Child Development Chapters 1,2,3 Quizzes

Development is divided into the 3 domains of
physical, cognitive, and emotional and social
The domains of development
combine in an integrated holistic fashion.
Pete participates in soccer and is beginning to master fundamental reading and math skills. Pete is probably in which period of human development?
Middle childhood.
Theories that differ from mere opinion and belief in that
their continued existence depends on scientific verification.
The concept of stages
is a characteristic of discontinuous theories.
The effects of distinct contexts on development
Emphasized through comparing children growing up in non-western village societies with those growing up in large western cities.
Stability
Emphasized through children who are high in verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability will remain so at later ages. This emphasizes the role of ___ in the study.
During the Reformation
The Puritans believed that children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized.
The Enlightenment
New philosophies that emphasized ideals of human dignity and respect.
British Philosopher John Locke
He viewed the child as a blank slate, or tabula rasa.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He viewed the child as a noble savage that was naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
Charles Darwin
Theory of Evolution it emphasizes natural selection and survival of the fittest.
Normative Approach
Measures of behavior on large numbers of individuals and computes age-related averages to represent typical development.
Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual Theory, examined the unconscious motivations of his patients.
Freud
According to him the ego works to reconcile the demands of the id and superego.
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Ecological Systems theory views the child as developing with a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Observations of Imprinting Baby Birds
Led to the concept of the critical period in child development.
Information Processing Approach
Designing flowcharts to map the precise steps that research participants use to solve problems and complete tasks much like the plans devised by programmers to get computers to perform a series of “mental operations.”
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Macrosystem, Exosystem
http://www.growingupinaustralia.gov.au/pubs/reports/krq2009/images/fig2.gif
Micro- Immediate surroundings
Meso- connections between microsystem
Macro- cultural values, laws, customs, resources
Exo- social settings, parents work, church, not direct impact
Vygotsky Theory
Views cognitive development as a socially mediated process.
Social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture.
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning Theory, the frequency of behavior can be increased by following it with reinforcers.
Discontinuous Development
Piaget’s cognitive-development theory and the psychoanalytic perspective.
Observational Learning
Bandura, wearing the same clothes and hairstyle as his friends at school.
Clinical Interview
Strength that it is accurate with respect to the participants’ thoughts and experiences.
Findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant.
Investigators cannot assume that their conclusions apply or generalize to anyone other than the individual studied.
Observer Bias
Being aware of the purpose of the study, observer may see and record what they expect to see rather than what the participants actually do.
Confounding variable
So closely associated that their effects of the outcome cannot be distinguished
Risks-versus-benefits ratio
Used by review committees in colleges, universities, and other institutions to evaluate the ethics of research proposals.
Correlational Studies
Major limitation is that researchers cannot infer cause and effect.
Structured Observation
Every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response of interest.
Naturalistic Observation
Major Limitation is that not all participants have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life.
Strength is that it reflects participants everyday behavior.
Deception in child development
Should only be used if the risk of harm is minimal.
Cross-Sectional
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another at one point in time. It is an efficient strategy when describing age-related trends.
Longitudal study
Research in which the same people are restudies and retested over a long period. Performance may be improved since the test subject has increased familiarity with the measure. This is an example of practice efforts.
Using young children in the study
The researcher should get permission from child and their parents.
Research Rights
Protection from harm: physical/psychological harm-when harm is possible investigators should find other means for obtaining desired information.
Reliable
observations and evaluations of people’s actions cannot be unique to a single observer.
Random Assignment
by flipping a coin to determine which treatment group participants
Validity
Ability of a test to measure what it is supposed to measure and to predict what it is supposed to predict
Structured Observation
permits greater control over the research situation than does naturalistic observation
Structured interview
eliminates the possibility that an interviewer might press and prompt some participants more than others.
Inter-rater reliability
compare the level of agreement between two different observers who used his measure simultaneously.
Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Debriefing with Children
Doesn’t work well because it may undermine their belief in honesty of adults
Cause and Effect Relationshipes
Experimental Design
Cross-Sectional Design
groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
Structured Observation
Is useful when studying behaviors that investigators rarely have an opportunity to see in everyday life.
Zero Correlation Coefficient
No relationship
Positive Correlation Coefficient
implies that as one variable increases the other also increases.
Longitudinal Design
Participants are studied repeatedly at different ages and changes are noted as they get older.
Phenotype
An organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits.
Dizygotic twins
Fraternal twins, they are more common than monozygotic twins
Monozygotic Twins
Identical twins, have the same genetic make up, same genotype
Down Syndrome
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. More than half who live past the age of 40 show symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
Surrogate Motherhood
May promote the exploitation of financially needy women.
Embryo
Rapid prenatal changes, 2 weeks through 8 weeks, attaches to the mother’s uterine wall, organs being to form and function, heart begins to beat; liver begins to make red blood cells, head arms and legs are clearly noticeable
Fetus
Longest Prenatal Period, All organ systems, between 22 and 26 weeks the fetus has a chance of survival outside of the womb
Teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Larger doses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects.
14%
14% of U.S. Women smoke during their prenancy
Maternal Stress
Hormones cross the placenta, can cause a dramatic rise in the fetal heart rate.
Longest Stage of labor
Dilation and effacement of the cervix
Second Stage of Labor
50 minutes for first baby, 20 minutes for second baby
Apgar Test
a quick assessment of the newborn’s heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and reflexes. 7 or higher should be given back to parents
Epidural Analgesia
the most common approach to controlling pain during labor is the use of the epidural analgesia, weakens the uterine contractions
Breech Babies
get a cesarean delivery, because of the danger of anoxia
Small for date infants
are below their expected weight considering the length of the prenancy
DNA
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule.
Genes
Chemical factors that determine traits
Dominant Genes
genes that show their effect even if there is only one allele for that trait in the pair
Recessive Genes
genes that are expressed only in the absence of a dominant gene
X linked recessive gene
only exhibited when no normal X chromosome; examples are color blindness, hemophilia, and Duchenne Muscular Distrophy