and attend to information that conforms to an existing self-concept has been labeled

A. the stability hypothesis.
B. the weak spine phenomenon.
C. reflected appraisal.
D. significance posturing.
E. cognitive conservatism.

e
The term that refers to men and women possessing a mixture of traits that have previously been considered exclusively masculine or feminine is
Selected Answer:

A. analogous.
B. adaptable.
C. chauvinistic.
D. androgynous.
E. rhetorically sensitive.

d
The kind of person you believe yourself to be is called the

A. desired self.
B. perceived self.
C. myth of self.
D. presenting self.
E. transient self.

b
Effective communicators have been found to
Selected Answer:

A. exhibit unique behaviors more often than less effective communicators.
B. have a consistent set of five behaviors they can call up at will.
C. frequently rehearse about 20 behaviors until they get them right for any interaction.
D. exhibit behaviors that are predictable by their partners.
E. have a wide range of behaviors from which to choose.

e
Correct
A self-fulfilling prophecy is
Selected Answer:

A. an accurate prediction about another’s behavior, based on background knowledge.
B. a prediction about one’s own behavior, based on past experience.
C. a prediction that affects the outcome of one’s own or another’s behavior.
D. a mistaken prediction which fails to occur.
E. none of the above.

c
To say that identity management is collaborative means that

A. both people communicating agree with each other.
B. each person creates an identity in response to the other’s behavior.
C. each person creates a similar identity.
D. both people decide on their identities together.
E. none of the above.

b
Noise in the communication process is

A. more than one communicator talking at a time.
B. the process of maintaining direct eye contact or not.
C. the process of translating thoughts into words.
D. the nonverbal behaviors that accompany communication.
E. any force that interferes with effective communication.
Question 50

e
According to your text, all of the following are reasons people choose to be somewhat deceitful in relationships except

A. to save face.
B. to empower others.
C. to guide social interaction.
D. to manage resources.
E. to avoid conflict.

b
Which of the following statements is not true?
Selected Answer:

A. People agree about what smells good or bad.
B. People’s sensitivity to temperature varies significantly.
C. Odors that please some people repel others.
D. Men have mood cycles of ups and downs.
E. All of the above are true.

a
According to your text, all of the following are ways that can help in changing your self-concept except

A. seeking advice from books and others.
B. being realistic in how you perceive yourself.
C. determining what may be inaccurate feedback from others.
D. being willing to change.
E. comparing yourself to people in the mass media.

e
All of the following are schemes by which we classify people except
Selected Answer:

A. social roles.
B. psychological traits.
C. interaction style.
D. membership.
E. beliefs.

e
The textbook authors suggest that communication through social media can be hard to accurately interpret because

Selected Answer:

A.
it lacks important nonverbal cues that convey additional meaning.
B.
in online messages people tend to speak before they think.
C.
it is more expressive than face to face communication.
D.
it is more permanent than face to face communication.

a
Correct
The communication strategies people use to influence how others view them is the process of

A. social ethics.
B. manipulation.
C. identity management.
D. ego-video.
E. reflected appraisal.

c
The process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and would not normally be known by others is
Selected Answer:

A. equivocation.
B. reciprocity.
C. social penetration.
D. self-disclosure.
E. intimacy.

d
hich of the following is a channel for communication?
Selected Answer:

A. touching
B. writing
C. gesturing
D. talking
E. all of the above

e
Some of the characteristics that make relationships more interpersonal than impersonal are
Selected Answer:

A. frequency and proximity of communication.
B. how important the content of talk is to both of you.
C. quantity over quality.
D. uniqueness, irreplaceability, and interdependence.

d
The best predictor of being able to detect and interpret emotional expressions is

A. foreign travel.
B. academic background.
C. cultural similarity.
D. biological sex.
E. none of the above.

d
Correct
The process whereby people influence each other’s perceptions and attempt to achieve a shared perspective is called

A. negotiation.
B. differentiation.
C. narration.
D. relationship building.
E. organization.

a
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What health threats can result from a lack of close relationships?

A. more likely to experience a higher rate of accidents
B. more susceptible to the common cold
C. more likely to die prematurely
D. b and c
E. all of the above

d
An empty feeling in the pit of your stomach, tense muscles, and headaches are examples of the emotional component labeled

A. rational-emotive therapy.
B. environment.
C. cognitive interpretations.
D. physiological factors.
E. nonverbal reactions.

d
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Of the following, what is not considered a benefit of self-disclosure?

A. self-validation
B. self-clarification
C. reciprocity
D. increased likeability

d
Using the pillow method can
Selected Answer:

A. enhance cognitive complexity.
B. boost empathy.
C. lead to valuable insights.
D. b & c
E. all of the above

e
A “significant other” as discussed in Chapter 2 of your text is best defined as

Answers:
A.
a powerful adult.
B.
a person who is likely to or has affected one’s self-concept.
C.
a totally supportive person.
D.
an extremely negative influence.
E.
all of the above.

b
Quadrants of the Johari Window are

A. open, closed, neutral, unknown.
B. open, hidden, neutral, unknown.
C. broad, narrow, blind, unknown.
D. open, narrow, blind, unknown.
E. open, hidden, blind, unknown.

e
The steps in the perception process are

A. assumption, experience, expectation.
B. selection, organization, interpretation.
C. response, action, interaction.
D. initial, intermediate, final.
E. physical, psychological, experimental.

b
The term “self-concept” refers to
Selected Answer:

Answers:
A. the sum of one’s physiological, social, and psychological attributes as perceived by an impartial observer.
B. the way an individual believes others perceive her/him.
C. the total of an individual’s own beliefs about his/her physical characteristics, intelligence, aptitudes, and social skills.
D. the sum of one’s psychological, social, and physical attributes as perceived by a significant other.
E. none of the above.

c
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Two things that distinguish facilitative feelings from debilitative ones are

A. intensity and duration.
B. longevity and interpretation.
C. interpretation and intention.
D. intention and intensity.
E. emotions and behavior.

a
Correct
The characteristic ways you think and behave across a variety of situations describes your

A. self-concept.
B. personality.
C. self-esteem.
D. self-worth.
E. none of the above.

b
Correct
According to your text, the first step in minimizing your debilitative emotions is to

A. monitor your emotional reactions.
B. dispute your irrational beliefs.
C. confront the person who caused them.
D. note the activating event.
E. record your self-talk.

a
Empathy is related to perception in that

A. the more perceptive you are, the less empathetic you need be.
B. the more perceptive you are, the easier it is to forget to be empathetic.
C. empathy is facilitated by trying to perceive things from the other person’s point of view.
D. empathy and perception are both a result of self-fulfilling prophecies.

c
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Skillful, integrated communicators are characterized by

A. a greater degree of sociability.
B. a conscious focus on communicating effectively.
C. communicating competently without needing to think constantly about how to behave.
D. exposure to a wide range of communication styles.
E. others helping them out.

c
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The transactional model of communication is considered a more accurate model than previous ones because
Selected Answer:

A. people send and receive messages simultaneously.
B. we cannot isolate a single “act” of communication from the event that came before and after it.
C. the communication created results from the way partners interact.
D. none of the above.
E. all of the above.

e
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The process whereby the self-concept develops due to the way we believe others see us is called

A. distortion.
B. feedback.
C. social comparison.
D. reflected appraisal.
E. other-imposed prophecy.

d
According to your text, “ego-boosters and busters” are
Selected Answer:

A. ways to predict how children will become good or bad readers.
B. intentionally vague labels we give to mask true self-concepts.
C. the two essential elements of self-concept development.
D. people or messages that influence the self-concept positively or negatively.
E. examples of how people ruin their self-concepts by taking drugs.

d
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The three types of noise that can block communication are

A. sociological, psychological, and communicational.
B. mass communicational, personal, and transactional.
C. loud, moderate, and soft.
D. external, physiological, and psychological.
E. linear, interactional, and transactional.

d
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Emotions that we experience are a result of

A. our own temperaments.
B. beliefs we hold.
C. self-talk.
D. emotional memories.
E. all of the above.

e
Correct
Almost all messages have

A. a relational dimension.
B. both content and relational dimensions.
C. no dimensions unless the communicators intend them to.
D. a content dimension.

b
Correct
The concept of self-fulfilling prophecy relates best to which of these perceptual tendencies?

A.
We are influenced by the obvious.
B.
We cling to first impressions.
C.
We judge ourselves more charitably than others.
D.
We are influenced by our expectations.
E.
We assume others are similar to us.

d
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Self-fulfilling prophecies are

A. negative predictions of our behavior, imposed by others.
B. negative predictions of our behavior, imposed by ourselves.
C. positive or negative predictions of our behavior, imposed by others and/or ourselves.
D. almost always negative predictions, imposed by ourselves and/or others.
E. none of the above.

c
Subscribing to the fallacy of catastrophic expectations can lead to
Selected Answer:

A. self-fulfilling prophecies.
B. erroneous perception checking.
C. reflected appraisals.
D. physiological noise.
E. both c and d above.

a
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Many of our debilitative feelings come from
A. our genetic make-up.
B. our emotional memory.
C. the beliefs we hold about events.
D. a and c.
E. all of the above.
e
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The recognition of a “figure” as standing out from a “ground” of other stimuli takes place during what phase of the perception process?

A. organization
B. stimulation
C. ideation
D. verification
E. sensation

a
which of the following is true of debilitative feelings?
Selected Answer:

A. They often last a long time.
B. They keep you from functioning effectively.
C. They are intense.
D. They are a product of your beliefs.
E. All of the above are true of debilitative feelings.

e
All of the following perceptual factors influence the way we interpret behavior except which one?

A. androgynous style
B. assumptions about human behavior
C. expectations
D. relational satisfaction
E. past experience

a
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Which of the following is an inaccurate description of communication?
Selected Answer:

A. Communication is unrepeatable.
B. Communication is irreversible.
C. Meanings are in words.
D. It’s impossible not to communicate.

c
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Of the following, what is not considered a risk of self-disclosure?

A. decrease in relational satisfaction
B. loss of influence
C. negative impression
D. fear of disapproval
E. decrease in number of relationships

e
Of the following, what is not considered an effect of lying?

A. Once lied to, you may need to redefine previous messages from the liar.
B. Deception is more acceptable depending on the liar’s motives.
C. A lie will be considered a transgression if it is exploitive.
D. The importance of the information lied about is a key factor in provoking a relational crisis.
E. All of these answers can be effects.

e
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Research has shown that competent communicators achieve effectiveness by
Selected Answer:

A. developing large vocabularies.
B. giving lots of feedback.
C. apologizing when they offend others.
D. adjusting their behaviors to the person and situation.
E. using the same types of behavior in a wide variety of situations.

d
All of the following are physiological factors shaping perception except which one?

A. the senses
B. age and health
C. hunger
D. ethnicity
E. fatigue

d