chpter 12 ecomm

ecommerce
the conduct of selling, buying, logistics, or other organization management activities via the web
culture
the combination or language and atoms
globilization
to go worldwide in slope and approximation; a consumer can access the internet form anywhere at anytime
commerce
a negotiated exchange of valuable objects or services between two or more parties (a buyer and a seller); includes all activities that each of the parties undertake to complete the transaction
profit
revenue minus all expenses
socio-economic
group status based on social groupings and economic status, in terms of e-commerce, these groups may or may not be limited by financial security
EDI ( Electric Data Interchange)
Transaction that occurs when one business transmits computer-readable data in an open format.
Value Added Network
An independent firm that offers connections and EDI transaction services
EFT (Electric Funds Transfer)
The process of exchanging account information electronically over private communications networks
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
transferring of information from one computer to another
HTTP
The language of the world wide web
TCP/IP
establishes where the data travels
storyboard
the process of developing and diagramming a site’s structure that best matches your user’s needs
Balanced Hierarchy
a hierarchical tree that facilitates quick access to information and helps users understand how you have organized content
Chunk
Short uniformly organized pieces of information that particularly lend themselves to help presentations
Deep Hierarchy
A hierarchy with too many menu-selections, becomes a navigational nightmare for the user
Hierarchy
a graphical structure that flows from the most important or most general to the most specific
Linear Hierarchy
a hierarchy that is viewed sequentially in a line one right after the other
Placeholder
a box that is drawn on your storyboard to represent where a graphic would be
Shallow Hierarchy
too many sections
Site Assessment
evaluating the form and function of your website design
Webbed Hierarchy
a web like structure with non traditional linking page
Site Map
a detailed structural outline of a website
Flow Chart
a quick sketch of the site’s navigational structure
Page Layout
a detailed sketch of each page
Transaction Processing
Completing a transaction online
E-Procurement
all purchasing activities plus all the monitoring of elements
Procurement
Purchase of goods for resale
Snail Mail
Mail sent and received via postal service
B2B
business online between two businesses
B2C
the exchange of products over the internet
B2G
involves the concept that businesses and government agencies can use central web sites to exchange info
C2C
the exchange of products like on ebay
C2B
the exchange of products, services, or info between consumers like on priceline.com
Shopping Cart
an electronic tool used by online consumers to purchase goods or services
Fulfillment Company
offers services to other companies like transaction processing
HR
the division of a company which hires employees and takes care of all employee-related matters
EDI
when one business transfers computer readable data into an agreed upon format
ISP
a business that provides access to the internet via modem
Logistics
consumer browsing for information from multiple sites
GPS
Global Positioning System
Web Auction
a site which provides a forum for buyers and sellers to trade items
Intranet
a web-based private network that hosts internet applications on a local area network
VAN ( Value Added Network)
provides connections and ensures security for data
Combination Menu
Using both graphics/images and text for websites
Ethernet Speed
10 Mybtes per second, the speed at which the data is transported
Form
the actual layout of the website
Frames
displaying two or more web pages at the same time in the same browser window
Function
the navigation features of the website
Graphics Menu
using images as links from a home page or other web page
Home Page
A point of entry into a website
Portal
entry into a website
Structured Menus
Links are easy to follow and in logical order
Target Audience
The group of people a website from a home page
Text Menu
using any keyed text for links from a home page or other website pages
Unstructured Menus
Words are hot linked from a home page or other website pages
URL
the website’s web address
Animated GIF
A GIF based graphic file that moves
Anti-Aliasing
A technique for diminishing edges of a pixelated graphic
Applets
Programs written in javascript and added to the website
Background
The basic overall color or design of your website
Demographics
Characteristics such as age, sex, income, location, etc.
Foreground
Text color
Form handler
a software program running on a web server that interprets the data sent by a web page
Inline Graphic
a graphic that appears within a line of text
Input Controls
Form fields that are used to collect data entered by the user
JPEG
a file format for images used with lots of color
PNG
another file format for pictures
Tables
Used to hold text and/ or graphics so that they do not change sizes on other pages
Thumbnails
small graphics used to keep loading time down
Resolution
Describes how many pixels are displayed on your screen
Wallpaper
background of your webpage
accessibility
ability for all persons even with disabilities
accessibility wizards
option on most computers that allow a user’s computer to be configured for visual, hearing,and physical needs
Alternate Browsers
browsers that validate websites for use by individuals with disabilities
dragon naturally speaking
voice activated software
JAWS
windows program with powerful accessibility solution that reads information found on the computer and speaks it
Read Aloud Software
reads text aloud
ViaVoice
Voice activated software
Valediction Methods
procedures to test website accuracy and availability
Voice Activated Software
allows use of computer by voice commands
WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative)
Guidelines developed and continually revised since 1999 to ensure that persons with disabilities can access the web
W3C (WWW Consortium)
non-profit organization that oversees and assists in monitoring the web
Certification Mark
A word or symbol that is used in commerce to certify geographic origin
Collective Mark
A mark used in commerce by the members of an association
Copyright
Legal protection that gives the author of a work control over how the work is used
Cyber Separating
The act of registering, selling, or using a domain name of someone else’s for profit
Certification Mark
any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination, used a intended to be used in commerce with the owner’s permission by someone other than its owner
Collective Mark
a trademark or service mark used or intended to be used in commerce, by the members of a cooperative or association, or other group
Copyright
Legal protection that gives the author of a work control over how that work is used
Cyber Squatting
the act of registering, selling, or using an internet domain name with bad-faith
Drawing page
part of the trademark application process where a black and white drawing of the mark is included
Fair use Rule
Describes when and how much of a copyrighted work may be copied or used in another report
Hacking
unauthorized access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and compiling data
Intellectual property
the right an individual or group of individuals has in an idea
Registered copyright
the author has registered the piece with the us copyright office. Doing this makes it easier to prove copyright infringement
Registered trademark
a company can register a trademark with the U.S. patent and trademark office. Only registered trademarks use the R symbol
Service mark
any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination used or intended to be used in commerce
Specimen page
part of the trademark application process where a real example of how the mark is used in commerce is included
Trademark
a distinctive word, phrase, logo, graphic symbol, slogan, or anything used to identify goods or services and distinguishes them in the marketplace
Unregistered copyright
an author does not have to do anything to copyright a work. Pieces after 1989 do not have to contain the c symbol
Unregistered trademark
a company does not have to do anything to have trademark protection. To designate an unregistered trademark a company would use “tm”
Accounting/Finance
This function plans and manages financial resources and maintains the records and information related to the business
Distribution
The process of moving products from the merchant to the customer
Management/ Administration
This function is responsible for developing, implementing, and evaluating the plans and activities of a business
Marketing
This function is responsible for the process of planning and executing the conception, promotion, and distribution of goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives
Production
this function creates or obtains products or services for sale
cookies
a small piece of information sent from a web server to an individual’s web browser so it can later be read back from that browser
Demographics
characteristics such as age, sex, income, location, education, and religion
Psychographics
lifestyle characteristics which include activities, attitudes, customs, and traditions
Referring page
The last page visited before the current web page
Segment
components of a movement in which people have one or more similar characteristics.
Site personalization
allows users to determine what features of a site they want to appear when they come to the site
Target market
a clearly identified segment of the market to which the company wants to appeal
Traffic logs
Reports produced from software on your web server or provided by the company hosting your web site that tell you the domain of your visitors and their referring pages.
Affiliate programs
a site agrees to place a merchants ad without charge. The affiliate only gets paid when a visitor clicks on the link and buys something
Auto responders
programs that analyze incoming email and replies with a canned response
Banner advertising
online advertising technique where small hyper lined advertisements are placed on frequently visited pages of a website
Channel Rotation
a banner advertisement is placed within a particular category of a web site. This is more focused on the company’s target market
Classified Ad
text ad just like a classified ad in print except it is listed on a website
CPM
cost per 1000 impressions
Ezine
online magazines or email newsletters
Fulfillment company
It warehouses a merchants goods and processes orders for the merchant
General rotation
a banner advertisement is randomly displayed on a web site
Goods
tangible products, they have a touch and feel
Listserv
an emailing list that receives newsletters and updates
Newsgroup
electronic billboards where people post questions and comments, they are broken into interest groups
Number of click throughs
the number of times viewers click on the banner
Number of impressions
the number of times a banner is displayed to individual viewers
Opt-in
mailing list that people have voluntarily given their email address in order to receive the email from that company
Press release
a short news article sent to various media channels
Return Policy
how the company deals with a customer who wants to return a purchase
Secure socket layer
needed to provide credit card security for browser
Services
intangible products, they give a benefit or satisfaction
Order fulfillment
in the relationship between buyer and seller, there are many activities that transpire between the buyer’s selection of the product and the shipment of the selected product to the buyer selecting merchandise, responding to the order
Response Time
refers to the amount of time it takes a seller to responded to an inquiry for purchase/service.
Inventory management
relies on how well a seller manages the product inventory—consider cost of shortage, stock on hand, just in time tracking
Stock on hand
too small/ decreases response time, too large increases cost
Just in time inventory
determines the amount of ability to respond to customer inquiry, determines ability to anticipate and respond to inventory
Manual inventory controls
counting and collecting info manually by hand, if done periodically due to expertise
Continuous inventory controls
managed with electronic database, updated instantaneously, best for online selling
order fulfillment
when the selected object is shipped to the buyer
response time
refers to the amount of time it takes a seller to respond to an inquiry for purchase or service
inventory management
relies on how well a seller manages the product inventory
stock on hand
too small decreases response time, too large increases cost
just in time inventory
products manufactured as needed
tracking inventory
determines the ability to respond to inventory
continuous inventory controls
managed with electric database updated instantaneously best for online selling
product distribution channels
refers to all of the steps in the movement of products or services to the customer
indirect distribution channels
refers to all of the steps in the movement of products
direct distribution channels
company produces goods/services and delivers them
inter-mediation
middle man
dis-intermediation
process of loosing distribution channels when they are no longer needed
Re-intermediation
adding a level of the distribution system
Profitability
the ability to make a profit after expenses are deducted from success
Productivity
amount of output to make a profit after expenses are deducted
e-checks
allow consumers to write paperless checks
e-cash
drawn from online customers banking account
globalization
the act of becoming worldwide in scope or application
culture
customary beliefs of a social group
internet infrastructure
the computers and software connected to the internet
jurisdiction
the ability of the government to exert control over a person or corporation
permanent establishment
physical location of an organization
international business
an organization or business which conducts electronic commerce around the globe
income taxes
taxes that are levied by national, state, and local governments
transaction taxes
include sales taxes, use taxes, etc
tariffs
imposed on imported goods
exchange rate
the ratio at which the principal of two currencies may be traded
currency conversion
process of using a financial formula incorporating current exchange rate
asynchronous
no timing requirement for communication
domain name
a web address used in URLS
domain extension
suffix that indicates which top level domain it belongs to
Outsourcing
when a company hires another company to handle some of the tasks related to the creation and maintenance of a web site.
Job Displacement
due to changes in the market place, the demand for certain job types is decreased and in some instances become obsolete
Intermediaries
Refers to the “Middleman” that exists in the value chain between the manufacturing of the product and its delivery to the buyer
Dis-Inter-mediation
when a segment of the value chain becomes unnecessary or is replaced by another intermediary
Database Software
a collection of data records with fields such as names, addresses, etc
SQL
structured query language is the standardized language used to request information from a database
Dynamic online catalog
employs sophisticated database software that quickly retrieves and updates data such as inventory ability.
Storefront software packages
fully integrated software packages that provide users with all of the tools necessary to create an e-commerce site
Security software
software that provides protection for both merchant and customer data
Encryption software
software that scrambles data into a secret code that can only be broken by complicated mathematical algorithms
Firewall software
software that surrounds an intranet to prevent unauthorized access by examining each message or request that enters and exits the intranet
Digital Certificates
certificates that verify that the sender of a message is who he or she claims to be and provides the person who receives the message with the public key required to encrypt a reply
Storage Area Network
a network that exists exclusively to provide storage for the massive amount of data entailed in an e-commerce business
ISP
connects a computer to the internet a basic account with an isp provides customers with an email address limited or full access to the internet
ASP
this is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access over the internet to application programs and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers.
Authentication
establishing the validity of ones claimed identity
Black hat hacker
a person who breaks into a computer system with the purpose of inflicting damage or stealing data
Bug
a persistent error in software or hardware. If the bug is in software, it can be corrected by changing the program
Cookie
small piece of information collected and saved in the browser from a site and retrieved when the user returns to that site
Cracker
a person who breaks into a computer system without authorization, whose purpose is to do damage
Cybersquatting
registering an internet name for the purpose of reselling it for a profit
Denial of Service
a condition in which a system can no longer respond to normal requests
Encrypted service/ browser
use in order to protect against unlawful access to a user’s credit card number
Denial of service attack
a bug or virus that will not allow a user to log on to a website
Encryption
process of encoding information using a secret key to produce a string of unintelligible characters
E-privacy act
designed to protect individual privacy
Fair Trade Act
acts that deal with fraudulent sales, protects against misinterpretation
Filtering software
an internet filter is a piece of software controlled by authority that filters by keyword
Firewall
computer system or software that prevents unauthorized access to provide data to outside users
Hocking
To write program source code
Interstate Tax Freedom act
proposed legislation that suggests the federal government mandate a 5% internet tax on internet commerce
Interstate commerce Act
regulates shipment of products via surface transportation
Millennium Digital commerce act
states that electronic commerce contracts are valid when signed electronically
Pharming
setting up fraudulent web site that contains copies of pages from a legitimate web site
Phishing
it is a scam to steal valuable information such as credit card and social security numbers
Security
risk introduced to a company when someone accesses a company’s website using a browser
Site certificate
verifies the host’s identity to computers that access it
Telecommunications Act
preserves the vibrant and competitive free market that presently exists for the internet and other interactive computer services
User authentication
procedure of verifying the identity of a remote user
Veri-sign
a for profit organization that provides products that allow the web sites to transmit encrypted data to authenticate the web site through the use of digital certificates.
Internal hosting
operating and maintaining your own server
External hosting
using an outside company to serve your website
Catalog
a listing of goods or services that may include photographs or descriptions
Shopping cart
a feature that allows user to add, delete, view, and update items for purchase
Transaction and payment processing
processes the shopper’s request as they proceed to the virtual checkout counter
From handling software
specialized software that allows users to provide responses and submit the data to the servers
Asymmetric digital subscriber line
a network that allows your computer to communicate at approximately one mbps
Web server
rats web user requests to e-commerce servers
Cable modem
direct connection with the capacity to deliver approximately 5 mbps
Discussion group software
software that supports discussion threads
total inter-firm trade
The total flow of value among firms.
b2b commerce
All types of computer enabled inter-firm trade.
b2b e-commerce
That portion of B2B commerce that is enabled by the internet.
procurement process
The way firms purchase the goods they need to produce goods for consumers.
supply chain
Firms that purchase goods, their suppliers, and their suppliers’ suppliers.
direct goods
Goods directly involved in the production process.
indirect goods
All other goods not directly involved in the production process.
contract purchasing
Involves long-term written agreements to purchase specified products, under agreed-upon terms and quality, for an extended period of time.
spot purchasing
Involves the purchase of goods based on immediate needs in larger marketplaces that involve many suppliers.
legacy computer systems
Generally are older mainframe and minicomputer systems used to manage key business processes within a firm in a variety of functional areas.
materials requirements planning system
Legacy system that enables companies to predict, track, and mange all the constituent parts of complex manufactured goods.
enterprise resource planning system
A more sophisticated MRP system that includes human resource and financial components.
supply chain management
Refers to a wide variety of activities that firms and industries use to coordinate the key players in their procurement process.
supply chain management systems
Continuously link the activities of buying, making, and moving products from suppliers to purchasing firms, as well as integrating the demand side of the business equation by including the order entry system in the process.
collaborative commerce
The use of digital technologies to permit organizations to collaboratively design, develop, build, and manage products through their life cycles.
net marketplaces
Bring together potentially thousands of sellers and buyers in single digital marketplace operated over internet.
private industrial networks
Bring together small number of strategic business partner firms that collaborate to develop highly efficient supply chains.
e-distributor
Provides electronic catalog that represents the products of thousands of direct manufacturers.
e-procurement net marketplace
Independently owned intermediary that connects hundreds of online suppliers offering millions of maintenance and repair parts to business firms who pay fees to join the marker.
exchange
Independently owned online marketplace that connects hundreds to potentially thousands of suppliers and buyers in a dynamic, real-time environment.
industry consortium
Industry-owned vertical market that enables buyers to purchase direct inputs from a limited set of invited participants.
Downstream
_____ strategies can be used to improve the value that the business provides to its customers.
Upstream
_____ strategies focus on reducing costs or generating value by working with suppliers or inbound shipping and freight service providers.
TCO
The _____ of an electronic commerce implementation includes the costs of hardware, software, design work outsourced, salaries and benefits for employees involved in the project, and the cost of maintaining the site once it is operational.
Scalability
_____ is measured by the ease of expansion of bandwidth, disk space, and additional software (database, traffic analysis, and so on) that can be added to an account as it grows.
ROI
Which of the following techniques measures the amount of income that will be provided by a specific current expenditure?
Net Present Value
_____ is an example of a return on investment technique.
Outsourcing
Hiring another company to provide the outside support for all or part of a project is called _____.
Early Outsourcing
In many electronic commerce projects, the company outsources the initial site design and development to launch the project quickly. This approach is called _____.
Partial Outsourcing
In _____, the company identifies specific portions of the project that can be completely designed, developed, implemented, and operated by another firm that specializes in a particular function.
Incubator
A(n) _____ is a company that offers start-up companies a physical location with offices, accounting and legal assistance, computers, and Internet connections at a very low monthly cost.
Fast Venturing
In _____, an existing company that wants to launch an electronic commerce initiative joins external equity partners and operational partners that can offer the experience and skills needed to develop and scale up the project very rapidly.
Equity Partners
_____ are usually banks or venture capitalists that sometimes offer money, but are more likely to offer experience gained from guiding other start-ups that they have funded.
Operational Partners
_____ are firms, such as system integrators and consultants, that have experience in moving projects along and scaling up prototypes.
Venture Sponsor
The _____ is the existing company that wants to launch an electronic commerce initiative.
Operational Partners
_____ provide the venture sponsor with knowledge of industry best practices.
Project Management
_____ is a collection of formal techniques for planning and controlling the activities undertaken to achieve a specific goal.
Business Manager
The _____ should be a member of the internal team that sets the objectives for the project.
Project Manager
A(n) _____ is a person with specific training or skills in tracking costs and the accomplishment of specific objectives in a project.
Account Manager
A(n) _____ keeps track of multiple Web sites in use by a project or keeps track of the projects that will combine to create a larger Web site.
Application Specialist
Most large businesses have _____ who maintain accounting, human resources, and logistics software.
Web Programmers
_____ design and write the database-driven Web pages.
Customer Service Personnel
_____ help design and implement customer relationship management activities in the electronic commerce operation.
Network Operations
The _____ staff functions include load estimation and load monitoring, and designing and implementing fault-resistant technologies.
Database Administration
Most electronic commerce sites requires a(n) _____ function to support activities such as transaction processing, order entry, inquiry management, or shipment logistics.
Postimplementation Audit
A _____ is a formal review of a project after it is up and running.
Scrip
_____ is/are digital cash mired by a company instead of by a government.
Credit and Debit Cards
What payment method dominates online transactions today?
Not-For-Profit Fundraising
Most current scrip offerings, such as eScrip, focus on the _____ market.
Charge Card
A _____, offered by companies such as American Express, carries no spending limit, and the entire amount charged to the card is due at the end of the billing period.
Closed Loop
In a(n) _____ system, the card issuer pays the merchants that accept the card directly and does not use an intermediary, such as a bank or clearinghouse system.
Open Loop
Whenever a third party processes a transaction, the system is called a(n) _____ system.
Merchant
A(n) _____ bank is a bank that does business with sellers that want to accept payment cards.
Chargeback
When a cardholder successfully contests a charge, the merchant bank must retrieve the money it placed in the merchant account in a process called a(n) _____.
Automated Clearing House
ACH is short for _____.
Micropayments
Internet payments for items costing from a few cents to approximately a dollar are called _____.
Small Payment
The term _____ refers to all payments of less than $10.
Mobile
Some companies have begun to offer small payment and micropayment services through _____ telephone carriers.
Double Spending
_____ is spending a particular piece of electronic cash twice by submitting the same electronic currency to two different vendors.
Anonymous
_____ electronic cash is electronic cash that cannot be traced back to the person who spent it.
Serial Number
One way to be able to trace electronic cash is to attach a _____ to each electronic cash transaction.
Serial Numbers
Creating truly anonymous electronic cash requires a bank to issue electronic cash with embedded _____ such that the bank can digitally sign the electronic cash while removing any association of the cash with a particular customer.
Float
PayPal earns a profit on the _____, which is money that is deposited in Paypal accounts and not used immediately.
Peer-To-Peer
The free payment clearing service that PayPal provides to individuals is called a _____ payment system.
Client-Side
A(n) _____ electronic wallet stores a consumer’s information on his/her own computer.
Client-Side
A disadvantage of _____ wallets is that they are not portable.
Smart Card
A _____ is a stored-value card that is a plastic card with an embedded microchip that can store information.
Paper Checks
The largest dollar volume of payments today are made using _____.
Phishing
_____ is a technique for committing fraud against the customers of online businesses.
Identify Theft
_____ is a criminal act in which the perpetrator gathers personal information about a victim and then uses that information to obtain credit.
Spam
_____ is a key element in a phishing attack.
Computer Security
_____ is the protection of computer assets from unauthorized accessed, use, alteration, or destruction.
Threat
Any act or object that poses a danger to computer assets is known as a _____.
Logical
The protection of assets using nonphysical means is called _____ security.
Eavesdropper
A(n) _____ is a person or device that is able to listen in on and copy Internet transmissions.
Hacker
Originally, the term _____ was used to describe a dedicated programmer who enjoyed writing complex code that tested the limits of technology.
Secrecy
_____ refers to protecting against unauthorized data disclosure and ensuring the authenticity of the data source.
Integrity
_____ refers to preventing unauthorized data modification.
Necessity
_____ Refers to preventing data delays or denials.
Web Bug
The purpose of a(n) _____ is to provide a way for a third-party Web site to place cookies from that third-party site on a visitor’s computer.
Active Content
_____ refers to programs that are embedded transparently in Web pages and that cause action to occur.
Applet
A(n) _____ is a small application program.
Trojan Horse
A(n) _____ is a program hidden inside another program or Web page that masks its true purpose.
Sun Microsystems
Java is a programming language developed by _____.
Active X Control
A(n) _____ is an object that contains programs and properties that Web designers place on Web pages to perform particular tasks.
Windows
Active X controls run only on computers with _____ operating systems.
Virus
A(n) _____ is software that attaches itself to another program and can cause damage when the host program is activated.
Steganography
The term _____ describes the process of hiding information within another piece of information.
Privacy
_____ is the protection of individual rights to nondisclosure.
Sniffer Programs
Software applications called _____ provide the means to record information that passes through a computer or router that is handling Internet traffic.
Backdoor
A(n) _____ allows anyone with knowledge of its existence to cause damage by observing transactions, deleting, data, or stealing data.
Cybervandalism
_____ is the electronic defacing of an existing Web site’s page.
Spoofing
_____ is pretending to be someone you are not or representing a Web site as an original when it is really a fake.
Symmetric
_____ encryption encodes a message with an algorithm that uses a single numeric key, such as 456839420783, to encode and decode data.
Authenticity
A Web server can compromise _____ when it allows automatic directory listings.
A Buffer
_____ is an area of memory set aside to hold data read from a file or database.
Commerce Service Providers
_____ often offer Web server management and rent application software to businesses.
Managed
Commerce service providers are also called _____ service providers.
Catalog
A _____ is a listing of goods and services.
Filling Out Online Forms
In the early days of electronic commerce, shoppers deleted items they wanted to purchase by _____.
Billing
In a shopping cart, clicking the Checkout button usually displays a screen that asks for _____ and shipping information.
Stateless
The Web is a _____ system, unable to remember anything from one transmission or session to another.
Cookies
One way to uniquely identify users and store information about their choices is to create and store _____.
Transaction Processing
_____ occurs when the shopper proceeds to the virtual checkout counter by clicking a checkout button.
Distributed
Large information systems that store the same data in many different physical locations are called _____.
Component-Based
Application servers are usually grouped into two types: page-based and _____ systems.
Application Integration
_____ is accomplished by programs that transfer information from one application to another.
Component-Based
Larger businesses often prefer to use a _____ application system that separates the presentation logic from the business logic.
ERP
_____ software packages are business systems that integrate all facets of a business, including accounting, logistics, manufacturing, planning, project management, and treasury functions.
Enterprise Resource Planning
ERP is the acronym for _____.
Web Services
The W3C defines _____ as software systems that support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.
SOAP
_____ is a message passing protocol that defines how to send marked-up data from one software application to another across a network.
WSDL
_____ is used to describe the characteristics of the logic units that make up specific Web services.
Mall-Style
_____ CSPs provide small business with an Internet connection, Web site creation tools, and little or no banner advertising clutter.
Data Mining
_____ can help businesses find customers with common interest and discover previously unknown relationships among the data.
Midrange
_____ packages allow the merchant to have explicit control over merchandising choices, site layout, internal architecture, and remote and local management options.
IBM
WeSphere Commerce Suite is produced by _____.
Microsoft
Commerce Server is produced by _____.
Enterprise-Class
_____ software typically provides tools for linking to an supporting supply and purchasing activities.
Knowledge Management
_____ software often includes powerful search tools that use proprietary semantic and statistical algorithms to help users find the content, human experts, and other resources that can aid them in their research and decision-maing tasks.
Knowledge Management
_____ software is designed to help businesses mange the information in documents, rather than the documents themselves.
total inter-firm trade
the total flow of value among firms
B2B commerce
all types of inter-firm trade
B2B e-commerce
that portion of B2B commerce that is enabled by the Internet
Supply Chain
the links that connect business firms with one another to coordinate production
automated order entry systems
involve the use of telephone modems to send digital orders
seller-side solutions
seller biased markets that are owned by and show only goods from a single seller.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
a communications standard for sharing business documents and settlement information among a small number of firms.
buyer-side solutions
buyer-biased markets that are owned by buyers and that aim to reduce the procurement costs of supplies for buyers.
hub and spoke system
suppliers connected to a central hub of buyers via private dedicated networks.
vertical market
one that provides expertise and products for a specific industry
horizontal markets
markets that serve many different industries
B2B electronic storefronts
online catalogs of products made available to the public marketplace by a single supplier
Net marketplace
brings hundreds to thousands of suppliers and buyers into a single internet based environment to conduct trade.
private industrial networks (private trading exchange)
Internet based communication environments that extend far beyond procurement to encompass truly collaborative commerce
procurement process
how firms purchase goods they need to produce goods for consumers.
direct goods
goods directly involved in the production process
indirect goods
all other goods not directly involved in the production process
MRO Goods
products for maintenance, repair and operations.
contract purchasing
involves long term written agreements to purchase specified products, under agreed upon terms and quality for an extended period of time.
spot purchasing
involves the purchase of goods based on immediate needs in larger marketplaces that involve many suppliers
multi-tier supply chain
the chain of primary, secondary, and tertiary suppliers
legacy computer systems
older mainframe systems used to manage key business processes within a firm in a variety of functional areas
enterprise systems
corporate wide systems that relate to all aspects of production, including finance, human resources, and procurement.
supply chain management (SCM)
refers to a wide variety of activities that firms and industries use to coordinate the key players in their procurement process
just in time production
a method of inventory cost management which seeks to eliminate excess inventory to a bare minimum
lean production
a set of production methods and tools that focuses on the elimination of waste throughout the customer value chain
tight coupling
a method for ensuring that suppliers precisely deliver the ordered parts, at a specific time and particular location, to ensure the production process is not interrupted for lack of parts
supply chain management systems
continuously link the activities of buying, making, and moving products from suppliers to purchasing firms, as well as integrating the demand side of the business equation by including the order entry system in the process.
collaborative commerce
the use of digital technologies to permit organizations to collaboratively design, develop, and manage products through their life cycles
e-distributor
provides electronic catalog that represents the products of thousands of direct manufacturers. operate in horizontal markets with different products and from many different suppliers
e-procurement Net marketplace
independently owned intermediary that connects hundreds of online suppliers offering millions of maintenance and repair parts to business firms who pay fees to join the market. typically used for long term contractual purchases.
value chain management services
include automation of a firm’s entire procurement process on teh buyer side and automation of the selling business processes on teh seller side
exchange
type of net marketplace. independently owned online marketplace that connects hundreds to potentially thousands of suppliers and buyers in a dynamic, real-time environment. Makes money by commision on each trade.
liquidity
typically measured by the number of buyers and sellers in a market, the volume of transactions, and the size of transactions.
industry consortium
industry owned vertical market that enables buyers to purchase direct inputs (both goods and services) from a limited set of invited participants.
trans-organizational business process
process that requires at least two independent firms to perform
collaborative resource planning, forecasting, and replenishment
involves working with network members to forecast demand, develop production plans, and coordinate shipping, warehousing and stocking activites to ensure that retail and wholesale shelf space is replenished with just the right amount of goods.
What is e-commerce? (6)
1. electronic buying and selling of goods and services
2. on line delivery of digital products
3. direct consumer marketing
4. EFT
5. electronic trading of stocks
6. electronic data interchange
What are the advantages of EDI? (5)
1. reduction/elimination of data entry
2. reduction of data keying errors, human interpretation, and classification errors
3. reduction of paper
4. reduction of paper processing and postage
5. reduction of inventories
What are 5 Internet Protocols and what do they govern?
1. TCP/IP- basic communication of the internet
2. HTTP- web browsers
3. FTP – used to transfer files across the internet
4. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol- email
5. Secure electronic transmission- encryption schemes for credit card transactions
What functions do protocols perform? (5)
1. facilitate PHYSICAL CONNECTION
2. synchronize TRANSFER OF DATA
3. provide a basis for ERROR CHECKING and measuring network PERFORMANCE
4. promote COMPATIBILITY
5. Promote network DESIGNS that are flexible, expandable, and cost-effective
Benefits of E-commerce? (5) KNOW THIS
1. access to worldwide customer/supplier base
2. reductions in inventory investment/ carrying costs
3. rapid creations of business partnerships
4. reductions in retail prices through lower marketing costs and procurement costs
5. better customer service
What are 4 key features of cloud computing?
1. firms can acquire IT resources on demand and as needed
2. resources are provided over a network and accessed through network terminals at the client location
3. acquisition of resources is rapid and infinitely scalable
4. computing resources are pooled to meet the needs of multiple client firms
What are the 3 primary services of cloud computing?
1. SaaS- host applications over a network
2. IaaS- provision of computing power and disk space to firms who access it from desktop PC’s
3. PaaS- enables firms to develop and deploy onto the cloud infrastructure their consumer-generated applications using vendor-provided facilities
Cloud computing issues?
1. already large investment in infrastructure
2. mission critical functions running on legacy systems
3. no interest in a one-size-fits-all mentality
4. internal control and security issues
What are the three business models and what do they mean?
1. information- info about the company
2. transaction- can place orders with customers/suppliers
3. distribution- can deliver digital products to customers over the internet
What are 4 areas of e-commerce risk?
1. data security
2. business policies
3. privacy
4. business process integrity
What are 4 Intranet risks?
1. intercepting network messages; sniffing
2. access to corporate databases
3. privileged employees- may allow unauthorized access to mission critical data
4. reluctance to prosecute
What are 4 areas of concern to internet consumers?
1. theft of credit card numbers
2. theft of passwords
3. consumer privacy
4. identity theft
What are some controls to mitigate these risks?
1. multi-factor authentication
2. strong passwords
3. anti-virus software
4. intrusion detection system
What are two internet risks to businesses?
1. IP Spoofing
2. DoS attacks
What are three common types of DoS attacks?
1. SYN flood attack
2. Smurf attack
3. DDos attack
What are two types of firewalls?
1. Network level firewalls
2. Application level firewalls
What do all private key techniques have in common?
the more individuals who need to know the key, the greater the probability of it falling into the wrong hands
How does a company build a perception of integrity? (2 part approach)
1. implement the technology infrastructure and controls to provide adequate security
2. Adequate safeguards are in place and monitored- data encryption, digital authentication, and firewalls
strategy initiation
#1 company analysis, value proposition, competition, mission, objectives, opportunities
strategy formulation
#2 planning, cost-benefit, budget, risk analysis, business plan
strategy implementation
#3 project plan, resource allocation, scheduling teams (what, who, when, where)
strategy assessment
#4 monitor performance, compare, assess, improve, or adjust
strategy map
A tool that delineates the relationships among the key organizational objectives for all four BSC perspectives
competitor analysis grid
A strategic planning tool that highlights points of differentiation between competitors and the target firm
scenario planning
A strategic planning methodology that generates plausible alternative futures to help decision makers identify actions that can be taken today to ensure success in the future
balanced scorecard
A management tool that assesses organizational progress toward strategic goals by measuring performance in a number of different areas
business plan
A written document that identifies a company’s goals and outlines how the company intends to achieve the goals and at what cost
business case
A business plan for a new initiative or large, new project inside an existing organization
disintermediation
The process by which the consumer bypasses the services of an intermediary or intermediaries in the chain of distribution to purchase products directly from those who supply or produce them
Cost-plus
Adding up all the costs involved, such as material, labor, rent, overhead, etc., and adding a percentage mark-up as profit
Versioning
Selling the same good, but with different selection and delivery characteristics
project champion
person who ensures the EC project gets the time, attention, and resources required and defends the project from detractors at all times
business process reengineering (BPR)
methodology for conducting a comprehensive redesign of an enterprise’s processes
business process management (BPM)
Method for business restructuring that combines workflow systems and redesign methods; covers three process categories—people-to-people, systems-to-systems, and systems-to-people interactions
key performance indicator (KPI)
quantifiable measurement, agreed to beforehand, that reflects the critical success factors of a company, department or project
metric
A specific, measurable standard against which actual performance is compared
corporate performance management
advanced performance measuring and analysis approach that embraces planning and strategy, balanced Scorecards
Web analytics
analysis of clickstream data to understand visitor behavior on a website
E-Business
Use of electronic communication technology
Coordination, content literacy, computing , and commence
Coordination
Transfer or exchange of information
Content Literacy
learning and knowledge management
Computing
Manipulation of information
Commerce
e-commerce
E-commerce
Buying and selling of goods and services over private networks
Merchant e-commerce
takes title to the goods and services they sell
Non-merchant e-commerce
arranges for the purchase or sell of goods and services. AUCTIONS, CLEARHOUSING, EXCHANGES
B2G (Business to Government)
sales between companies and government organizations
Internet & Business
Direct communications
round the clock service
reduce trans cost
extended distribution channels
Internet
Global network using protocol, TCP/IP
What makes e-commerce work?
Buyers, Sellers, Market Place, Transaction and Technology
Intranet
Corporate LAN or Wan that functions with Internet tech behing company firewall
Extranet
Links intranets of business partners using virtual private networks
HTTP
used to exchange Web pages over the Internet
Web Server
Computer that delivers Web pages
Browser
Program that processes HTTP protocol,receives, displays, and processes HTML documents
3 tier architecture
User, Server, and Database tier
User Tier
Browsers that request and process web pages
Server tier
Web servers, upon request from browser
Database
Receives and processes SQL requests retrieve and store data
Web 2.0
Loose cloud of capabilities, tech, bus models, sets e commerce apart
-Google example, advertisers pay for ad words
Web 2.0 Processing
Software as service, Google, Amazon, virtual marketing
Mash-ups
output from two or more web sites combined into one experience
B2C (Business to Consumer)
Sales between suppliers and consumers.
Web Storefront
Disintermediation
Removal of organization or business layers responsible for certain steps in value chain
Reintermediation
Shifting of the intermediary role in value chain into new source…Paypal
Electronic Payment Process
Electronic funds transfer. Atm’s, pay by phone, Paypal
B2C success factors
-Location and time aren’t a factor
-Selection & Value
-Performance and service
-Look and feel
-security and reliability
Secure electronic Payments
ecryptying data between customer, merchant, financial institution SSL (Secure Socket Layer)
Secure Electronic transaction standard
Visa and MasterCard
Certificate
Attachment to an electronic message saying who they are
Opt-out Model (U.S. model)
Informed consent permitting collection of personal information
Opt-in Model (European Model)
People have to approve info collection. Informed consent prohibiting organization from collecting any personal info
B2B (Business to Business)
Sales, buy, and trade between businesses
Technology used for B2B
Electronic catalog
-trading
-data interchange
-funds transfer
Current Challenges with B2C &B2B
Requires new mindset
logistic expense and price conflict
Security and hackers
Why Web 2.0 for Business?
Advertising specific to user interests. Ad words and Ad sense
e-commerce (seller)
Information about price elasticity
B2B marketplaces
-One-to-many
-Many to One
Some-to-Many
Many-to-Some
Many-to- Many
One-to-Many
Sell-side, One major supplier to a others
Many-to-One
Suppliers to one major bidder
Some to Many
Unite major supplies to target many buyers
Many to Some
Unite major supplies to attract more suppliers
Many to Many
Many buyers and sellers…auctions
podcasts
_____ do not use streaming technology
uniform resource locator
URL stands for ______.
downloaded
before a podcast can be run, the media files must be ______.
domain name
www.mtv.com is what part of the URL?
top level domain
in a URL, the ____ identifies the type of organization.
instant messaging
_____ allows people to contact each other via direct, live communication.
blogs
some businesses and newspapers use _____ as a quick publishing method.
streaming
the technology that continuously downloads audio and video files to your computer while you are listening to and/or viewing the content.
true
true of false: prior to the introduction for eh world wide web in 1991, the internet was all text- no graphics, animations, sound or video.
cloud computing
corporations and end users who want to access data, programs and storage from anywhere that there is an internet connection should use _____.
business to business
this type of e-commerceis a manufacturer-supplier relationship.
communicating
of all the activities on the internet, ____ is the most popular.
blogger
_____ is a blogging tool.
consumer to consumer
this type of e-commerce is an electronic version of the classified ads or an auction.
ISPs
verizon, sprint, and AT&T are examples of _____.
online auctions
a trend in C2C e-commerce is the popularity of _____.
B2C
retail stores use ____ e-commerce to create a presence on the web as another way to reach customers.
domain name
www.abc.edu
protocol
http
edu
top level domain
web auction
in a _____, sellers post descriptions of products at a website and buyers submit bids electronically
B2C
online stock trading, online shopping, and online banking are all the common _____ applications.
browsers
____ are programs that provide an uncomplicated interface to the internet and web documents.
internet
the connection between the clients and the providers.
clients
end users who want access to data, programs and storage.
service providers
organizations with computers connected to the internet that provide access to software, data, and storage.
cloud computing
_____ frees users from owning, maintaing, and storing software and data.
domain
email addresses have two basic parts, the user’s name and the ____ name, which includes the top-level domain.
e-commerce
_____ is the general term to describe the buying and selling of goods on the internet.
business to consumer
this type of e-commerce allows a bushiness to sell a product or service to the general public or end users.
web based
if you are using email without installing an email client on your computer then you are using ____ email.
top level domain
the type of organization
domain name
the specific address where the resource is located
protocol
rules for exchanging data between computers.
email client
a special program called an ______ must be installed on your computer to use a client based email account.
browser
HTML formatting instructions are interpreted by the _____.
wiki
a community of interested people that build knowledge over time write collaboratively in a _____.
social networking
____ sites focus on connecting people that share a common interest or activity
facebook
_____ was initially launched by a student at Harvard University for college students in 2004.
blog
a personal website with posting that are time-stamped and arranged with the newest item first.
mobile
a _____ browser is designed to fit on the small screen of a portable device.
linkedln
researching individual businesses, searching for job opportunities, developing extended business networks, and maintaining business contacts are all of the actions that best describe the primary uses of ______.
web
there are two basic types of email accounts: client based and ____-based.
web
the ____ provides an easy-to-use, intuitive, multimedia interface to the sources available on the internet.
internet service provider
in order to connect to the internet via the web, you will need communications hardware, browser software, and an _______.
URL
for a browser to connect to a web page, the address, also called the ___, must be specified.
hyperlink
when creating a web page, if you would like to be able to click and display another webpage, you should use a _____.
spam blocker
if you are receiving too much junk email your ____ is not working well.
blog
a _____ publishes long stories rather than short sentences that only take a few seconds to write.
ISP
a(n) ____ provides a path or connection for individuals to access the internet.
signature
the _____ of an email message may include the sender’s name, address, and telephone number.
internet service provider
ISP stand for _____
microblog
a ____ publishes short sentences that only take a few seconds to write, rather than long stories.
javascript
a language called _____ is often used to trigger simple interactive features on web pages.