CLEP Principles of Management exam part 1

Planning.
A management process of determining what an organization needs to do and how best to get it done
The first step of the decision-making process
Define the problem
The second step of the decision-making process
Identify limiting factors and make the best possible decision with the resources available.
The third step of the decision-making process
Develop and analyze potential alternatives using various techniques such as brainstorming.
The fourth and last step of the decision-making process
To implement the decision.
Extrinsic rewards.
Are externally administered. Praise, a promotion, office d├ęcor, and desirable assignments are all examples of extrinsic rewards.
Intrinsic rewards.
Are rewards that provide a sense of achievement and accomplishment. They are internally administered, meaning that they are not reliant on the behaviors of other people.
Tactical goals.
Are specific work goals that middle-level managers derive from the broader strategic goals.
A strategic goal.
Is an organization-wide, long-term goal devised by a top-level manager.
Operational goals.
Very specific in nature and are highly measurable. These goals are developed by first-level supervisors to schedule work to meet tactical goals.
An organizational chart.
The visual representation of the organizational structure that provides a framework for the hierarchy of an organization; it shows the relationship between an organization’s employees and positions.
A decision tree.
A decision-making technique that shows a complete picture of several alternative decision paths.
Brainstorming.
When a group works together to generate ideas.
The classical school of management.
Focuses on the single best way to perform and manage tasks.
The behavioral school.
Focuses on the human-based elements of work, believing that increased understanding of such behaviors as group interaction, motivation, and conflict resolution will lead to increased productivity.
The quantitative school of management.
Was born from research conducted during World War II. Its approach to management involves the use of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations to aid in managerial decision-making processes.
The contingency school of management.
Doesn’t believe that there is one best way or group of ways to manage; it takes a flexible approach to management that depends on a given situation.
The customer-focused quality school of management.
Strives to continuously improve performance to deliver high-quality goods or services to the marketplace.
Frederick Taylor.
Is known as the “father of scientific management.” Taylor believed that organizations should analyze the tasks that they need to have performed, then develop a set of procedures for the best way of performing them.
Douglas McGregor.
Ascribed to the behavioral management theory. He is most famous for his concepts of the Theory X manager and the Theory Y manager. According to McGregor, the Theory X manager sees employees as being essentially irresponsible, untrustworthy, and lazy, whereas the Theory Y manager sees them as being responsible, trustworthy, and motivated.
Frank Gilbreth, along with his wife Lillian.
Known for studying job motions. _____ performed the first motion study to determine the best possible method for doing a job. _____ observed both efficient and inefficient bricklayers at work, and he reduced the motions needed to do the job down to a few basic ones. Eliminating the unnecessary motions improved efficiency and productivity tremendously.
Max Weber.
Best known for being proponent of an objective, non-personal form of organization known as a bureaucracy.
Henri Fayol.
Responsible for developing 14 principles of management, which were based on his own management experiences. They include such principles as work specialization, unity of command, centralization, and team work. ____ was affiliated with the classical administrative school of management.
Bureaucracies.
Are not characterized by prompt decision-making, largely because they are characterized by hierarchical authority, formal procedures and rules, clearly defined division of labor, and promotions based on skills. (Hierarchical authority and formal procedures and rules mandate that decisions go through a number of channels before resolution can be reached regarding an issue. Therefore, decisions tend not to get made very quickly.)
Line authority.
Endows a manager to direct and delegate to his or her subordinates and make certain levels of decisions on his or her own.
Functional authority.
The authority to make certain decisions regarding activities and decisions of members in a department other than one’s own.
Legitimate power.
Is based in the authority granted to a formally assigned position.
Chester Bernard.
Developed the acceptance theory of management, which focuses on an employee’s willingness to accept those who possess legitimate authority to act.
The classical administrative school of management.
Emphasizes an organization’s management principles as opposed to its work methods, which is the focus of the school of scientific management.
The Hawthorne studies.
Demonstrated that an increase in productivity is a direct result of a worker-friendly supervisory system. Workers’ productivity improved when they were given privileges by supervisors. The _____________ actually refuted the theories of the classical management school of which Fayol was a part.
Product development.
Creation of new products, Improvement of existing products, and Alteration of old products.
When two parties agree to work in a cooperative manner to resolve a labor dispute, it is called?
A negotiation.
When a third party is invited into a negotiation to facilitate a resolution, it is known as?
A mediation.
When that third party is actually empowered to decide how the dispute will be resolved, it is called?
Arbitration.
A grievance.
A formal statement of complaint about a situation, usually made by an employee or group of employees to management.
An appraisal.
A formal review that measures an employee’s performance against designated standards.
In a functional structure.
There is increased productivity, since no jobs are duplicated.
Twinning.
Another name for job sharing. (A situation in which two or more employees split a single job)
Job orientation.
Provides new employees with basic information about the organization for which they are working.
Vertical job loading.
Another name for job enrichment. (Job enrichment redesigns a job such that the position not only includes a greater variety of tasks, but also invests the job with greater responsibility and authority)
Job rotation.
The temporary assignment of different employees to different jobs, or different tasks to different employees on a temporary basis.
Job sharing.
Also known as twinning, (the process by which one full-time position is split among two or more employees)
Edwards Deming’s.
Credited with launching the Total Quality Management movement.
Quality.
The extent to which goods or services satisfy the specifications of the marketplace.
Productivity.
The relationship between an amount of input and the amount of output that it creates.
A company has profitability.
When there is money left over from its sales after costs have been paid.
Leadership.
The ability to garner the respect and cooperation of employees to achieve an organization’s goals.
Referent power.
The kind of _____ that is invested by employees in a leader whom they admire and wish to emulate. ______ _____ is derived from personal leadership characteristics of an individual that command respect from subordinates.
Coercive power.
Stems from the authority to punish in ways such as demoting or firing employees.
Expert power.
The type of _____ that has its basis in a manager’s own knowledge and skills set.
Legitimate power.
Lies in the authority granted to a formally assigned position.
Reward power.
Drawn from the authority to reward subordinates with promotions, raises, recognition, and interesting opportunities and assignments.
The Hawthorne studies demonstrated.
That an increase in productivity is a direct result of a worker-friendly supervisory system. Workers’ productivity improved when they were given privileges by supervisors.
Henry Mintzberg.
Author of The Nature of Manegerial Work, managerial roles fall into the following three categories: informational, interpersonal, and decisional.