COM/BUS 115 CH 9-12

Mass media effects increase when
People cannot verify information through personal experience or knowledge
The most difficult persuasive task is to
Change or neutralize hostile opinions
The attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and beliefs is called:
Psychographics
Third-party endorsements usually involve
Favorable statements by celebrities
Muscular public relations is primarily associated with
Fair play and competition
The most significant aspect of the U.S. mass audience is
Diversity
Who watches the most television?
African Americans
According to your book, what is key to reaching the Millennial Generation?
Creativity with digital media
Which person/entity (in general) would have the most protection from, or likelihood of winning, a defamation suit?
Private citizen
Government documents:
Cannot not be copyrighted
Arrangements and fees earmarked for photographers should consider:
Royalties for each use
Revised in 2013, celebrity endorsement through their social media outlets is primarily concerned with what issue?
Disclosure
Companies try to sidestep FDA regulations by:
Publicizing diseases
Reputation is defined as:
The collective reputation of past performance
Once self-interest is involved, opinion is
Not easily changed
Which stage in the life cycle of public opinion is represented by a “building of public consensus”?
Government/regulatory involvement
Cultivation of key opinion leaders before a new product is publicly announced is important because
Journalists rely on opinion leaders to provide objective judgments about the quality of the product
Charisma, sincerity, and expertise are all key factors of
Source credibility
According to Professor Martha Lauzen, effective issues management requires:
Active sense-making strategies
Litigation PR usually occurs at what stage in the conflict management lifecycle?
Reactive
Which of the following is part of the proactive phase of conflict management?
Environmental scanning
The issues management process includes which of the following steps?
Strategy options
Minimizing a crisis with a statement that there is “no serious damage or injuries” is known as which type of strategy?
Justification
Actions taken to appease publics involved, such as free coupons or charitable donations, are referred to as
Ingratiation
This image restoration strategy distinguishes an act from similar, but more offensive, acts.
Differentiation
Thirty-nine percent of business crises are
Unexpected
Which of the following is a way to reduce offensiveness in a conflict?
Compensation
Which is typical of the GLBT community?
Their combined purchasing power is about $750million
What is a concern for practitioners seeking to reach the Muslim community?
American Muslims don’t feel that US brands reach out to them
Which of these are as are in the public domain and cannot be copyrighted?
Raw facts
The Food and Drug Administration enforce the guidelines for
Video news releases on health-care topics
Under the EEOC, employers must accommodate:
The religious needs of their employees
The First Amendment protects:
Free speech
Opinion
Does not remain aroused unless certain factors are involved
Media alert the public what subjects to think about, but not necessarily what to think is known as
Agenda setting
The dominant view of public relations is one of
Persuasive communication actions performed on behalf of clients
The value of information and its newsworthiness are based on
Timing and context
This technique should be used when conflict has emerged but is not careening out of control.
Conflict resolution
Bolstering and reparation are synonymous with which phase of the conflict management lifecycle?
Recovery
The image restoration strategy that an organization chooses:
Depends a great deal on the situation
The notion of conflict management depends on many factors(requiring adaptation or change) when assessing a threat is known as
Contingency theory
The daily clipping of news stories best describes the notion of
Issues tracking
How an organization responds in the first hour(s) often determines whether or not the situation remains an incident or becomes crisis
24
Which is most likely to interest the “baby boomer” generation?
Health issues
Research has shown that teens:
Spend more time online than in interaction with their parents
When a critic writes a scathing review of a concert, he or she is protected by:
Fair comment and criticism
Most lawsuits and complaints involving employee newsletters are usually the result of
“personals” columns
An idea for promoting a product cannot be
Copyrighted
Part of a copyrighted article that may be quoted directly, but brief in relation to the original work, refers to
Fair use
Which is a concept inherent with “green “marketing?
“low-carb” promotion
Public relations professionals should avoid this practice based on guidelines from the SEC.
Providing glowing descriptions of a product in the experimental phase
An elected official is an example of a(n)
Formal opinion leader
Theselectionofcertainfacts,themes,andtreatmentstoshapeastoryisknownas
Framing
The most effective medium for delivering messages that require absorption of details and contemplation by the receiver is
Print
A trade press is most likely to use a(n)
Application story
What 2012 event demonstrated the importance of reaching out to different demographic groups?
The presidential election
Asian Americans, in particular, can be reached via:
Digital media
This group has the most discretionary income.
Ages 65-74
This audience makes more than 80 percent of the household purchase decisions.
Women
Providing advice or tacitly supporting an illegal activity of a client or an employer is known as
Conspiracy
Which is accurate with regard to copyright?
Lasts for life of the creator plus 70 years for individual works
Unauthorized use of well-known entertainers, athletes, or other public figures in an organization’s publicity and advertising materials is known as
Misappropriation of personality
(T/F) PR personnel must be aware that they can be held legally liable if they provide advice or tacitly support an illegal activity of a client or employer. This area of liability is called “fair comment.”
(T/F) An organization is(legally) limited in publicizing the activities of its employees.
(T/F) Government documents are in the public domain and cannot be copyrighted.
(T/F) In order to use a likeness of a deceased celebrity (i.e., Elvis Presley or Marilyn Monroe), the user must pay a licensing fee to the Federal Trade Commission.
(T/F) The Federal Trade Commission generally does NOT monitor “green” marketing or “low-carb” ads because of the inherent message of goodwill associated with such terms.
(T/F) Essentially, the government may regulate advertising that is false, misleading, or deceptive.
(T/F) The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission essentially exists to ensure diversity in the workplace.
(T/F) Using a doctor to endorse drugs not approved by the FDA is legal.
(T/F) Press releases are not considered commercial speech.
(T/F) Few organizations encourage employees to have an individual blog.
(T/F) The mass media are most influential informing a person’s opinion when the information provided has high emotional appeal.
(T/F) Usually, only a small number of people at any given time take part in public opinion formation on a specific issue.
(T/F) An opinion leader will deliberate and undergo significant research before adopting a new idea.
(T/F) Aristotle’s concept of “ethos” deals with notion of credibility.
(T/F) Psychographics are the attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and beliefs.
(T/F) Self-perception is the context through which messages are interpreted.
(T/F) Trust is a key element with regard to source credibility.
(T/F) Expertise is more important than sincerity or charisma if celebrities are used as spokespersons.
(T/F) Environmental scanning is the first phase of proactive conflict management.
(T/F) The basic idea behind issues management is reactive planning.
(T/F) Once a specific policy or stance has been decided on, communication to all interested parties can begin.
(T/F) The more complex a situation, the higher the perception of risk.
(T/F) Perception of risk increases when the messages of experts conflict.
(T/F) Product recalls require doing the “right thing.”
(T/F) Justification tactics attempt to appease the public involved.
(T/F) Setting up a central information center is not necessary during a crisis.
(T/F) With more than 50 million people and $1 trillion in purchasing power, Hispanics are an important audience.
(T/F) Hispanics prefer ads in English rather than Spanish.
(T/F) The Seniors (age65 or older)are infrequent watchers of television, and are less likely to vote than their juniors.
Persuasion is:
Greatly exaggerated in terms of effectiveness
_____ is a proactive and systematic approach to predict problems, mimic surprises, resolve issue and prevent crisis.
Issues management
A strategy for image restoration is to evade responsibility. What is a way to do that?
Good intentions
Which one of there diverse age groups will spend approximately one third of their lives online?
Millennials
Why would a company want to narrow their audience?
It can help you better address the concerns of your target
Three factors of source credibility are:
Expertise, sincerity and charisma
Using drama as a testimonial can also be called:
Humanizing
What kind of persuasive devices do animal abuse commercials use?
Emotional appeal
What is an example of a crisis?
Your company is revealed to have been laundering funds
The US is predominantly a _____nation.
Christian
What is one strategy used in PR to respond to a crisis?
Justification
Which is a persuasive device?
Drama
Which is a strategy to respond to a crisis?
excuse
Which strategy for responding to crisis explains that there is no crisis?
Denial
Who is the CEO of Berkshire Hathaway?
Warren Buffett
Today minorities account for one-third of the US population, by what year are them projected to be the majority?
2042
Hispanic and African Americans now constitute about _____% pf the US population today?
28
The millennial generation describes:
Individuals born between 1980-1995
Which race is the fastest growing in the US?
Hispanics
Why might an emotional appeal be a bad choice for a message?
Different people have different levels of “tolerance” for appeals to empathy and what may seem fine to your group is abhorrent to everyone else
Continual efforts to maintain the reservoir of goodwill:
preventative PR
The PR practitioner must consider both situational demands and _____?
organizational resources
When an organization makes behavioral changes or create strategic plan in ways that address the emerging issue.
issues management
The baby boomer generation was born between:
1946-1964
Libel:
printed falsehood
Slander:
spoken falsehood
Defamation:
any false statement the creates public hatred, contempt or ridicule or inflicts injury on reputation
Copyright:
protection of a creative work from unauthorized use
Fair Use:
part of the copyrighted article may be quoted directly but the quoted material must be brief in relation to the length of the original work
Trademark:
a word, symbol or slogan used singly or in combination that identifies a product’s origin
Right of Publicity:
Gives celebrities sole authority to cash in on their fame
Licensing Fee:
Must be paid before use of a logo, image, photo, software, font before use in commercial products or productions