CJS 411 (Final) : Chapter 9

Which of the following is not a commonly cited factor for high incarceration rates in the United States?
Violence in novels and comic books
What are the two different philosophies about correctional organizations?
Custodial, treatment
The “Administrative Maximum” prison, or ADX, located in Florence, Colorado, is
the only federal supermax in the country
Studies show that as inmates face greater restrictions and social deprivations, their levels of social withdrawal:
increase and tend to result in depression, hostility, severe anger, sleep disturbances, and anxiety.
Given the negative psychological effects of many forms of long-term supermax confinement, researchers such as Craig Haney believe:
all such facilities must implement the best and most humane of the available practices, and strict time limits should be placed on the length of time that prisoners are housed in supermax.
Cooper v. Pate was one of the earliest prison cases and is significant because in it the Supreme Court first recognized:
the use of Title 42 United States Code Section 1983 as a legal remedy for inmates.
Johnson v. Avery was one of the first prison-related court decisions that involved an alleged violation of a constitutional right—here, the right of:
access to the courts
In considering censorship of prison inmates’ correspondence, the Court based its ruling not on the rights of the prisoner, but instead on:
the free-world recipient’s right to communicate with the prisoner.
Cruz v. Beto, a Supreme Court decision involving the right of inmates to exercise their religious beliefs, involved:
a Buddhist who was not allowed to use the prison chapel and was placed in solitary confinement for sharing his religious material with other prisoners.
In Bell v. Wolfish, the Supreme Court found searches of inmates’ body cavities to be:
proper, saying such practices were reasonable responses to legitimate security concerns.
Examples of “deliberate indifference,” per the Supreme Court, include all but which one of the following?
. Requiring a prisoner to ride a prison van to the hospital, rather than an ambulance
Today, prisoners must be given all but which of the following due process rights?
ALL OF THE ABOVE
– Advance written notice of charges no less than 24 hours before appearing at the hearing
– Ability to call witnesses and to present documentary evidence in his or her defense
– Use of counsel substitutes (e.g., a friend or staff member) when the inmate is illiterate or when complex issues require such assistance
– An impartial prison disciplinary board
As with the police, there are several benefits to be realized for corrections agencies wishing to become accredited; they include all but which of the following?
Cost savings with respect to staff salaries
Today’s public ideology toward crime has led to _____ sentencing practices.
get-tough
The “just deserts” theory is based on the idea that:
offenders make “free will” decisions to commit crimes.
The state organization that oversees all of the prisons is often termed the:
Central office
Who made the highly publicized finding that, in prison programs, “almost nothing works”?
Martinson
Drug-addicted offenders may receive all but which of the following types of treatment?
Family Counseling
What division of a state’s central office oversees budget development and new prison construction?
Administrative division
The administration of local jails is frequently one of the major tasks of:
County sheriffs
Approximately how many locally administered jails are in the United States?
2,800
Which of the following is not a feature of the direct supervision jail?
All blind spots are removed.
Which of the following is not one of the actions that COs must take in the new direct supervision jails?
Be more highly trained in self-defense
____ is/are seen by many correctional administrators as the major barrier(s) to humane housing of offenders.
Crowding
The Prison Litigation Reform Act was enacted in an attempt to:
decrease frivolous lawsuits brought by inmates.
Which of the following is not one of the four main parts of the Prison Litigation Reform Act?
Emotional abuse requirement
One of the four main parts of the Prison Litigation Reform Act is the filing fee requirement; it mandates
that prisoners pay court filing fees in full, even if monthly installments are necessary
Which of the following cases would be discouraged under the Prison Litigation Reform Act?
An inmate sues because he was served cold soup for lunch
Each frivolous or malicious lawsuit or appeal that an inmate files counts as a ______against the inmate
strike
According to the______ of the Prison Litigation Reform Act, an inmate cannot file a lawsuit for mental or emotional injury unless he or she can also show physical injury.
Physical injury requirement
Which of the following is not one of the six categories of the administration of probation systems?
city
A major social problem that prison administrators felt would deal a devastating blow to their inmate populations, but which never materialized, involved:
AIDS/HIV
Which of the following is not a part of systems theory as applied to probation?
Linear planning
In systems theory, incarceration rates would be classified as:
outcomes
In systems theory, policies and procedures would be classified as:
resources
Which of the following is not a basic service of parole agencies?
Parole release
According to the systems theory for probation, inputs would include:
the probationer coming into the office for counseling.
Which of the following is not one of the four goals that jails should attempt to accomplish in preparing inmates for reentry in society?
Avoid a complex and time-consuming intake and assessment process
After examining the effects of supermax prisons, Pizarro et al. found all but which of the following to be true?
These prisons do not present a danger to society beyond that of regular imprisonment.
The overriding concern in prisons and jails is, and should be, ____.
Security
T/F Correctional organizations have two related management subsystems: one that is concerned with managing inmates, the other with managing employees.
True
T/F The purpose of unit management in prisons is twofold: to decentralize the administration of the prison, and to enhance communication among staff and between staff and inmates.
True
T/F Today there are over one million people in U.S. prisons and jails.
True
T/F The mission of corrections agencies has changed little over time.
True
T/F There are now about 30 supermax prisons in the United States.
True
T/F Supermax inmates rarely leave their cells; in most, an hour a day of out-of-cell time is the norm.
True
T/F Supermax prison inmates are primarily distinguished by their large amount of access to vocational or educational training programs.
False
T/F Given the high degree of isolation and lack of activities, a major concern voiced by critics of supermax facilities is their “social pathology” and potential effect on inmates’ mental health
True
T/F Although there is very little research concerning the effects of supermax confinement, some authors point to isolation research that shows far lower levels of problems in such facilities.
False
T/F Female inmates living in a high-security unit have been found to experience claustrophobia, chronic rage reactions, depression, hallucinatory symptoms, withdrawal, and apathy.
True
T/F Because of their relatively recent origin, the constitutionality of supermax prisons has been tested in only a few cases, which resulted in those prisons being shut down.
False
T/F Historically the courts followed a “hands off” policy regarding prisons and prisoners’ rights, deeming prisoners to be “slaves of the state.”
True
T/F Traditionally, the judiciary wanted to tell wardens how to operate their institutions.
False
T/F The mid-1960s brought a change of philosophy in the courts regarding prisoners’ rights.
True
T/ F Prison inmates now retain all the rights of free citizens except for those restrictions necessary for their orderly confinement and for public safety.
True
T/F Bounds v. Smith said that prisoners have a constitutional right to adequate law libraries or assistance from persons trained in the law.
True
T/F Procunier v. Martinez invalidated prison mail censorship regulations that permitted authorities to hold back or to censor mail to and from prisoners.
True
T/F Estelle v. Gamble was the first major prison medical treatment case decided by the Supreme Court, and was where the Court coined the phrase “deliberate indifference.”
True
T/F Deliberate indifference is where the serious medical needs of prisoners involve the unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain.
True
T/F The Wolff v. McDonnell decision was significant because, for the first time, the Supreme Court acknowledged that inmates are entitled to certain due process rights—”fundamental fairness.”
True
T/F Ruffin v. Virginia included the rather famous statement that “There is no iron curtain drawn between the Constitution and the prisons of this country.”
False
T/F Unlike police organizations, it is not yet possible for corrections organizations to become accredited.
False
T/F Since 1978 the American Correctional Association (ACA) has successfully argued against corrections accreditation
False
T/F The Supreme Court’s decision in Dogg v. Connelly reinstated the hands-off doctrine on the part of the courts
False
T/F The prison director’s office normally has a legal division
True
T/F Most evaluations of direct supervision jails have been discouraging
False
T/F The two different views of what a correctional organization should be are the custodial and treatment philosophies.
True
T/F Truth-in-sentencing laws or policies involve restriction or elimination of parole eligibility and good-time credits
True
T/F To qualify for federal truth-in-sentencing funding, states must require violent offenders to serve at least 45 percent of their prison sentence.
False
T/F Pizarro et al. believe that supermax prisons potentially endanger society, beyond regular imprisonment
True
T/F When an inmate claims that the conditions of his or her confinement violate the Eighth Amendment, he or she must show a culpable state of mind on the part of prison officials.
True
T/F Among those reporting to the prison warden are deputy or associate wardens, for operations, special services, and administration.
True
T/F Deputy wardens for operations normally oversee the library, mental health, drug and alcohol recovery services, education, prison job assignments, religious services, and prison industries.
False
T/F Deputy wardens for special services in prisons oversee correctional security, unit management, the inmate disciplinary committee, and recreation.
False
T/F Deputy wardens for administration typically manage the business office, prison maintenance, laundry, food service, medical services, prison farms, and the issuance of clothing.
True
T/F A prison’s correctional security department is normally the largest department, with 50 to 70 percent of all staff.
True
T/F The unit management concept now assists nearly every state in controlling prisons
True
T/F According to the U.S. Department of Justice, the Prison Litigation Reform Act has increased the number of civil rights petitions filed by prison inmates.
False
T/F According to the Prison Litigation Reform Act, an inmate must first try to resolve his or her complaint through the prison’s grievance procedure before filing a lawsuit.
True
T/F Using systems theory, probation may be conceptualized as a network of interwoven resources, activities, and outcomes.
True
T/F The administration of probation is much less complex than that of parole.
False
T/F The two basic models for administering parole services are the independent and the consolidated models.
True
T/F Jails that are well-lit, clean, and have calming colors will be more comfortable and safer for inmates but have no effect on the transitional or reentry process.
False
T/F In direct supervision jails, inmates are grouped together and placed in “pods,” and officers monitor them from the outside of bars and glass.
False
T/F Custody and treatment are complementary in correctional organizations.
True