chp 6 mktg

Any group of people who, as individuals or as organizations, have needs for products in a product class and who have the ability, willingness, and authority to buy such products is a(n)

a) business market.
b) market.
c) undifferentiated market
d) segmented market
e) market variable

b) market.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a consumer market?
a) it consists of purchasers who intend to consume or benefit from the purchased products
b) they do not buy products for the main purpose of making a profit
c) they are sometimes referred to as B2C markets
d) their purchasing decisions are always made by only one individual
e) each of us belongs to numerous markets of this type
d) their purchasing decisions are always made by only one individual
Which of these statements is not true about business markets?
a) the purchase may be made to resell the item
b) the purchase is always made by more than one individual
c) the purchase may be made to use in general daily operations
d) the purchase may be made to use in production of another product
e) they can also be referred to as organizational markets
b) the purchase is always made by more than one individual
Which of the following is not a requirement or characteristic of a market?
a) The ability to purchase a product
b) A large number of people or organizations
c) The authority to buy a product
d) The willingness to use buying power
e) The need for a specific product in a specific product category
b) A large number of people or organizations
In order to be considered a market, people do not have to have
a) a need or desire for a particular product.
b) the ability to purchase the product.
c) discretionary income to purchase the product.
d) the willingness to use their buying power.
e) the authority to buy the specific products.
c) discretionary income to purchase the product.
Consumers that do not own dogs are not likely to be in the market for dog food because
a) they lack the authority to purchase the dog food.
b) they do not possess the buying power for purchasing dog food.
c) their ability to purchase the dog food is questionable.
d) they do not have the need or desire for dog food.
e) they are willing to use their buying power.
d) they do not have the need or desire for dog food.
The ability to purchase a product is a function of
a) buying power.
b) desire.
c) willingness.
d) authority.
e) needs.
a) buying power.
Adolescents are not considered part of the market for casinos because they
a) have very little buying power.
b) do not have the desire to gamble.
c) are not willing to spend their money on gambling.
d) cannot afford to gamble their savings.
e) do not have the authority to gamble.
e) do not have the authority to gamble.
Generally speaking, individuals who are unemployed would not be considered a target market for Mercedes or other luxury European import sedans because
a) they would not desire such products.
b) they would not be willing to purchase such products.
c) they would not have the ability to purchase such products.
d) such markets are narrowly defined geographically.
e) they are not authorized to purchase such products.
c) they would not have the ability to purchase such products.
Sixteen-year-old high school students do not form a market for alcoholic beverages because they
a) lack sufficient buying power to form a market.
b) lack the authority to purchase this type of product.
c) do not want to purchase this type of product.
d) do not have sufficient experience with this type of product.
e) lack the money to purchase this type of product.
b) lack the authority to purchase this type of product.
When marketing research shows that a group of people does not desire a particular product, the people in that group
a) are a market.
b) do not have the ability to purchase the product.
c) do not have the authority to purchase the product.
d) are not a market for the product.
e) are a market but will not purchase the product.
d) are not a market for the product.
The first step in the target market selection process is
a) determining which segmentation variables to use.
b) selecting specific target markets.
c) identifying an appropriate targeting strategy.
d) evaluating relevant market segments.
e) developing market segment profiles.
c) identifying an appropriate targeting strategy.
To find a target market, a firm can use the
a) total market strategy and the undifferentiated strategy.
b) product differentiation strategy and the customer differentiation strategy.
c) demographic strategy and the psychographic strategy.
d) socioeconomic strategy and the psychological strategy.
e) undifferentiated strategy, the concentrated strategy, and the differentiated strategy.
e) undifferentiated strategy, the concentrated strategy, and the differentiated strategy.
Pillsbury defines all purchasers of flour as its target market. What targeting strategy would be most appropriate in this case?
a) Concentrated
b) Differentiated
c) Wide appeal
d) Undifferentiated
e) Clustered
d) Undifferentiated
When a firm designs a single marketing mix and directs it at an entire market for a particular product, the company is using a(n) _________ strategy.
a) concentrated targeting
b) differentiated
c) heterogeneous market
d) undifferentiated
e) single mix
d) undifferentiated
Why would a company use the undifferentiated strategy?
a) The needs of individual consumers are dissimilar, and distinctive marketing mixes are required to satisfy them.
b) The undifferentiated strategy is the one strategy that provides maximum satisfaction to the whole market.
c) The needs of individual consumers in the target market for a specific product are similar, so the organization can satisfy most customers with a single marketing mix.
d) The undifferentiated strategy is expensive to implement but tends to produce the most sales.
e) The undifferentiated strategy requires less time and fewer resources
c) The needs of individual consumers in the target market for a specific product are similar, so the organization can satisfy most customers with a single marketing mix.
When the needs of individual consumers in a target market for a specific product are similar and the organization can satisfy most customers with a single marketing mix, the best approach to use may be the ___________ strategy.
a) undifferentiated
b) differentiated
c) segmented
d) concentrated
e) heterogeneous
a) undifferentiated
Which of the following statements about the undifferentiated targeting strategy is false?
a) The undifferentiated targeting strategy should be used when the needs of individual customers are similar.
b) The undifferentiated targeting strategy uses one promotional program aimed at everyone in the target market.
c) The undifferentiated targeting strategy is good for use with staple items, such as sugar and salt.
d) The undifferentiated targeting strategy uses multiple distribution systems to best reach individuals in the target market.
e) The opposite of the undifferentiated targeting strategy is the differentiated targeting strategy.
d) The undifferentiated targeting strategy uses multiple distribution systems to best reach individuals in the target market.
The ProMark Company manufactures and sells only one type of ballpoint pen at just one price. All its advertising is the same and is directed at the mass market. What type of targeting strategy is the ProMark Company using?
a) Extensive
b) Undifferentiated
c) Concentrated
d) Intensive
e) Differentiated
b) Undifferentiated
Marketers for C & H Sugar believe that consumers have similar needs for the product. C & H will most likely use a(n) ___________ approach in defining a target market.
a) undifferentiated
b) differentiated
c) product strategy
d) cost-benefit
e) demographic
a) undifferentiated
If Morton Salt saw all table salt customers as pretty much alike and thus offered only one marketing mix, it would be using the ___________ strategy.
a) directed
b) undifferentiated
c) segmented
d) differentiated
e) product-use
b) undifferentiated
A market in which a large proportion of customers have similar needs for a product is called a(n) _____ market.
a) undifferentiated
b) heterogeneous
c) homogenous
d) differentiated
e) concentrated
a) undifferentiated
The undifferentiated targeting strategy for finding a target market will likely not be successful if
a) product positioning is needed.
b) the firm defines the total market as its target market.
c) people within the market have heterogeneous needs.
d) people within the market have homogeneous needs.
e) the firm is capable of developing a single marketing mix that satisfies all people’s needs.
c) people within the market have heterogeneous needs.
Most markets for products are made up of individuals or groups with diverse needs for products and are called ________ markets.
a) undifferentiated
b) concentrated
c) homogenous
d) differentiated
e) heterogeneous
e) heterogeneous
Toyota has learned that some people want sports cars, while others want vans, trucks, sedans, and economy cars. In this instance, Toyota has found its markets to be
a) heterogeneous.
b) undifferentiated.
c) concentrated.
d) homogeneous.
e) focused.
a) heterogeneous.
Individuals, groups, or organizations with one or more similar characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs are classified as
a) market segments.
b) heterogeneous markets.
c) concentrated markets.
d) demographic segments.
e) strategic segments.
a) market segments.
Mattel views the toy market as composed of four age groupings, each with different needs and desires. Each of these groups are known as
a) an undifferentiated market.
b) heterogeneous.
c) a market segment.
d) a marketing mix.
e) a concentrated market.
c) a market segment.
The purpose of market segmentation is to
a) differentiate products.
b) divide a total market to enable a marketer to develop a more precise marketing mix.
c) reduce the overall cost of marketing activities.
d) identify a single marketing mix that will be satisfactory for the general market.
e) meet the needs of homogeneous markets.
b) divide a total market to enable a marketer to develop a more precise marketing mix.
The process of dividing a total market into market groups because people within each group have relatively similar product needs is called
a) segmentation.
b) diversification.
c) target marketing.
d) concentration.
e) customization.
a) segmentation.
Several conditions must exist for market segmentation to be successful. These conditions include all of the following except
a) the total market should be divided so that segments can be compared on sales potential, costs, and profits.
b) customers’ needs for the product must be homogeneous.
c) the company must be able to reach the chosen segment with a particular marketing mix.
d) segments must be identifiable and divisible.
e) at least one segment must have enough profit potential to justify developing and maintaining a special marketing mix for that segment.
b) customers’ needs for the product must be homogeneous.
A business advantage of the concentrated targeting strategy for any company is that it
a) requires less market research and information.
b) requires less intensive analysis of customers’ characteristics and needs.
c) allows a firm to utilize all of its production capacity.
d) maintains the firm’s flexibility in moving into other market segments.
e) allows a firm to develop a special marketing mix for a single market segment.
e) allows a firm to develop a special marketing mix for a single market segment.
A targeting strategy in which an organization targets a single market segment using one marketing mix is called a(n) _____ strategy.
a) selective
b) focused
c) differentiated
d) concentrated
e) undifferentiated
d) concentrated
When markets are comprised of people with differing product needs, the marketing manager should use a(n) ___________ strategy.
a) concentrated or differentiated targeting
b) market-intensive
c) integrated
d) product-oriented
e) undifferentiated
a) concentrated or differentiated targeting
A disadvantage of the concentrated targeting strategy is that
a) the firm’s financial condition is tied to a single and specialized marketing mix.
b) large sales volumes cannot be generated.
c) production costs may be higher than with other strategies.
d) marketing personnel may become dissatisfied with the limited opportunities provided by this approach.
e) marketing costs are often higher than for other strategies.
the firm’s financial condition is tied to a single and specialized marketing mix.
If Jaguar focused all its marketing efforts for the new Jaguar XKR on professionals earning more than $250,000, it would be using a(n) ___________ strategy.
a) homogeneous
b) undifferentiated
c) multisegmented
d) concentrated
e) stratified
d) concentrated
Tiffany’s markets its exclusive jewelry and gifts to high-income individuals interested in high-quality products and a well-known brand name. It uses the same marketing mix to reach this market. Tiffany’s uses a(n) ______ strategy.
a) undifferentiated
b) differentiated targeting
c) exclusive targeting
d) heterogeneous
e) concentrated targeting
e) concentrated targeting
Interior Designs Inc. sells expensive custom-made draperies, bedding, and accessories using a single marketing mix and is therefore most likely using a(n) _____ targeting strategy.
a) concentrated
b) differentiated
c) exclusive
d) focused
e) undifferentiated
a) concentrated
The primary advantage of a concentrated targeting strategy is
a) it meets the needs of a wide range of consumers.
b) it allows a firm to specialize to meet specific customer needs.
c) it is more flexible than any other approach.
d) it is the least risky targeting approach.
e) its customers are the most willing to repurchase the same brands.
b) it allows a firm to specialize to meet specific customer needs.
Procter & Gamble markets Cheer detergent to young singles and couples and Tide detergent to families. Procter & Gamble is using a(n) ___________ targeting strategy for laundry detergents.
a) multiuse
b) differentiated
c) stratified
d) undifferentiated
e) concentrated
b) differentiated
. Volkswagen markets its Routan to large families, its R32 racecar to men, and its Jetta to young singles. What targeting approach is Volkswagen using?
a) Concentrated
b) Strategic
c) Differentiated
d) Undifferentiated
e) Multisegmented
c) Differentiated
A targeting strategy in which an organization directs its marketing efforts at several segments is called a(n) ___________ targeting strategy.
a) differentiated
b) total market
c) concentrated
d) undifferentiated
e) integrated
a) differentiated
Which of the following products is most likely to be marketed, using an undifferentiated approach?
a) bicycle
b) computer
c) notebook
d) seasoning salt
e) oscillating fan
d) seasoning salt
After a firm has identified an appropriate targeting strategy, the next step in the target market selection process is
a) determining the demographic variables of the target market.
b) developing market segment profiles.
c) determining which segmentation variables to use.
d) selecting specific target markets.
e) evaluating relevant market segments.
c) determining which segmentation variables to use.
Characteristics of individuals, groups, or organizations that are used for dividing a total market into smaller homogeneous groups are called ___________ variables.
a) marketing
b) classification
c) segmentation
d) stratification
e) dividing
c) segmentation
Age, rate of product use, location, and gender are all examples of common
a) demographic variables.
b) geographic characteristics.
c) targeting strategies.
d) psychographic variables.
e) segmentation variables.
e) segmentation variables.
Segmentation variables are usually grouped into four categories:
a) demographic, geographic, religion, and income.
b) geopolitical, income, behavioristic, and psychographic.
c) attitudes, lifestyles, behaviors, and gender.
d) geographic, demographic, psychographic, and attitudes.
e) demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioristic.
e) demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioristic.
Which of the following is not one of the major categories of consumer market segmentation variables?
a) Demographic characteristics
b) Geographic variables
c) Psychographic dimensions
d) Situational variables
e) Behavioristic characteristics
d) Situational variables
Alpine Ski Shops U.S, is looking for new markets. Since their market is based mainly on access to snow, they would most likely use which base for segmentation?
a) behavioristic
b) demographic
c) psychographic
d) environmental
e) geographic
e) geographic
McDonald’s uses a segmentation strategy for its sandwiches based on market characteristics such as age, gender, or income. Which of the following segmentation variables is McDonald’s using?
a) Demographic
b) Geographic
c) Psychographic
d) Product-related
e) Education
a) Demographic
With its Venus razor, Gillette was the first marketer to offer a triple blade razor specifically designed for women. This is an example of market segmentation using ___________ variables.
a) demographic
b) psychographic
c) geographic
d) family life cycle
e) product use
a) demographic
Kelly’s Kids is a home-based business that sells high-quality children’s clothing at premium prices using in-home parties. These in-home parties typically cater to families with small children and middle- to upper-middle-class income. Kelly’s Kids is using _____ variables to segment its market.
a) demographic
b) psychographic
c) sociographic
d) behavioristic
e) geographic
a) demographic
Cosmopolitan magazine, Secret deodorant, and Eve cigarettes are all products whose marketers have used segmentation based on
a) age.
b) education.
c) product use.
d) gender.
e) income.
d) gender.
A marketer that targets customers based on marital status and the presence and age of children is using
a) behavioristic segmentation.
b) lifestyle variables.
c) psychographic variables.
d) family life cycle.
e) phase of life segmentation.
d) family life cycle.
Which of the following products is most likely to have its market segment based on age?
a) Bass shoes
b) Lipton Iced Tea
c) Bic pens
d) Legos
e) Carpet
d) Legos
If Campbell were to offer single serving “Soup for One” packages to small household markets, it would be using segmentation based on
a) income.
b) ethnicity.
c) taste.
d) geographic considerations.
e) family life cycle.
e) family life cycle.
Which of the following products is least likely to be segmented according to stages in the family life cycle?
a) Single-family homes
b) Ford automobiles
c) European vacations
d) Diet Coke
e) General Electric appliances
d) Diet Coke
Family life cycle is most typically based on
a) income.
b) geographic location.
c) marital status and age of children.
d) occupation.
e) buying power.
c) marital status and age of children.
Population density and city size are _______ variables used for market segmentation.
a) geographic
b) demographic
c) psychographic
d) environmental
e) geodemographic
a) geographic
Zerex markets its radiator liquid as a coolant in the South and an antifreeze in the North. Which of the following segmentation variables is Zerex using?
a) Demographic
b) Psychographic
c) Life cycle
d) Geographic
e) Product use
d) Geographic
Many marketers are concerned about the number of potential customers within a certain area of land because of the different requirements to serve dissimilar areas. What is this segmentation variable called?
a) Micromarketing
b) Population
c) Market density
d) MSA
e) PMSA
c) Market density
Subaru is producing a new crossover van with all-wheel drive. Which of the following would be a likely variable for segmenting the market for this new model?
a) Religion
b) Geographic location
c) Income
d) Political views
e) Ethnicity
b) Geographic location
Systems such as PRIZM and Acorn provide companies with lifestyle and demographic information about neighborhoods throughout the United States. This information is used to aid
a) behavioristic segmentation.
b) geodemographic segmentation.
c) market density analysis.
d) demographic segmentation.
e) geographic segmentation.
b) geodemographic segmentation.
Justin Franklin’s company is interested in locating areas where the average income is high, the average age range is 25-35 years, and the lifestyles of the people involve extreme adventures and dangerous leisure activities. His company would most likely find possible markets through
a) U.S. Census Bureau information.
b) geographic segmentation variables.
c) geodemographic segmentation.
d) climate information.
e) psychographic segmentation.
c) geodemographic segmentation.
Micromarketing is
a) a market segmentation approach in which firms focus precise marketing efforts on very small geographic markets.
b) developing a very specific marketing mix that will effectively meet the needs of only a small segment of the market.
c) marketing efforts that are tightly controlled by high-level executives in the organization.
d) a way to segment the market to meet the needs of individuals with the same motives and personality attributes.
e) creating advertising that is so specific to a certain type of individual that few people outside that micromarket will respond to the message.
a) a market segmentation approach in which firms focus precise marketing efforts on very small geographic markets
Retail-site location analyses, unique product offerings, and special advertising campaigns are all examples of the use of
a) market density.
b) demographic segmentation.
c) behavioristic segmentation.
d) environmental segmentation.
e) micromarketing.
e) micromarketing.
Which of the following is the biggest drawback to using psychographic variables?
a) They are not strongly reflective of consumer behavior.
b) They are difficult to measure.
c) They give poor information about consumer needs.
d) They do not reflect socioeconomic characteristics of consumers.
e) The resulting segments are difficult to be reached.
b) They are difficult to measure.
The three most commonly used psychographic segmentation variables are
a) personality, perception, and learning.
b) personality, perception, and behavior.
c) motives, attitudes, and lifestyles.
d) attitudes, personality, and perception.
e) personality, motives, and lifestyles.
e) personality, motives, and lifestyles.
When research indicated that Bluetooth’s products were not reaching the correct target market, marketers of Bluetooth decided to change from demographic segmentation to psychographic segmentation. Which group of new segmentation variables will Bluetooth now be using?
a) Geographic location of customers
b) Age, sex, and socioeconomic characteristics
c) Social class variables
d) Personality characteristics, motives, and lifestyles
e) Family life cycle, social class, and religion
d) Personality characteristics, motives, and lifestyles
When using personality characteristics as a market segmentation variable, marketers generally
a) conduct personality assessments of their potential target market to determine which personality characteristics they possess.
b) use research developed by clinical psychologists to determine which personality characteristics consumers using their products are most likely to have.
c) use generic characteristics that all members of the population have.
d) use a positively viewed characteristic they assume much of their target market has or would like to have.
e) conduct a series of focus groups to determine both the positive and negative characteristics members of their target market are perceived to have.
d) use a positively viewed characteristic they assume much of their target market has or would like to have.
The psychographic variable that includes numerous characteristics related to people’s activities, interests, and opinion is
a) motive.
b) social class.
c) personality.
d) stage in family life cycle.
e) lifestyle.
e) lifestyle.
If a company segments its market on the basis of their reasons for purchasing a particular product, the primary segmentation variable in use is
a) lifestyle.
b) motives.
c) personality.
d) benefit expectations.
e) personality attributes.
b) motives.
Demographic variables such as income and occupation, as well as how people spend their time and the importance of things in their surroundings, are all factors considered in ______ segmentation.
a) psychographic
b) social class
c) lifestyle
d) personality
e) family life cycle
c) lifestyle
A widely used system for classifying individuals on the basis of lifestyle is
a) VALS.
b) PRIZM.
c) CMSA.
d) LIFO.
e) Prospect Zone.
a) VALS.
Which of the following is an example of a behavioristic segmentation variable?
a) Family size
b) Climate
c) Age
d) Usage rate
e) Personality characteristics
d) Usage rate
Budweiser may choose to segment its market based on heavy, moderate, and light drinkers of its alcoholic beverages. This is an example of market segmentation based on
a) behavioristic variables.
b) benefits.
c) lifestyles.
d) psychographic variables.
e) demographic variables.
a) behavioristic variables.
End use, price sensitivity, and brand loyalty are all _____ variables that can be used in market segmentation.
a) psychographic
b) usage
c) demographic
d) geodemographic
e) behavioristic
e) behavioristic
Alli segments its diet pills based on those who have morning cravings, those who tend to overeat near the end of the day, those who need all day long appetite suppression, and those who want appetite control and more energy. This is an example of market segmentation based on variables of
a) demographics.
b) lifestyles.
c) psychographics.
d) behavior.
e) personality characteristics.
d) behavior.
The division of a market according to what benefits consumers want from the product is called ______ segmentation.
a) behavioristic
b) product usage
c) benefit
d) end-purpose
e) advantage
c) benefit
Variables such as geographic location, type of organization, customer size, and type of product usage are used to segment ___________ markets.
a) consumer
b) business
c) government
d) international
e) most target
b) business
Dell segments its business markets into small business, corporate, government agencies, K-12 schools, and higher education institutions. The primary segmentation variable used in this example is
a) geographic location.
b) type of organization.
c) secondary product use.
d) customer size.
e) market potential.
b) type of organization.
Which of the following variables would most likely be used to segment a business market?
a) An attitude of the company’s CEO
b) The geographic location of the company
c) The lifestyle of the company’s buying agent
d) Net income generated by the company
e) Common opinions of the company’s employees
b) The geographic location of the company
Through marketing newsprint to newspaper publishers and glass manufacturers that use it in packing, International Paper segments its market based on
a) customer size.
b) psychographics.
c) demographics.
d) use of product.
e) geographic location.
d) use of product.
Bethlehem Steel provides steel for a variety of uses to its various customers. Customers have different needs for the steel and thus Bethlehem has to prepare the raw steel differently depending on how customers will use it in their production processes. The primary business segmentation variable in this example is
a) geographic location.
b) customer size.
c) product use.
d) customer importance.
e) organization classification.
c) product use.
After an organization has determined which of the many segmentation variables it will use, the next step in the target market selection process is
a) evaluating each of the relevant market segments.
b) selecting the specific target markets.
c) reviewing the appropriate marketing strategy.
d) analyzing the interaction between segmentation variables.
e) developing market segment profiles.
e) developing market segment profiles.
__________ describe the similarities among potential customers within a market segment and explain the differences among people in different market segments.
a) Market segmentation variables
b) Market segment profiles
c) Segmentation grids
d) Market differentiation indexes
e) Market concentrations
b) Market segment profiles
Yvonne and Garret are looking at information about how their organization’s products could fit potential customers’ needs. This information deals with demographic characteristics, product benefits sought, lifestyles, geographic factors, brand preferences, and usage rates. They are most likely looking at
a) the sales force survey results.
b) the results of sales forecasting.
c) a market trend analysis.
d) a market segmentation discrimination analysis.
e) a market segment profile.
e) a market segment profile.
The total volume of a product, for all firms in an industry, that would be purchased by specific customer groups within a specified time period at a given level of industry-wide marketing activity, is the
a) competitor sales potential.
b) sales objective.
c) forecasted sales.
d) company sales potential.
e) market potential.
e) market potential.
The maximum percentage of market potential that an individual firm can expect to obtain for a specific product is the
a) sales forecast.
b) market potential.
c) company sales potential.
d) company sales objective.
e) market share goal.
c) company sales potential.
General Electric calculates that the total number of light bulbs sold to consumers in the next year by all light bulb producers is 1 billion, given anticipated marketing efforts by the firms involved. This figure represents the industry’s
a) sales potential.
b) market potential.
c) target growth rate.
d) sales forecast.
e) sales objective.
b) market potential.
If Baskin-Robbins calculates that it could sell up to 25 percent of all ice cream cones sold in the United States, this percentage would represent the ice cream marketer’s
a) target growth rate.
b) sales forecast.
c) sales objective.
d) company sales potential.
e) market potential.
d) company sales potential.
Using the breakdown approach to sales potential, estimates are made
a) by referring to specific geographic factors.
b) by establishing levels of marketing effort that will be required to achieve specific levels of sales.
c) without reference to industry marketing efforts.
d) without reference to general economic conditions.
e) by starting with general economic conditions.
e) by starting with general economic conditions.
The manager at a local recreational vehicle store, Off-Road Rage, believes the next two years will be difficult because of an economic recession. Using this forecast, he determines the effect on the industry’s market potential and then estimates how his company’s potential sales will look based on this outlook. This manager is using a _________ approach to estimating sales potential.
a) breakdown
b) recessionary
c) buildup
d) pyramid
e) dimensional
a) breakdown
Alex Wren of Owens Corning Fiberglass talks to Terry Jones, a homebuilder, to find out how much fiberglass insulation he intends to use in building homes during the next year. Albert then multiplies that number by the total number of builders in the territory. He is using a ___________ approach to measure sales potential.
a) multivariable
b) use of product
c) breakdown
d) regression
e) buildup
e) buildup
The buildup approach measure of sales potential
a) starts with broad estimates of general economic activity.
b) ends with an estimate of a single firm’s sales of a specific product.
c) starts with forecasts about demand for a specific product within a relatively small area.
d) does not use sales estimates.
e) is seldom employed by industrial firms.
c) starts with forecasts about demand for a specific product within a relatively small area.
When evaluating market segments, assessment of competitors is important because
a) it is difficult to segment a market when it has multiple competitors.
b) an absence of competitors usually creates difficulties in accurately measuring segment sales potential.
c) sales estimates may cause a segment to appear to be lucrative, but there may be several competitors that together have a large share of that segment.
d) a competitive analysis may lead to confusion as to who are the key competitors.
e) competition is generally not a major problem as long as a marketer is aware of it.
c) sales estimates may cause a segment to appear to be lucrative, but there may be several competitors that together have a large share of that segment.
Estimating the cost of entering a market and focusing on a specific target segment is important because
a) cost estimates are crucial to estimating sales potential accurately.
b) higher costs will keep other potential competitors from entering that particular segment.
c) customers are more likely to be attracted to marketers that invest heavily in the target segment.
d) the organization’s marketers need to know if they can reach the segment at costs equal to or below competitors’ costs.
e) higher cost generally ensures long-term success.
d) the organization’s marketers need to know if they can reach the segment at costs equal to or below competitors’ costs.
The final step in the target market selection process is
a) implementing the appropriate marketing mix for the target market.
b) evaluating relative market segments.
c) eliminating market segments that are cost prohibitive.
d) selecting specific target markets.
e) revising the final segmentation variables based on target selection.
d) selecting specific target markets.
Frito-Lay Snack Foods is currently conducting market segmentation studies. For several segments, they have completed competitive assessments and cost estimates. The next major step they must take is to
a) determine which segmentation variables to use.
b) develop market segment profiles.
c) identify the appropriate targeting strategy.
d) select specific target markets.
e) develop sales forecasts.
d) select specific target markets.
When a marketer is engaged in the target market selection process and has assessed relevant market segments by considering such factors as sales estimates, competition, and estimated costs, the marketer is ready for the next step, which is to
a) identify the appropriate targeting strategy.
b) determine which segmentation variables to use.
c) develop market segment profiles.
d) evaluate relevant market segments.
e) select specific target markets.
e) select specific target markets.
When selecting specific target markets, a firm should
a) revert to an undifferentiated approach if the market is deemed heterogeneous.
b) choose the segments most in line with the firm’s objectives and long-term growth.
c) choose all segments that are determined to be profitable for the organization.
d) choose the minimum number of segments necessary to achieve company sales potential.
e) pick the segments with the best sales forecasts for the upcoming period of time.
b) choose the segments most in line with the firm’s objectives and long-term growth.
. Evaluating and making product positioning decisions is important for
a) new products only.
b) existing products only.
c) new and existing products.
d) product deletions only.
e) new products and product deletions.
c) new and existing products.
Product positioning refers to
a) the area in retail stores in which the manufacturer strives to position its products.
b) product price but not to product image.
c) product image but not to product price.
d) the decisions and activities intended to create and maintain a certain concept of the firm’s product in customers’ minds.
e) the length of time a product has survived in the market.
d) the decisions and activities intended to create and maintain a certain concept of the firm’s product in customers’ minds.
All of the following statements about product positioning are true except
a) product positioning decisions are not only for new products.
b) product positioning is the customer’s absolute perception of a product’s attributes.
c) effective product positioning helps serve a specific market segment by creating an appropriate concept in the minds of customers in that market segment.
d) product positioning is concerned with creating and maintaining a certain concept of the firm’s product in customers’ minds.
e) when marketers position a product, they try to position it so that it seems to possess the characteristics the target market desires.
b) product positioning is the customer’s absolute perception of a product’s attributes.
Pepsi wants to know where its Sierra Mist soft drink fits in with other drinks in the mind of the consumer. Marketers question a sample of consumers about Sierra Mist and other drinks on two different dimensions. They will most likely put this information into a _____ to show Sierra Mist’s position.
a) perceptual map
b) ideal cluster
c) product position chart
d) market graph
e) product matrix
a) perceptual map
If PepsiCo and Coca-Cola use celebrities to challenge the taste of the other firm’s cola, this is referred to as ___________ positioning.
a) direct
b) focused
c) head-to-head
d) avoidance
e) parallel
c) head-to-head
Positioning a product to avoid competition may be best when the
a) competing products are priced higher than or at least equal to the new product.
b) company has an established reputation with the consumers of that particular market.
c) market is characterized by consumers who are not sensitive to price or value.
d) market is characterized by consumers who are price conscious and brand specific.
e) product’s performance characteristics are not significantly different from those of competing brands.
e) product’s performance characteristics are not significantly different from those of competing brands.
When a company is introducing a new brand in a market where it already has one or more brands, which type of product positioning is most likely to be used?
a) Positioning to avoid competition
b) Head-to-head competition
c) Parallel positioning
d) Segmented positioning
e) Counter positioning
a) Positioning to avoid competition
If a company extends a line of products by introducing a new product to the market, and the firm does not distinctly position this product (i.e., separately from the other products in the line), the result could be
a) poor product positioning.
b) product deletion.
c) product repositioning.
d) cannibalization.
e) new-product development.
d) cannibalization.
In the context of marketing, cannibalization means
a) one company eating up another company’s market share.
b) sales of a new product hurts sales of the company’s existing products.
c) a product is past its prime and should be deleted from the product mix.
d) a company illegally uses copyrights and patents from another company.
e) sales of a new product may exceed sales of an older, more established product.
b) sales of a new product hurts sales of the company’s existing products.
Guess? will be spending $22 million on marketing activities next year and expects to sell 30 million pairs of jeans. These 30 million pairs represent the company’s
a) sales potential.
b) market potential.
c) sales forecast.
d) market sales.
e) selected market.
c) sales forecast.
The amount of product a company expects to sell during a specific period at a specified level of marketing activity is called the
a) company sales potential.
b) revenue estimate.
c) company sales prediction.
d) market potential.
e) sales forecast.
e) sales forecast.
All of the following are categories of common forecasting techniques for business except
a) surveys.
b) time series analysis.
c) customer determined.
d) executive judgment.
e) market tests.
c) customer determined.
Relying on executive judgment for forecasting may be adequate when
a) levels of marketing efforts put forth by competitors vary considerably.
b) recent events give the executive specific impressions of product demand.
c) product demand is erratic.
d) the executive conducts surveys.
e) the executive has considerable experience and product demand is relatively stable.
e) the executive has considerable experience and product demand is relatively stable.
Intuition and expediency are primary characteristics of which of the following sales forecasting methods?
a) Surveys
b) Executive judgment
c) Cycle analysis
d) Market tests
e) Industry indicators
b) Executive judgment
Company sales forecasts are least likely to be based on
a) executive judgment.
b) customer surveys or sales force surveys.
c) time series analysis.
d) market tests.
e) single-variable segmentation.
e) single-variable segmentation.
When a business has a relatively small number of customers, a preferred method of forecasting is
a) regression analysis.
b) trend analysis.
c) the Delphi technique.
d) a market test.
e) a customer forecasting survey.
e) a customer forecasting survey.
The most important reason that a firm might use a sales force forecasting survey to determine its sales forecast is
a) salespeople are generally optimistic about the future and will provide excellent forecast targets.
b) most salespeople tend to have a pessimistic outlook, which is more likely to result in an achievable sales forecast.
c) this tends to be the fastest way to determine a good sales forecast for the upcoming period.
d) the averaging and other statistical techniques applied to these forecasts result in extremely accurate numbers.
e) the sales staff is closer to the actual customers on a regular basis than anyone else in the organization.
e) the sales staff is closer to the actual customers on a regular basis than anyone else in the organization.
When a company has its sales forecasts prepared by management consultants, economists, or college professors, it is using a(n)
a) expert forecasting survey.
b) Delphi technique.
c) random factor analysis.
d) external judgment survey.
e) market test.
a) expert forecasting survey.
Often, the Delphi technique is used in conjunction with an expert forecasting survey. The major objective is to
a) allow an opportunity to obtain diverse expert opinions.
b) allow experts to work separately to reach a consensus as to their forecasts.
c) reach an accurate sales forecast through the use of multiple sales forecasting techniques.
d) determine if the expert forecasting survey is superior to regression analysis.
e) assess the extent to which this year’s sales forecast is more accurate than that of previous years.
b) allow experts to work separately to reach a consensus as to their forecasts.
The forecasting techniques that assume past sales patterns will continue into the future are all variations of
a) regression analysis.
b) random factor analysis.
c) seasonal analysis.
d) time series analysis.
e) past sales forecasting surveys.
d) time series analysis.
A forecasting method that predicts sales based on relationships between past sales and other variables is called
a) regression analysis.
b) customer forecasting surveys.
c) the Delphi technique.
d) random factor analysis.
e) time series analysis.
a) regression analysis.
While developing a company sales forecast at Safeway, Barb Herrington discovered a pattern in sales volume over the past five years. She likely used which sales forecasting technique?
a) Surveys
b) Executive judgment
c) Time series analysis
d) Market tests
e) Regression analysis
c) Time series analysis
Katy Ramirez is a marketer for a golf equipment manufacturer. When forecasting company sales, she finds a direct association between past sales and per capita income. Which sales forecasting technique is Katy using?
a) Surveys
b) Executive judgment
c) Time series analysis
d) Market tests
e) Regression analysis
e) Regression analysis
The sales prediction technique based on the correlation between sales and other factors—such as population density, per capita income, or family size—is
a) executive judgment.
b) time series analysis.
c) regression analysis.
d) a market test.
e) an expert survey.
c) regression analysis.
The Sara Lee Company is attempting to forecast sales for a new ice cream cake. To come up with an accurate forecast, Sara Lee places the product in Atlanta supermarkets for a period of four months. In this instance, Sara Lee is using which forecasting method?
a) Time series analysis
b) Market test
c) Executive judgment
d) Regression analysis
e) Survey
b) Market test
The sales forecasting method that consists of making a product available to buyers in one or more locations and measuring purchase response is
a) a market test.
b) regression analysis.
c) trend analysis.
d) a survey.
e) the Delphi technique.
a) a market test.
The forecasting method that utilizes a firm’s historical sales data to find patterns in the firm’s sales volume over time is
a) the regression method.
b) customer forecasting.
c) a market test.
d) sales force forecasting.
e) time series analysis.
e) time series analysis.
In an effort to forecast his firm’s sales for the coming year, Henry Thompson takes sales for the last three years and calculates a growth trend. Henry is employing which forecasting method?
a) Time series analysis
bExecutive judgment
c) Surveys
d) Regression analysis
e) Market tests
a) Time series analysis
Which of the following sales forecasting techniques would generally be most suitable for estimating sales of a new product?
a) Executive judgment
b) Customer surveys
c) Time series analysis
d) Market tests
e) Regression methods
d) Market tests
Which of the following forecasting methods is least dependent on historical sales data?
a) Regression analysis
b) Trend analysis
c) Time series analysis
d) Cycle analysis
e) A market test
e) A market test
What is the main problem with using a market test as a forecasting tool?
a) Difficult to interpret
b) Expensive
c) Inaccurate
d) Unacceptable to consumers
e) Overused
b) Expensive
T F A market is a group of people who, as individuals, have needs for products in a product class and have the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase such products.
t
T F Individuals’ ability to buy depends on the amount of their buying power.
t
T F The four requirements of a market are that the individuals in the market must have a need for the product and the ability, willingness, and authority to buy it.
t
T F A person who has buying power also has the authority to buy.
f
T F The five-step process usually used for target market selection includes identifying the appropriate targeting strategy, determining which segmentation variables to use, developing market segment profiles, evaluating relevant market segments, and deciding which targeting strategy to use.
f
T F There are only two basic strategies for selecting target markets: the undifferentiated targeting strategy and the concentrated targeting strategy.
f
T F A company sometimes defines a total market as its target market.
t
T F One condition for effective segmentation is that at least one segment must have substantial profit potential.
t
T F A firm using a concentrated targeting strategy aims its marketing activities at one segment of a market.
t
T F The undifferentiated strategy can be effective for an organization that has a homogeneous market and can develop and maintain a single marketing mix.
t
T F An undifferentiated targeting strategy does not target a single market with one marketing mix.
f
T F The concentrated targeting strategy is one in which an organization directs its marketing efforts toward a single market segment through one marketing mix.
t
T F A differentiated targeting strategy is when the organization targets two or more markets by developing a single marketing mix.
f
T F Only one variable can be used to segment a market.
f
T F Segmentation variables are characteristics of individuals, groups, or organizations in a total market.
t
T F A segmentation variable is used to group smaller markets into one larger market.
f
T F Demographic characteristics are commonly used to segment a market because they are closely related to consumers’ product needs and purchasing behavior.
t
T F Family life cycle is a psychological dimension used for segmenting markets.
f
T F A firm operating in a one-state market would not regionalize its market.
f
T F The term market density refers to the number of potential customers per unit of land area, such as per square mile.
t
T F One problem with using psychographic variables for segmentation purposes is that they are difficult to measure accurately.
t
T F Motives can be used to segment markets.
t
T F Lifestyle is a product-related variable.
f
T F Lifestyle analysis focuses on people’s activities, interests, and opinions
t
T F The ways in which customers use a particular product may be a basis for segmenting the market.
t
T F One way marketers can segment business markets is according to their geographic location.
t
T F A marketer may segment a market in terms of the benefits that customers expect to receive from a particular product.
t
T F A market segment profile deals primarily with demographic characteristics.
f
T F A market segment profile describes the similarities among potential customers within a segment and explains the differences among people across market segments.
t
T F A market segment profile may cover such aspects as demographic characteristics, geographic factors, product benefits sought, lifestyles, brand preferences, and usage rates.
t
T F A market segment profile provides customers with an understanding of how a business can use its capabilities.
f
T F Market segment profiles help determine the most desirable segment or segments in relation to the firm’s strengths, weaknesses, objectives, and resources.
t
T F The information yielded by market segment profiles usually is not very useful later in the marketing process.
f
T F The two general approaches to measuring company sales potential are the breakdown and the buildup approach.
t
T F Company sales potential is the maximum percentage of market potential that an individual firm within an industry can expect to obtain for a specific product.
t
T F Market potential is the amount of a product that an organization could sell during a specified time period.
f
T F The size of the market potential places limits on the size of the company sales potential.
t
T F During the evaluation of relevant market segments, competitive assessment is used primarily to determine the possibility of additional competitors entering particular segments.
f
T F The sum of firms’ marketing efforts equals industry marketing efforts
t
T F When evaluating relevant market segments, cost estimates are important to determine if an organization entering a particular segment can operate at costs equal to or below those of competitors.
t
T F It is likely that during the fifth step of the target market selection process, marketers will decide not to enter and compete in any market segments.
f
T F When a firm’s management is making the final selection of specific target markets to enter, it should consider whether the organization has the financial resources, managerial skills, expertise, and facilities needed to effectively compete in the selected segments.
t
T F Consideration of the firm’s overall objectives usually does not influence the final selection of a target market segment.
f
T F At times, after doing segmentation analysis, marketers in an organization decide not to enter any segments.
t
T F Product position is customers’ concept of a product’s attributes relative to their concept of competitive brands.
t
T F Effective product positioning helps serve the total market by creating a concept that appeals to the general public.
f
T F Perceptual maps are created by questioning a sample of customers about their perceptions of products, brands, or organizations, with respect to two or more dimensions.
t
T F Product positioning refers to marketers’ efforts to have their brands located in the most appropriate location in stores.
f
T F Head-to-head competition is most appropriate when the product performance characteristics do not differ significantly from those of competing brands.
f
T F A marketer is likely to use competition avoidance positioning when it is introducing a new brand into a market where it has existing brands.
t
T F A product can be repositioned by changing its image through promotional efforts directed at customers.
t
T F A company sales forecast is the amount of a product that a firm actually expects to sell during a specific time period.
t
T F Sales forecasts are always long-range in nature.
f
T F The executive judgment method of sales forecasting is very accurate in predicting future sales.
f
T F In developing a company sales forecast, the forecasting methods are limited to surveys and correlation methods.
f
T F The types of surveys used to forecast sales are customer, executive, and competitor surveys.
f
T F Surveys are sometimes used to forecast sales.
t
T F In a customer survey, a marketer would question customers about the types and quantities of products they intend to buy during a specific time period.
t
T F Customer surveys as a means of forecasting sales are not appropriate for a firm that has relatively few customers.
f
T F One limitation of the sales force survey technique is that salespeople often believe that their sales goals are determined by their sales estimates.
t
T F Trend analysis is a sales forecasting technique based on historical sales data.
t
T F A marketer can use regression analysis techniques to predict the sales of new products.
f
T F Through market tests, a forecaster gains data regarding consumers’ intended purchases.
f
T F A firm ordinarily uses the same sales forecasting method for determining short-range and long-range sales forecasts.
f