A conglomerate is:
a company that owns media companies and other companies that are unrelated to media.
Affiliates are stations that use network programming but are owned by companies other than the networks. TRUE OR FALSE
A response sent to a sender from someone who receives a message is called:
Disadvantages of media concentration include a loss of diversity and opinion. TRUE OR FALSE
Mass communication:
is communication from one person or group of persons through a transmitting device to large audiences or markets.
Media convergence is the melding of the communications, computer and electronics industries. TRUE OR FALSE
Phonetic writing, the first information communications evolution, was developed about 1000 B.C. TRUE OR FALSE
Satellite radio generates revenues primarily through:
The most widespread trend among today’s media companies is vertical integration. TRUE OR FALSE
The term that describes the way that different people process messages differently is:
selective perception.
The third information communications revolution introduced digital computers that can process, store and retrieve information. TRUE OR FALSE
Which of the following is an example of interactive media?
the internet
Which of the following is not considered a mass media industry?
A collection of programs and/or media services offered together for a set fee is called:
a bundle
MSN, Cox, Time-Warner Cable, MSN, etc. are examples of:
internet service provider
This describes the means by which a message reaches the audience.
Message pluralism is about:
Diversity of opinion in the mass media
Noise is about:
Distortion that interferes with clear communication
Who the FCC is:
Organization that regulates broadcast ownership and operations
Pictographs are about:
Using symbols of objects to convey an idea (pictograph)
A book that sells millions of copies by a well-known author is called:
a blockbuster
Approximately one-third of all early American novels were written by:
A royalty is:
a percentage of the selling price of each copy of a book.
Book publishers pay authors by a system known as:
Compulsory elementary education by 1900 meant more demand for textbooks. TRUE OR FALSE
Grove Press in the late 1950s and early 1960s:
challenged censorship laws by publishing Lady Chatterley’s Lover and The Autobiography of Malcolm X.
Many American book publishing firms are owned by large media corporations. TRUE OR FALSE
Online bookselling and chain stores:
have expanded the book market to people who did not buy many books.
Paperback books:
drastically dropped the price of books.
could fit into a pocket or purse.
democratized reading in America.
became popular when Pocket Books began publishing best-sellers in 1939.
All of the above.
Small presses are typically alternative publishing houses, specializing in specific topics. TRUE OR FALSE
Subsidiary rights mean using the contents of a book to create related products, such as movies. TRUE OR FALSE
The biggest selling work published by colonial presses in the 1700s was:
Common Sense by Thomas Paine.
The first book published in America was:
The Bay Psalm Book.
The Google Book Project is seen as beneficial by everyone, including publishers and authors. TRUE OR FALSE
The International Copyright Law of 1891 required:
that all authors had to give permission to publish their work.
The most promising growth area in book publishing today is electronic books (e-books). TRUE OR FALSE
The most significant change in the marketing of books in the past 40 years has been:
the growth of bookstore chains and Internet retailers.
Using the contents of a book to create related products, such as movies and t-shirts, is called:
subsidiary rights.
The book below most-closely describes adult and juvenile trade books:
Romance novels, biographies, and cook books
The book above most-closely describes professional and scholarly books:

The books below most-closely describe textbooks

Auto repair manuals and and encyclopedia of veterinary terms

Books on history, grammar, biology, etc.

Which of the following is true about the ground-breaking journalist, Ida Wells?
She was an African American woman who eventually owned the Memphis Free Speech and Headlight.
She wrote about three African-American men who were jailed and killed, then later had her newspaper office ransacked.
She campaigned for African American rights in Chicago.
She was active in the women’s suffrage movement.
Early colonial newspapers:
printed “Published by Authority” on the first page to indicate British approval.
In the future of newspapers:
photographers will send most photos electronically to the newsroom from the field.
reporters will send most stories from the field.
satellite publishing will provide more customized newspapers.
information will be sold to people who want it.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst demonstrated that newspapers focused on sensationalism could yield enormous profits. TRUE OR FALSE
Language that incites rebellion against the government is called:
Newspaper unions created standard wages for journalists and increased professionalism. TRUE OR FALSE
Satellite publishing allows companies to create customized national newspapers. TRUE OR FALSE
Sedition is:
writing that, authorities claim, could incite rebellion against the government.
The alternative press:
is also called the dissident press.
was revived in the late 1950s and 1960s.
challenged the conventional wisdom and espoused “radical” ideas.
became an outlet for social protest.
The trial of John Peter Zenger established the legal principle that truth is a defense against a libel suit. TRUE OR FALSE
Today, chains and conglomerates own many American newspapers. TRUE OR FALSE
Two features common in the era of “jazz journalism” were tabloids and the use of many pictures. TRUE OR FALSE
What was the U.S. federal government’s first attempt to control the press?
the Alien and Sedition Laws
Which newspaper was founded by Frederick Douglass and was often called the most important African-American pre-Civil War newspaper?
the North Star
Which of the following is NOT associated with tabloid journalism?
investigative journalism on important public issues
Yellow journalism:
is a form of sensationalized reporting that emphasizes crime, sex and violence.
The description below defines what a syndicate is.
News agencies that sell articles for publication to a number of newspapers simultaneously.
The description below defines what a paywall is.
A fee-for-access system set up by a newspaper to charge readers for internet content.
This man established a weekly newspaper that was often called the most important African-American pre-Civil War newspaper.
Frederick Douglass
The most celebrated journalist to chronicle the frontier was:
Samuel Clemens
Glamour, O, and Wired are examples of consumer magazines. TRUE OR FALSE
Ida Tarbell’s most famous series of muckraking articles examined the practices of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company. TRUE OR FALSE
In the future, Internet magazines will expand publications’ readerships. TRUE OR FALSE
Magazines play a more cutting edge social, political and cultural role than ever before. TRUE OR FALSE
Over the past 20 years, magazines have begun to rely less on freelance writers. TRUE OR FALSE
“Muckrakers” were America’s first:
Investigative reporters
The average magazine reader today:
owns a home and works full-time
The first truly national magazine with a large circulation was:
The Saturday Evening Post
The magazine _______________, founded by Henry Luce in the 1950s, was one of the first to anticipate the trend toward specialized magazines:
Sports Illustrated
The number of magazines published in the US is increasing. TRUE OR FALSE
The pass-along readership rate of magazines is beneficial for advertisers. TRUE OR FALSE
Today, men are the largest purchasers of magazines. TRUE OR FALSE
W. E. B. Du Bois:
founded and edited The Crisis, the NAACP’s magazine that continues to publish today.
Which of the following is not true of magazines?
Most magazines today are seeking to appeal to a broader audience.
Which of the following is not true of trade magazines:
They are read by the general public wanting to know about new products.
The AAM stands for the American Association of Magazines and assists in promoting magazine purchases in America. TRUE OR FALSE
The following describes a company magazine:
Magazine produced by businesses for their employees
The following describes a trade, technical, professional magazine:
Magazines dedicated to a particular business
The following describes a webzine magazine:
A magazine available only on the internet.
What is the least popular category of music?
Because of file sharing, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) has:
sued individuals who downloaded music.
BMI was born when broadcasters pooled their money to build their own music collection in 1939. TRUE OR FALSE
File sharing, as it relates to the music recording industry, means:
downloading music free from the internet
In 1887, Emile Berliner:
developed the gramophone, which replaced Edison’s cylinder.
Invention of the transistor in the 1960s resulted in miniaturization that made music more portable. TRUE OR FALSE
Lawsuits by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) have successfully stopped all music file sharing. TRUE OR FALSE
Many recording music groups say they make the bulk of their money from:
concert performances.
Napster was ordered to shut down in 2001 for:
copyright infringement
The development of tape recorders included:
German experimentation during World War II.
high-quality recorders built by the Ampex Corp.
3M’s perfected production of a usable plastic tape.
Bing Crosby’s use of tape recording.
The inventor of the phonograph in 1877 was:
Thomas Edison
The man who created the long-playing record was:
Peter Goldmark
The most threatening widespread type of piracy for the industry is:
copying of prerecorded music overseas and their sale in the United States.
The Parents’ Music Resource Center demanded that record companies specially label albums that contain explicit lyrics. TRUE OR FALSE
The two licensing companies that handle most of the rights to play music for broadcast are:
What is Jammie Thomas’ claim to fame?
she was the first person to be legally fined for music piracy
Which of the following companies is not one of the four major record labels?
Which of the following is not true about warning labels on records?
Teenagers demanded labeling of explicit lyrics.
Which of the following is true?
The 45 rpm was David Sarnoff’s idea.
Which of the following statements was not true of music recording before the development of stereophonic recording in 1956?
Musicians performing music to be heard on a single recording could be recorded in separate locations at separate times and their performances later mixed together.
ASCAP still licenses its music stations with the same type of blanket licensing agreement they’ve been using since the 1920s. TRUE OR FALSE
Identifying a specific audience segment and programming is called:
the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers charged stations a fee for licensed music.
Cross ownership is:
when a company owns individual radio and TV stations in the same market.
David Sarnoff:
as a wireless operator, received a distress call from the sinking Titanic and eventually became RCA’s general manager.
FM radio was an immediate financial success that brought inventor Lee de Forest both wealth and happiness. TRUE OR FALSE
HD radio
makes it possible for radio stations to transmit real-time text-based information services as well as programming.
Heinrich Hertz:
experimented with radio waves, which became known as Hertzian waves.
Identifying a specific audience segment and programming is called:
concerns the payment of cash or gifts by recording companies to disc jockeys or program directors in exchange for air play.
Pittsburgh’s KDKA radio was the nation’s first commercial station, established in 1920. TRUE OR FALSE
Radio station programming delivers a targeted audience to advertisers better than television programming. TRUE OR FALSE
Satellite radio:
is supported primarily by subscriptions.
The most significant trend in radio today is toward:
greater audience segmentation
The Radio Act of 1912:
required federal licenses for people who wanted to broadcast or receive messages.
The War of the Worlds broadcast demonstrated that alarming information could be misinterpreted by the public, and radio stations had to take responsibility for their broadcasts. TRUE OR FALSE
Which of the following is not true of Internet radio?
It is another name for satellite radio.
Uses analog signals.
It eliminates static and hiss from broadcast signals.
It offers limited program choices.
The BBC stands for:
the British Broadcasting Corporation
Digital audio broadcasting is about:
eliminating all static
making more program choices possible
C & D
The cities below can, especially, capitalize on car drive-time audiences because of long commutes:
San Francisco & Los Angeles
The following describes a radio network:
A collection of radio or TV stations that offers programs to affiliate stations
Because of the practice of block booking, movie theater owners:
were forced to accept several movies at once.
D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation:
cost five times more to make than any other American film up until that time.
presented a dramatic view of the Civil War and Reconstruction.
portrayed racial stereotypes.
made Griffith the first famous director.
Eadweard Muybridge:
first photographed motion
Étienne Jules Marey invented the first motion picture camera, and it looked like:
a rifle (gun)
In the 1930s, the movie industry was dominated by the Big Five, which included:
MGM, Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO and 20th Century-Fox.
The Lincoln Motion Picture Company was the first company to produce serious narrative movies for the African American audience. TRUE OR FALSE
The MPAA began a rating system:
modeled on Great Britain’s system.
The U.S. v. Paramount Pictures case led to:
the major studios divesting themselves of their theaters.
United Artists was formed in rebellion against the big studios by:
Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks and D. W. Griffith.
What was or were the important contribution(s) of Edwin S. Porter’s 1903 film, The Great Train Robbery?
Shooting at multiple locations
The use of human action and a speeding train
The introduction of dissolves rather than cuts only between shots
Which of the following can be said of foreign ownership of major movie studios:
American motion pictures are one of America’s strongest exports.
Access to foreign audiences for American films has increased.
More than one-third of today’s movie industry profits come from foreign sales.
Foreign ownership means easier access to overseas markets.
Which of these 1940s events helped reverse the growth of the movie industry that began in 1930?
the hearings of the House Un-American Activities Committee
Will Hays, president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association, was the first person to appear on screen in the public premiere of talking pictures in 1926. TRUE OR FALSE
Blind booking involves:
theatres getting a package of films that they don’t know about
Ancillary rights for films involves:
marketing ops related to a movie, in addition to direct income from the movie itself
getting video game rights
having internet downloads and streaming
Blacklisting involved:
Studio owners’ refusal to hire someone who was suspected of taking part in subversive activities
The star system involved:
the studios promoting popular movie personalities to lure audiences
George Melies is known for:
being the first to produce A Trip to the Moon and utilizing special visual effects in his films
Thomas Edison is known for:
producing films for the nickelodeon parlor
Edwin Porter is known for:
producing the first American story film: The Great Train Robbery
About 50 percent of all television stations in the United States are:
affiliated with a network
A share is…
the percentage of households watching TV that are watching a particular program.
Edward R. Murrow is known for:
Doing live radio reports during WWII.
Hosting the Hear It Now (radio) and See It Now (TV) newscasts
Setting the standard for broadcast news
A, B, & C
A rating is…
the percentage of the total number of households with TV sets tuned to a specific program.
Former FCC chairman Newton Minow in 1961 said that television:
was a “vast wasteland”
HDTV (not counting “smart TV’s”):
scans 1,125 lines across the screen for a higher resolution picture than analog television.
More than any other media industry, commercial TV exists primarily as an advertising medium. TRUE OR FALSE
Network affiliate television stations:
are paid by the network to carry network programming.
“Prime time” means that more people watch television during this period than any other, so advertising costs more. TRUE OR FALSE
Sweeps, the months in which TV ratings services gather their most important information, occur during which months?
February, May, and November
The two men who developed network TV and held the country’s largest interest in radio were:
David Sarnoff and William Paley.
The two researchers who played the most significant role in the technical development of television were:
Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth.
TV stations that are owned and operated by the networks are called:
O & Os
Which of the following is/are true about cable television?
The early cable-connected households were part of a CATV (community antenna TV) system.
The FCC once required that movies on cable had to be at least ten years old.
Ted Turner’s TNT first relayed programs by satellite in 1976, and CNN began in 1979.
More than half of American homes have basic cable TV.
DBS involves:
The technology used to receive satellite programming
A DVR involves:
TV programming recorded on a hard drive connected to the television
CATV involves:
An antennae being shared (and programs provided) to multiple households
Subscription television involves:
The term used to describe cable and satellite program delivery
Time shifting involves:
Recording a television program to watch at a more convenient time
Syndicators sell programming to broadcast stations and cable. TRUE OR FALSE
A browser is:
software that allows people to display and interact with information on Web pages.
Congressional passage in 1998 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act successfully stopped sharing of copyrighted material on the Internet. TRUE OR FALSE
Intellectual property rights:
concern the rights of creative people to be compensated for the use of their work.
Placing something on the World Wide Web is called publishing. TRUE OR FALSE
Search marketing involves placing clients’ ads next to consumers’ online search results. TRUE OR FALSE
Signal or data compression means:
a method of squeezing information into a tiny electronic package.
The 30-year rule says it takes about 30 years for new ideas to become outmoded and disappear from the culture. TRUE OR FALSE
The Communications Decency Act, outlawing certain Internet content:
was struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1997.
The content of digital media:
combines text, graphics, sound, and video.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act allows the free use of copyrighted material on the Internet. TRUE OR FALSE
The Internet is:
a combination of millions of computer networks sending and receiving data worldwide.
The main advantage for advertisers on the Web is:
they can get instant electronic feedback on the effectiveness of their ads.
The media theory termed “convergence”:
was introduced in 1978 by Nicholas Negroponte and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
holds that media industries are combining economically.
holds that media industries are combining technologically.
predicted that print, broadcast/motion picture, and computer media would overlap substantially by 2000.
Analog is about:
the sending of video or audio info sent as continuous signals through the air on specific airwave frequencies:
Data streaming is about:
cloud computing that allows the user to play back an audio or video file without first completely downloading it
File sharing is about:
peer to peer distribution of copyrighted material on the internet without the copyright owner’s permission
ISP is about:
the one who gives access to the internet
HTTP is about:
owing people to create and send text, graphics, and video information electronically, and to set up links from one source to another
An Avatar involves:
An icon or representation of a user–a digital stand-in–that represents an online identity.
This specifically allows you to display and interact with information on web pages.
Advertisers use a formula based on the cost of reaching __________ to determine where to run their ads.
1000 people
Advertising is:
not a medium but a support industry in America.
any paid form of non-personal presentation by an identified sponsor.
how American consumers pay for most of their media.
Advertising sales representatives, or “rep” firms, sell:
advertising time and space to companies outside their geographic area.
CPM means “cost per million” people an ad can reach. TRUE OR FALSE
Daniel Boorstin said advertising in the United States has which of the following characteristics?
an advertising style
Early TV advertisers expected viewers to buy their products out of gratitude for sponsoring a popular program. TRUE OR FALSE
In the 1800s, many readers complained about:
patent medicine ads
One of the main criticisms of advertising is that it adds to the cost of products. TRUE OR FALSE
The federal agency with the main responsibility for monitoring ads for deception is the:
Federal Trade Commission
The rate at which someone visits a Web site to learn more because of an Internet ad is called:
the “click-through rate”
The term “demographics” refers to:
the analysis of audience characteristics, such as sex, age and marital status.
The ubiquity of advertising means that:
advertising is everywhere
What is “viral marketing”?
pass-along advertising messages
Which agency of government was the first to engage in regulation of advertising to protect consumers early in the 20th century?
The Food and Drug Administration
An advertising campaign is:
a planned advertising effort coordinated for a specific time period
A rep firm:
advertising sales people who sell ad time and space in their market to companies outside their geographic area
Searching advertising is:
advertising is the form of a list or link to a company’s site domain accessed by typing in a word or phrase
Branded content or branded entertainment or content marketing is…
a program/story that mimics regular programs or journalism to promote a specific product
Real-time marketing NOW mainly involves…
Using Twitter as a marketing tool
A “pop up” ad involves…
an ad on the screen that appears either behind a web page after leaving it OR on top of the webpage when someone first visits it.
An organized attack against a corporation presented on the Internet is called:
Cybersmears is / are:
Internet attacks on brands or products launched by disgruntled customers, pranksters and competitors.
Editors use very little of the information submitted as press releases by public relations people. TRUE OR FALSE
In a PR firm, placement people contact news media, hoping to persuade them to publish or broadcast stories about their clients. TRUE OR FALSE
In the classic definition, public relations involves:
creating understanding for or good will toward, a company, a person or a product.
In the future, PR people must:
pay close attention to the media industries.
expand overseas.
incorporate new technologies.
be aware of changing demographics.
Many firms attempt to use PR to get positive publicity for their products because:
it is cheaper to get a publicity release published than to purchase an ad.
Public relations for nonprofit groups is growing especially fast as organizations compete for limited donation dollars. TRUE OR FALSE
Public relations people are responsible for organizing open houses and other special events, testing message concepts, and writing press releases. TRUE OR FALSE
The Internet offers many benefits for public relations companies because:
It can deliver information quickly.
PR help creates a company’s public face on the Internet.
News releases can be made available online.
Company profiles can be made available online.
The nation’s largest single employer of public information people is (are):
the federal government
The Public Relations Society of America was the first organization to establish a code of ethics for the public relations industry. TRUE OR FALSE
There are three ways to encourage someone to do what you want them to do: power, patronage, and persuasion. TRUE OR FALSE
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1961 that a public relations firm could exercise its First Amendment rights to present dishonest information on behalf of its client. TRUE OR FALSE
Two examples of poorly handled public relations crises are:
Toyota and BP Petroleum
Using public relations to create a favorable story about a new toy is an example of:
product public relations
Which of the following is a major difference between the practice of public relations and the practice of advertising?
Advertising people are usually not involved in corporate policy decisions, and public relations people usually are.
Which of the following is not a service typically offered by a PR professional?
planning a party to launch a new product line
editing shareholder reports
paying bills
leading focus groups
Which of the following women was not an early public relations pioneer?
Ida Tarbell
Which types of industries are likely to use PR?
Businesses, such as Toyota
Non-profit organizations, such as Habitat for Humanity
Educational institutions
Professional sports teams
The Internet news site visited most often is:
Yahoo!-ABC News
Which of the following is true about the news and social media coverage after the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing?
Public officials sometimes both scolded news organizations and in the same news conference asked for their help.
Accreditation of reporters by the government began during the Civil War. TRUE OR FALSE
Agenda-setting, as the term is typically used, refers to the flow of information from:
news organizations to their audiences and one news organization to another.
During the Civil War:
reporters were accredited for the first time as war correspondents by the government.
During the Cuban missile crisis, President John F. Kennedy confronted Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev with a live challenge on television. TRUE OR FALSE
Ernie Pyle:
wrote stories during World War II that debunked the “glory” of war.
In the age of the Internet, who bears an increased burden to seek reliable information?
news consumers
Live coverage of the Vietnam War made viewers shy away from war reporting because it was too graphic. TRUE OR FALSE
Mathew Brady is considered the nation’s first photojournalist. TRUE OR FALSE
News coverage of World War II:
was an opportunity for radio to bring America closer to the action than they had ever been.
News on the Internet appeals to people because:
It’s available 24 hours a day.
it compiles headlines from TV and print news services.
people can choose what they want when they want it.
they’re losing interest in network TV news.
Reality shows make it difficult for an audience to distinguish true news footage from recreated drama. TRUE OR FALSE
The Golden Age of Television:
began in 1961 with President John F. Kennedy’s inauguration.
The tendency of journalists to report similar quick conclusions about an event is called:
consensus journalism.
Which event led to what has been called television’s finest four days?
the JFK assassination
Which of the following is not true of The Associated Press?
It was founded overseas by six international news organizations.
Which of these is not a trend affecting the future of news media?
the increase in the number of cable news networks
Which term describes journalists who were allowed to cover the Iraq war on the frontlines, supervised by the US military?
Advertorials are paid advertising supplements in newspapers and magazines that look similar to the regular news pages. TRUE OR FALSE
According to a study conducted by Princeton scholar Hadley Cantril, less well-educated people were more likely to be fooled by the 1938 broadcast of “War of the Worlds. TRUE OR FALSE
According to the 1971 study, Television and Social Behavior, there was a “tentative” connection between violent TV programming and aggressive behavior. TRUE OR FALSE
Lasswell’s model for communication research asks five questions. Which of the following is not one of those questions?
Where is the feedback coming from
After Congress held hearings on violent content in television programming in 1993, cable operators and network broadcasters agreed:
to develop violence ratings for TV programming.
After studying the 1972 presidential race (The Unseeing Eye), researchers Thomas Patterson and Robert McClure concluded that political advertising on television:
was able to manipulate about 7 percent of voters.
________ analyzes how people use information they receive from the media:
media effects research
An early study that concentrated on the effects of movies on children was:
one of the Payne Fund studies.
A study by the California Assessment Program of children’s TV viewing habits suggested that students who watch a lot of TV do as well in school as those who watch less TV. TRUE OR FALSE
Celebrity worship syndrome, a psychiatric condition identified by researchers:
is an unhealthy interest in the rich and famous
Children who watch a lot of television, according to a 1981 California study:
have lower scores on math, reading and writing tests.
In his book, No Sense of Place, Joshua Meyrowitz concludes that:
TV blurs the distinction between childhood and adulthood.
Marshall McLuhan is best remembered for which concept?
The medium is the message
One legacy of John F. Kennedy’s use of TV in the 1960 presidential campaign is that national political campaigns came to depend almost entirely on TV to promote presidential candidates. TRUE OR FALSE
Researcher Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann says the media discourage people from expressing views that disagree with the prevailing point of view. She calls this effect:
the spiral of silence
The 1971 study of violence and TV (Television and Social Behavior), conducted by George Gerbner, found that:
TV violence affected some children who were already predisposed to violence.
The Cantril study of media effects found that:
better-educated people were less likely to believe what the media said.
The first U.S. election where the Internet began to play a role in national politics was:
the 2004 presidential election.
The People’s Choice study:
found that family and friends have more effect on people’s voting decisions than the media.
The Television Advertising to Children study suggested that many young children think of advertising as just another form of programming and don’t distinguish between programs and ads. TRUE OR FALSE
The two-step flow of communication is:
the transmittal of information from mass media to opinion leaders and then to friends.
After the Roth and Miller cases, determining obscenity is the responsibility of:
local courts
Changes in 2003 in FCC regulations concerning ownership of broadcast stations:
allowed companies to expand the number of radio and TV stations they could own.
In Near v. Minnesota, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the government can prevent the media from publishing or broadcasting certain types of information. TRUE OR FALSE
In the New York Times v. Sullivan decision, the Supreme Court held that:
a public official must prove that the story was published with a reckless disregard for the truth.
The belief that the U.S. press should be free from government control originated with the:
First Amendment
The Child Online Protection Act:
was never implemented because the U.S. Supreme Court in 2002 said that Congress had no authority to limit Internet access.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is designed to prevent legal copying of material that is published and distributed on the Internet. TRUE OR FALSE
The media can invade privacy by:
disclosing embarrassing personal facts.
placing someone in a false light.
using someone’s name or likeness for commercial benefit.
intruding on a person’s physical or mental solitude.
The Pentagon Papers were prevented from ever being printed in the Washington Post and The New York Times by the U.S. Supreme Court. TRUE OR FALSE
The U.S. Supreme Court has held that obscenity is protected by the First Amendment. TRUE OR FALSE
To prove libel, someone must show that:
the statement injured the person’s reputation or income or caused mental anguish.
the statement was communicated to a third party.
people who read or saw the statement would be able to identify the person, even if that person was not actually named.
the journalist or the print or broadcast organization is at fault.
Which of the following is not true of the concept of press shield laws?
Reporters are protected by a federal shield law.
A “bundle” involves…
…a combination of telecom services that the media can offer consumers
SLAPP involveer…
…a Florida real estate developer who accused (and sued) two Florida newspapers of assassinating his character (libeling him) — causing him to lose his Senate election.
WIPO involves…
…the protection of copyrighted materials throughout the world.
NSL involves…
…a connection with the Patriot Act which compels businesses to share personal information about their customers without a judge’s order.
RBOC involves…
….local telephone companies who also want to provide telecom services
A “false light” charge can involve being sued for not portraying events and people truthfully in a story. TRUE OR FALSE
“Fleeting expletives” are about _______ and have been ________________.
…profanity uttered without warning on live television; have been allowed because disallowing them interferes with freedom of expression.
HUAC stands for the “House Un-American Activities Committee” which involved the President throwing communists in jail for promoting communism. TRUE OR FALSE
The film company Alliance requested $2,000 for a 20-minute interview with actor Brad Pitt at Cannes in 2012. This practice is called:
checkbook journalism
An example of misrepresentation is:
Noah Lehrer’s quotes in his book, Imagine: How Creativity Works
Codes of ethics established by professional and industry groups:
are voluntary and carry no penalties.
Disinformation is the practice of:
government misleading the media to achieve its objectives with the public.
Immanuel Kant said that people should make decisions based on principles that they want to be universally applied. TRUE OR FALSE
John Stuart Mill’s principle of utility supports an egalitarian society that asks everyone to work from a sense of basic respect for each other. TRUE OR FALSE
Situational ethics, often applied by journalists to their reporting, may at any time involve which of the following philosophical principles?
Aristotle’s golden mean
Mill’s principle of utility
Rawls’ veil of ignorance
Judeo-Christian view of persons as ends in themselves
The journalistic concept of fairness is reflected in:
Aristotle’s golden mean.
The Judeo-Christian ethical principle holds that journalistic decisions should “seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” TRUE OR FALSE
The media faces all of these ethical issues except:
The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) code:
was abolished after a decision by a federal judge that the provisions violated the First Amendment.
The word ethics derives from the Greek word ethos, which means:
traditions that govern a culture
When government officials intentionally mislead the press and public, they are engaging in an act of:
When reporters go on free trips and/or are given free passes to entertainment events, it could result in:
conflict of interest
Which ethical question is raised by a reporter who misrepresents the facts or creates false stories and attributes them to others?
Which of the following best describes Rawls’ veil of ignorance?
Justice emerges when negotiating without social differentiation.
Which of the following is an example of “checkbook journalism”?
Reporters who paid neighbors of Jaycee Lee Dugard for information about her alleged kidnappers Phillip and Nancy Garrido.
Which of the following is an example of unethical journalistic behavior?
Jayson Blair’s fabricated stories
a stock columnist’s providing advance information to friends
journalists accepting a free trip to Disney World
Joe Scarborough’s donation to a political candidate.
Which overriding ethical question is raised when the media report that a famous person is suffering from AIDS?
Is it an invasion of the person’s privacy?
Professional ethics involves…
…always protecting the media that you work for