CHES Practice Exam Questions (From 7th edition)

c. Health Belief Model
According to which theory or model do people assess the threat of an emerging diease by assessing their perceived susceptibility against the severity of the disease.

a. Diffusion of innovations
b. Social Cognitive Theory
c. Health Belief Model
d. Social Marketing

b. focus on how new and different the program is from what exists
A Health Education specialist is considering how people might adopt a program in order to understand how best to tailor specific messages. If the health education specialist wants to get the first people to adopt the program using the Diffusion of Innovations, which strategy might be best?

a. Show the audience how most people have been enjoying the program
b. Focus on how new and different the program is from what exists
c. Wait for the opinion leaders to adopt
d. focus on how the program adheres to social norms

d. health disparities
In a priority population, the infant mortality rate and overall death rate for mothers with less than a high school education is almost twice as high as mothers with 13 or more years of education. These are examples of:

a. health equity
b. health determinants
c. health capacity
d. health disparities

a. infrastructure
Data storage is an example of which type of technology need?

a. infrastructure
b. program delivery
c. colloboration technology
d. knowledge

d. communication channels
Newsletters, community meetings, public service announcements, and social networking sites are examples of:

a. social norms
b. communication campaigns
c. social media
d. communication channels

c. Health policy
Smoking bans in a restaurant are which type of strategy in a community-based smoking prevention program?

a. health communication
b. health engineering
c. health policy
d. health mobilization

b. results
Which section of an original research paper presents evidence tested against the stated hypotheses or research questions and presents the statistical findings

a. methodology
b. results
c. discussion
d. conclusion

b. it explains the benefits, risks, and participation is voluntary and may be terminated at any time
Which of the following statements about informed consent is correct?

a. It only has to be completed when a health education specialist is working with children or adolescents
b. It explains the benefits, risks, and participation is voluntary and may be terminated at any time
c. It protects the health education specialist in cases of negligence from being sued by participants who were harmed
d. It is necessary for medical research, but not behavior-focused health education programs

b. the generalization of the findings
The health department administrator just returned from a meeting where someone used a focus group to gather data and now has a great idea. The administrator tasks the health education specialist with conducting a focus group of low income citizens from the south side of town to answer questions about which heart disease intervention the department should offer city wide. Knowing the limitations of this strategy, the health education specialist is rightfully concerned about:

a. the relibility of the findings
b. the generalizations of the findings
c. the validity of the findings
d. the accuracy of the findings

a. what tactics should be used to influence people.
When developing advocacy plans, which questions would be considered last?

a. what tactics should be used to influence people?
b. what are the goals of the advocacy effort?
c. who are our allies and opponents?
d. what organizational issues might facilitate the effort?

D. ERIC, education resource information center
A health education specialist is asked to find school health resources for physical activity. The most appropriate bibliographic database search is:

a. MEDLINE
b. EBMR (evidence-based medicine reviews)
c. CHID (comparative history of ideas)
d. ERIC (education resources information center)

a. revealed prior to hiring
While hiring new employees, the health education specialist should contact the candidates’ professional references and validate the employees’ degrees. In doing so, discrepancies may be:

a. revealed prior to hiring
b. concealed and are a waste of time
c. able to reveal the exact quality of persons
d. complicate the termination process.

c. supporting participants
The health education specialist has core substance abuse prevention coalition members in place and is currently broadening group representation. Some new members only contribute money to the coalition and are categorized as:

a. occasional participants
b. executive participants
c. supporting participants
d. active participants

d. advisory board
A group of health education specialists run into a situation where they need to elicit specialized guidance and expert opinion on a specific health topic in order to aid in decision-making. Of the following, which type of gruop should be consulted?

a. committee-of-the-whole
b. task-force
c. standing committee
d. advisory board

c. behavioral
Consumption, medication compliance, and self-care are considered which type of factors related to health?

a. attitudes
b. environmental
c. behavioral
d. genetic

d. program components being implemented in the correct order
Health departments and worksites are implementing a new health education/promotion program to increase influenza vaccine rates for adults in a five county area. What will the project lead focus on to assess the fidelity of implementation?

a. location of vaccinations for children
b. workers reading materials distributed to all worksites
c. amount of vaccine available to the public
d. Program components being implemented in the correct order

a. how receptive the community or target population is to the proposed policy of advocacy
When choosing a policy or issue to advocate on with a legislator, which criteria should be considered first?

a. how receptive the community or target population is to the proposed policy or advocacy
b. if there have been any peer-reviewed articles published on this issue or policy
c. if advocating on the policy or issue would violate the code of ethics for health education
d. if there is potential funding for the proposed policy

B.ordinance
The health education specialist is working with a local community to institute a smoke free environment and local businesses, agencies, and restaurants throughout the entire community. What type of health strategy would the health education specialist implement in the community?
A. Position statement
B. Ordinance
C. Executive order
D. Regulation
c. inputs
A health education specialist is identifying the types of activities to be included in a health educadtion/promotion program. In a logic model, these activities would be included in:

a. outcomes
b. outputs
c. inputs
d. processes

c. institutional
In the social ecological model, a school or worksite would fall under which factor or level?

a. community
b. individual
c. institutional
d. interpersonal

a. change the core elements that make the program effective.
A local health department has decided to adopt an evidence-based program for obesity prevention with educational materials that are not completely compatible with the community it services. In the process of adapting the materials to make them more suitable for the population, the health education specialist should be cautious not to:

a. change the core elements that make the program effective.
b. modify materials to fit the population’s culture, age, and context.
c. substitute statistics for other racial or ethnic populations.
d. tailor instructions, incentives, or activities to the audience.

d. retain scales to cover an entire domain, rather than select on question for a complex domain.
If selecting items from an existing instrument, which of the following is the correct procedure?

a. one cannot select individual or groups of items on an instrument and maintain validity.
b. keep the instrument short, select one or two items from a scale or subscale, and compile one instrument
c. retain the original language of the question to maintain validity, even when using on a different population
d. retain scales to cover an entire domain, rather than select one question for a complex domain.

c. publish articles in peer-reviewed journals on the importance of professional development
With so many changes in health education and health-related policy on a daily basis, it is essential that health education specialists avocate for professional development for the field. Which of the following is a way to advocate for professional development in the field of health education?

a. Develop a brochure on the management of diabetes for patients
b. contact a legilator to support a no-smoking policy
c. publish articles in peer-reviewed journals on the importance of professional development
d. write a grant that would fund a community based injury prevention program

A. Section 508 of the rehabilitation act

In 1998, Congress amended the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to require Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to people with disabilities.

A health education specialist is developing a new website as part of an intervention for people with visual disabilities. Which law should the health education specialist review and consider when developing a website?
A. Section 508 of the rehabilitation act
B. Plain language act
C. Tile IX act
D. Affordable care act
d. effective communications should inlude feedback loops through which intentions, ideas and information can be exchanged.
Which of the following is true about successful partnerships:

a. Specific indicators related only to the program can be used to define success.
b. reports, memorandums, and newsletters are the best ways to establish and maintain communication within a partnership.
c. Constituency relations through uni-directional communication are important to the viability of an organization that values cooperation.
d. effective communications should include feedback loops through which intentions, ideas, and information can be exchanged.

d. starting a community petition drive
which of the following is an example of grassroots advocacy?

a. donating money to a political candidate
b. contacting a policymaker to set up ameeting
c. drafting a position paper for a professional association
d. Starting a community petition drive

c. mobile devices
A health education specialist is planning a multilevel program to decrease rates of obesity in an urban community. Community gardens are planned for empty lots, and local convenience stores have agreed to begin selling fruits and vegetables. To assist families, mobile devices will be given out and used to help deliver messages and tips, and well as to collect data. Additionally, community leaders have pledged to focus on making the community safe for physical activity. Volunteers are mapping out walking routes to encourage families to walk together. Partnerships have formed and memorandums of understanding have been drafted.

Which of the following would be considered an infrasturce/supply need?
a. family participation
b. partnerships
c. mobile devices
d. community leaders

b. equity
A health education specialist is planning a multilevel program to decrease rates of obesity in an urban community. Community gardens are planned for empty lots, and local convenience stores have agreed to begin selling fruits and vegetables. To assist families, mobile devices will be given out and used to help deliver messages and tips, and well as to collect data. Additionally, community leaders have pledged to focus on making the community safe for physical activity. Volunteers are mapping out walking routes to encourage families to walk together. Partnerships have formed and memorandums of understanding have been drafted.

If mobile devices were not given to the priority population, which ethnical principle might have been breached, especially in terms of program delivery.
a. transparency
b. equity
c. beneficence
d. confidentially

a. partnerships
A health education specialist is planning a multilevel program to decrease rates of obesity in an urban community. Community gardens are planned for empty lots, and local convenience stores have agreed to begin selling fruits and vegetables. To assist families, mobile devices will be given out and used to help deliver messages and tips, and well as to collect data. Additionally, community leaders have pledged to focus on making the community safe for physical activity. Volunteers are mapping out walking routes to encourage families to walk together. Partnerships have formed and memorandums of understanding have been drafted.

which of the following could be considered a financial resource for the program?

a. partnerships
b. family participation
c. mobile devices
d. community gardens

b. prevalence rate
A health education specialist is planning a multilevel program to decrease rates of obesity in an urban community. Community gardens are planned for empty lots, and local convenience stores have agreed to begin selling fruits and vegetables. To assist families, mobile devices will be given out and used to help deliver messages and tips, and well as to collect data. Additionally, community leaders have pledged to focus on making the community safe for physical activity. Volunteers are mapping out walking routes to encourage families to walk together. Partnerships have formed and memorandums of understanding have been drafted.

A hospital is expanding outreach services and facilities with a new unit focused on prevention and the treatment of chronic disease. The health education specialist is tasked with gathering local data on these conditions. Which is the most useful?

a. incidence rate
b. prevlance rate
c. attack rate
d. natality rate

b. identify the audience
A foodborne outbreak has closed three local restaurants, and epidemiologists and food safety staff are hopin gto identity the outbreak source. Health education specialists and communication specialists plan to use earned media and social media to educate local community members about the outbreak. What should the health education specialist and communicadtion specialists do first?

a. pick a theory or model to use
b. identify the audience
c. check for available funds
d. find partners to help

c. adapt the lesson to the learners’ needs to they are able to understand the information or skill
A health educadtion specialist notices one of the lessons is not working as planned. What is the appropriate way to proceed?

a. stop the intervention and rework the entire program in response to the problematic lesson
b. keep implementing the lesson as planned, regardless of whether the learners undrestand it
c. adapt the lesson to the learners’ needs so they are able to understand the information or skill
d. ignore the lesson and move to the next lesson in the program

a. use peripheral stimuli, such as pictures or video to increase attention
During the flu season, health education specialists often try to promote the flu vaccine to the general public, according to the Elaboration Likihood Model, a person who does not feel susceptible to the flu might not pay attention to messages promoting the vaccine. How might a health education specialist craft a message in order to target this population?

a. use peripheral stimuli, such as pictures or video to increase attention
b. use the 4 ps of the social marketing to create a campaign
c. use messages to trigger memories of previously having flu
d. use social media posts to encourage vaccination

d. Gantt Chart
In planning a health education/promotion program, a health education specialist needs to develop a timeline for delivery of the intervention. Which of the following accomplishes this task?

a. SMOG assessment
b. Logic model
c. SWOT analysis
d. Gantt chart

d. join a professional health education organization
A health educator has just begun his career after graduation. He is trying to make contacts with other professionals, so that he can network and share ideas. Which of the following ways is the best way to achieve this?

a. subscribe to a health education listserve
b. listen to podcasts regarding health issues by experts in the field
c. call the state health department to request a mailing list of health educators
d. join a professional health education organization

b. epidemiological assessment
The health education specialist would use a prioritization matrix in which phase of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model?

a. social assessment and situational analysis
b. epidemiological assessment
c. Intervention alignment and adminstrative and policy assessment
d. implementation

b. logical model
Which of the following is a common way to illustrate alignment of programs with an organization’s mission and goals?

a. Gantt chart
b. logical model
c. timeline
d. evalution plan

a. phasing in
A community agency is targeting a variety of social ecological levels to help reduce drug use in the community. Some of the levels will take substantially more time to target. Rather than wait for all aspects of the intervention to be ready, the agency looks to begin with one level and then will add in other levels over time. This is an example of:

a. phasing in
b. pilot testing
c. total implementation
d. primary strategies

c. conclusions
An evaluation of a program has been conducted, and a health education specialist is preparing a report in a very tight timeline. Though all sections of the report are important for clarity and content, on which section should the health education specialist spend the most time since it likely will be read more closely by stakeholders?

a. methods
b. literature review
c. conclusions
d. introduction

a. RE-AIM

(Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance)

To deal with the greatest drawback to a multilevel strategy intervention, which of the following models should be followed?

a. RE-AIM
b. IMB Skills Model
c. PAPM
d. CRM

d. Gantt chart
A health education specialist would like to use a planning tool that outlines when specific tasks are to be accomplised before, during, and after a program. The health education specialist would also like to track actual accomplishments of these tasks using this same tool. Which of the following method would be most useful?

a. progress report
b. logic model
c. activity log
d. Gantt chart

c. lack of seat belt use
Which of the following is an example of a behavioral factor that must be considered to assess the root causes of racial and ethnic disparities?

a. exposure to toxins
b. limited access to quality health care
c. lack of seat belt use
d. poverty

c. look for evidenced-based interventions and use existing protocols and materials, if possible
When considering materials to use for a health education/promotion program, which of the following should a health education specialist do first?

a. have members of the priority population help develop materials for the intervention
b. create materials for the majority of the intervention, and then conduct a literature search to find additional materials.
c. look for evidenced-based interventions and use exisiting protocols and materials, if possible
d. create an environment conducive to learning, including creating mutual respect between teachers and learners.

a. identify partners and stakeholders who can help with sustainability during the planning process
A health education specialist is creating a program and is concerned about sustainability of the program. Which of the following actions creates the greatest likelihood for sustainability?

a. identify partners and stakeholders who can help with sustainability during the planning process
b. once the program has been evaluated, modify it, and then implement it again before funding ceases
c. after the program has been evaluated, identify stakeholders or partners who can help with sustainability
d. attempt to attain political support with the evaluation results

d. photovoice or story telling from the student’s point of view.
A health education specialist would like to attend a school board meeting to discuss safety issues in the school. Though multiple forms of data will be used, which of the following will cause a more emotional reaction to evidence the necessity of an intervention?

a. GIS data of the community
b. national data from the CDC compared to state data regarding safety
c. data presented from a survey a high school seniors
d. photovoice or story telling from the student’s point of view

a. the impact of messages
Reach, recall, and medial impressions are common metrics used to evaluate:

a. the impact of messages
b. health literacy skills
c. web site traffic
d. numeracy skills

b. focus groups
A health education specialist has been asked to collect qualititative data from participants. Given a short time period to collect data, which method takes the least amount of time?

a. interviews
b. focus groups
c. delphi technique
d. quantitative surveys

b. all the information could be inaccurate
A health education specialist finds a web site called The Teen Pregnancy Place, which provides a discussion board where pregnant and parenting teens can obtain advice and make friends online. It is unclear who developed the material or sponsors the site. A fact sheet regarding the weekly development of the fetus is provided, but no references are cited for the information it contains. A links page directs visitors to other web sites for resources, services, and products related to pregnancy and parenting. Visitors to the site should assume that:

a. the developer has expertise in teen pregnancy
b. all the information could be inaccurate
c. the discussion board is a valid source of information
d. the developer has expertise in fetal development

d. grassroots lobbying
The healthy hearts coalition emails all PTA/PTO members and asks them to contact their district school board members to vote for the healthy snacks in school policy. This appeal is considered:

a. media advocacy
b. direct lobbying
c. legislative advocacy
d. grassroots lobbying

a. to seek someone with specialized skills not available internally.
Which one of the following is typically considered a good reason for a public health agency to seek outside help from someone other than a staff member?

a. to seek someone with specialized skills not available internally.
b. no one within the agency wants to do the task
c. to reduce costs of program evaluation
d. to increase bias of program results

a. national highway traffic safety administration
Which organization is a reliable source for data related to disabilities resulting from automobile crashes that would be used in health education program planning?

a. national highway traffic safety adminstration
b. american automobile association
c. occupational safety and health administration
d. health care financing administration

D. Counseling for decision-making
The client comes to an HES for health counseling and coaching. The client feel stress associated with unresolved conflict and poor coping patterns. The health coach decides to use which of the following approaches/theoretical orientation is to counseling in order to meet the specific client need?

A. Exploratory counseling
B. Client centered counseling
C. Behavioral counseling
D. Counseling for decision-making

b. to compare to primary data in the community to understand community need.
A HES is concerned about HIV infection in the community. The HES might use the data on the graph above:
a. to compare to secondary data in the state to understand the community need.
b. to compare to primary data in the community to understand community need.
c. to use as a form of primary data to identify the specific community priority population.
d. to use as evidence that all populations are at great risk for HIV infection.
A. Use a logic model to show how the program aligns with the organizations mission
If a health education specialist is trying to gain support for program within an organization, which is one way to rationalize the program to key stakeholders?

A. Use a logic model to show how the program aligns with the organizations mission
B. Create an evaluation plan to show how each variable will be measured
C. Present a timeline to illustrate how to program will impact an organization
D. Present secondary data to illustrate program need

B. Consider the nature of the audience and the purpose of the program
In the process of selecting the most appropriate educational method to use in a health education program, which of the following guidelines should be used?

A. Use favorite methods of the person delivering the program
B. Consider the nature of the audience and the purpose of the program
C. Find a program delivered to a different audiences for audience
D. In order to be useful, a program must include all of the intervention strategies

B. Use community-based participatory research
One of the ways to comprehensively engage the priority population in the program planning, implementation, and evaluation process is to:

A. Develop a partnership between two community organizations.
B. Use community-based participatory research
C. Use a focus group to assist with the needs assessment
D. Ask a stakeholder to serve as a consultant for the project

C. Epidemiological assessment
When planning a cardiovascular disease prevention program following the preceed-proceed model, data on high fatty acid intake would fall into which assessment phase?

A. Educational and ecological assessment
B. Social assessment and situational analysis
C. Epidemiological assessment
D. Intervention alignment and administrative and policy assessment

D. Use graphs or charts, rather than tables are numbers, to show rates of illness or injury
Which of the following statements contains accurate principles to address low health literacy?

A. Assume that everyone reads of the 12th grade level, since most people graduate from high school
B. Present many health statistics, as people tend to understand numbers better than words
C. Try to fit everything on one page, even if it means making the font smaller than desired
D. Use graphs or charts, rather than tables are numbers, to show rates of illness or injury

A. Feasibility
According to the CDC framework for program evaluation, being realistic, prudent, diplomatic and frugal, is part of which standard for effective evaluation?

A. Feasibility
B. Utility
C. Propriety
D. Accuracy

A. Behavioral objective
Among program participants, smoking rates will decrease by 35% in 12 months is an example of a/an:

A. Behavioral objective
B. Learning objective
C. Administrative objective
D. Environmental objective

B. An implementation guide
To help improve intervention Fidelity, A health education specialist should create:

A. An evaluation plan
B. An implementation guide
C. Evidence-based practice
D. Tailored materials

C. Breach of confidentiality
A health education specialist gives data from an evaluation regarding drug use any community to a community volunteer to enter. Some of the participants wrote their name on top of the survey what ethical issue has occurred?

A Failure to obtain informed consent
b. Lack of objectivity
C. Breach of confidentiality
D. Failure to discuss benefits or risks
.

D. Training participants will be able to list three resources for patients who report sexual misconduct by the end of the session.
Which of the following is a SMART training objective?

A. Participants will report all cases of sexual misconduct by the end of the session
B. Participants will increase their knowledge of sexual misconduct by the end of the session
C. Participants will be able to list two types of sexual misconduct
D. Training participants will be able to list three resources for patients who report sexual misconduct by the end of the session.

B. Process
By 2018, volunteers will distribute informational flyers to at least 50% of program participants. This is an example of which type of objective?

A. Impact
B. Process
C. Outcome
D. Summative

B. Price
A health education specialist is planning a comprehensive community-based strategy to promote physical activity. In the planning process, the health edu specialist would like to use the social marketing model. If they take into account the physiological impact of exercise for sedentary person which of the 4 p’s is the health education specialist addressing?

A. Product
B. Price
C. Place
D. Promotion

A. Attitudes
A health specialist is working with the community agency to implement and obesity prevention program in the community. They have decided BMI will be measured to assess the rates of obesity at baseline and at one year, physical activity recalls and dietary logs to assess behavior weekly during the six month program, and surveys to assess attitudes at the beginning and end of the program. the evaluator will assess fidelity and acceptability of the intervention throughout the intervention.

If they created a logic model which outcomes would be considered short-term outcomes?

A. Attitudes
B. Physical activity and diet
C. Feasibility and acceptability
D. BMI

D. Fidelity and acceptability
A health specialist is working with the community agency to implement and obesity prevention program in the community. They have decided BMI will be measured to assess the rates of obesity at baseline and at one year, physical activity recalls and dietary logs to assess behavior weekly during the six month program, and surveys to assess attitudes at the beginning and end of the program. Evaluator will assess Fidelity and except ability of the intervention throughout the intervention.

Which measurements are parts of a formative evaluation?

A. BMI only
B. Bmi, physical activity, diet and attitudes
C. Diet and physical activity
D. Fidelity and acceptability

B. Changing text size or statistics
Which of the following are considered safe changes to materials to program activities when using a packaged health edu program?

A. Changing theoretical focus
B. Changing text size or statistics
C. Shortening the program
D. Changing the behavioral Theory

C. How many cigarettes do you smoke per day?
A HES specialist wants to connect ratio data on smoking rates. Which of the following questions would achieve this level of measurement?

A. Do you smoke?
B. Do you smoke 1-10, 11-20, 20-30cigarettes per day?
C. How many cigarettes do you smoke per day?
D. Do you smoke 0, 1-10, or 20+ cigarettes per day?

C. Establish the relevance of the information to learners
In health edu presentations, which of the following is an appropriate guideline to promote learning?

A. Do not repeat information in any planned learning activity
B. Use passive learning methods, such as lectures
C. Establish the relevance of the information to learners
D. Present information unique to one setting or situation

D. Observation
A HES is asked to measure the actual use of a walking trail in a local community. Which of the following methods is best to measure the actual use of the trail over a period of a week?

A. Nominal group process
B. Surveys
C. Focus groups
D. Observation

B. Fidelity
As an HES monitors program implementation, he/she find several lessons were not implemented as originally planned. This illustrates lack of

A. Reliability
B. Fidelity
C. Validity
D. Assessment

A. By Outlining specific portions of the priory population to focus on
When creating a marketing plan, an HES must segment the audience. How does this occur?

A. By outlining specific portions of the priory population to focus on
B. By identifying benefits of the health program for the audience
C. By developing a communication strategy for the entire priority population
D. By outlining all components for a solution to the health issue or problem

A. Revolutionary
An organization is undergoing restructuring because of budgetary cuts, which in turn impacts health promotion efforts. Which approach to organizational change is occuring?

A. Revolutionary
B. Evolutionary
C. Regulatory
D. Reactionary

C. Psychinfo
HES and a local health department are trying to understand mental health conditions, and those with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and cancer. Which of the following resources would be the best database to find mental health research articles?

A. HaPI (Health and psychological instruments)
B. CHID (comparative history of ideas)
C. Psychinfo
D. Medline

D. Gantt chart
The intervention program has been adopted, and the priority population is ready to participate. The implementation team needs to know their tasks and associated due dates, and the health education specialist needs a relatively simple way to track the team’s projected and actual task completion progress. the meet both needs, as well as to identify and prioritize all of tasks needed for full implementation, the health education specialist creates:

A. CPM Chart
B. Logic chart
C. TDTL chart
D. Gantt chart

d. ensure the program was culturally appropriate and relevant.
An after school program was developed to help overweight and obese adolescents lose weight. In developing the program, the health education specialist considered the adolescents’ attitude, beliefs, and values regarding diet and physical activity. knowing this information, the HES helped to:

a. develop clear program goals and objectives
b. institutionalize the program in the community
c. implement new school-based policies for youth
d. ensure the program was culturally appropriate and relevant

a. producing a PSA for local radio
A health education specialist wants to raise awareness among a general audience of the dangers of second-hand smoke. which delivery method would reach a broader audience?

a. producing a PSA for local radio
b. organizing a town hall meeting about second-hand smoke
c. developing an anti-smoking workplace wellness campaign
d. creating a fact sheet for patients at a health center.

b. formative
The social media campaign to change social norms related to teen pregnancy developed by a health education specialist is reviewed by a group of adolescents from the priority population. Their feedback allows the HES to make changes before implementing the campaign. What type of evaluation is this?

a. summative
b. formative
c. impact
d. process

c. a web-based quantitative survey
A HES does not have additional staff to assist with data collection, data entry, or analysis, and has a tight timeline for data collection and analysis. which of the following is a feasible method for the HES to collect data on attitudes toward anti-smoking legislation in a region?

a. a web-based qualitative program
b. a mailed quantitative survey
c. a web-based quantitative survey
d. a telephone survey

a. Collaborations or partnerships
The lead and radon program at a state health department did not have its funding renewed and is scheduled to end in the next twelve months. A strategic plan, vision, and program evaluation data are available. What other sustainability domain or element should a HES explore for sustaining program?
a. Collaborations or partnerships
b. Creating a new vision
c. Volunteer or intern staff
d. Free materials and services
c. support groups for smokers in a cessation program
An informal channel for communicating information about smoking policies at the work site could include:
a. posting of smoke-free policies
b. in-house smoking cessation seminars
c. support groups for smokers in a cessation program
d. mandatory in-service programs about the effects of second hand smoke.
d. author’s credentials, web site’s purpose, and references
A HES was asked to provide a school district with accurate web-based resources for their sexuality education program. What key items would a health education specialist assess?

a. political affiliation, committee opinions, and visual presentation of the data
b. appropriateness, reading level, and clarity
c. form, target audience, and availability
d. author’s credentials, web site’s purpose, and references

b. build trust and respect between the learners and instructors
A university is working with community health workers, an American-Indian tribe, and the Tribal Health Organization to implement a diabetes prevention program. Two-day training is being planned for the community health workers to ensure proper program delivery. What should the trainers do to create an inclusive learning environment?

a. obtain leadership approval to offer the training
b. build trust and respect between the learners and instructors
c. pay for food and travel to the training for all participants.
d. offer the training only during the work hours

a. a fact sheet about the issue
When starting the advocacy process, the HES should develop:

a. a fact sheet about the issue
b. a strategic
c. SMART objectives
d. a progrm

c. specify job performance
When facilitating a training workshop on a new electronic medical records system at a clinic, the HES is following the steps for successful training programs. He/she is confident in implementing the training steps, as there is little difference between this process and general health education program implementation, except for the need to:
a. specify teaching-learning methods
b. specify learning needs
c. specify job performance
d. specify instructional resources
b. Is the information compatible with the community context?
Which of the following questions does NOT help to assess the accuracy of a resource?

a. What are the funding source(s) of the site?
b. Is the information compatible with the community context?
c. Does it cite evidenced based references?
d. What are the credentials of the content reviewers?

c. ensure program objectives are met
The trainer’s primary responsibility is to:

a. select teaching-learning methods
b. establish conditions for learning
c. ensure program objectives are met
d. skillfully conduct the training

a. synthesizing
The HES must analyze the meaning of the data collected during the assessment and determine health education/promotion needs. If the HES aggregates the data, which cognitive progress of the qualitative research is he/she focusing on?

a. synthesizing
b. comprehending
c. theorizing
d. re-contextualizing

c. beneficence
If a HES wishes to use online surveys because of the ease of data collection, but the priority population struggles with technology. This is breach of which ethical principle in managing technology?

a. Equity
b. transparency
c. beneficence
d. confidentiality

a. only visit sites that end in.gov, .org, .edu
After his partner was diagnosed with breast cancer, an older citizen of a community is overwhelmed by the amount of information on the topic by the internet. He asks how to sort through the information to find reputable sources. One way to help him easily limit his search is to tell him to:

a. only visit sites that end in.gov, .org, .edu
b. review the resources for timeliness and research
c. review the intent of the web site
d. find the author contact information

d. first consider how the priority population prefers to get their information.
HES wishing to target subgroups of the priority population should:

a. create a generic newsletter and send it to the entire community
b.always begin with social media, as word can spread quickly using this type of media.
c. advertise in the newspaper because this is a form of mass media
d. first consider how the priority population prefers to get their information.

d. secondary
In a community based heart disease intervention, mass hypertension screenings at the shopping mall were used as the “kick off” activity. Which level of prevention are the screenings?

a. diagnostic
b. primary
c. tertiary
d. secondary

b. “individuals participating in the health education program will be able to identify 3 ways to protect their skin from the sun by the end of the program”
Which of the following is an example of a correctly written learning objective?

a. “individuals in the program will increase their level of physical activity by 25% by the 6th week of the program”
b. “individuals participating in the health education program will be able to identify 3 ways to protect their skin from the sun by the end of the program”
c. “75% of individuals participating in the program will increase their knowledge of the dangers of smoking over the following three-months”
d. “There will be a 20% decrease in heart disease death rates among individuals living in Brockport by the end of the first year of the program”.

c. an advocacy plan
Goals, organizational considerations, constituents, allies, opponents, targets, and tactics are all elements of:

a. interpersonal communication channels
b. SMART goals and objectives
c. an advocacy plan
d. social marketing

b. process
Advocacy evaluation often involves careful tracking of implementation throughout the advocacy effort. What type of program evaluation is this considered?

a. impact
b. process
c. outcome
d. summative

b. negligence
Forgetting to inform participants about the risks associated with physical activity before having the participants begin a program is an example of:
a. commission
b. negligence
c. deregulation
d. beneficence
a. resources
Conducting a capacity assessment focuses on identifying community:
a. resources
b. health problems
c. weaknesses
d. needs
c. procedural manual
Before implementing a program, a HES should develop “how-to” materials for implementing a program. This is called a:
a. environmental scan
b. literature review
c. procedural manual
d. adapted pilot test
d. CAEP
The organization that accredits undergraduate teacher preparation programs is:
a. NCHEC
b. SOPHE
c. APHA
d. CAEP (counsel for the accreditation for educator preparation)
a. personal characteristics of the instructor
A HES needs to conduct training for individuals who will be delivering the intervention. which of the following is a critical consideration when conducting training?
a. personal characteristics of the instructor
b. costs associated with the program
c. maintenance of the training program
d. social norms for the organization
c. formative
The videos and accompanying workbook activities chosen for an intervention chosen for an intervention are pretested then revised and improved right before the start of the intervention. This type of evaluation is called:
a. impact
b. summative
c. formative
d. process
b. Outcome
When writing objectives for the worksite exercise promotion intervention, the HES wishes to measure any morbidity, mortality, and health status change occurred as a result of the intervention. He/she would write which type of objective?
a. Process
b. Outcome
c. Impact
d. Environmental
c. published data form a CDC article
Which method represents a secondary source for a needs assessment?
a. interviews with key informants
b. focus groups with a priority population
c. published data form a CDC article
d. Internet survey of program participants
a. proxy measures

Using a proxy measure means when you can’t measure exactly what you want/need, you measure what you can.

Using a written questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey about personal alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use behaviors was administered to a priority population. The priority population for the survey did not respond. The health education specialist would then need to find other evidence that the behaviors occurred or did not occur using:
a. proxy measures
b. multistep written surveys
c. self-assessments
d. telephone interviews
b. environmental change
The school wellness committee placed speed bumps on all school parking lots bordering school playgrounds. This in an example of which type of intervention strategy?
a. Health education change
b. environmental change
c. communication change
d. health policy change
d. confidentiality
A health education specialist is managing a mobile health intervention collecting demographic and behavioral information about its participants. After discovering a breach in the program’s data storage system, what is the manager’s most pressing ethical issue?
a. equity
b. beneficence
c. transparency
d. confidentiality
c. audience
When creating a marketing plan for a program, which of the following should be identified first?
a. communication methods
b. message
c. audience
d. financial resource
a. U.S. Census databases
A HES is developing a tobacco prevention program. The HES is looking for evidence-based interventions as part of his/her planning process. The least helpful resource would be:
a. U.S. Census databases
b. Cochrane reviews
c. community guide to preventive services
d. research-tested interventions programs.
d. meets federal guidelines and does not exceed a certain percentage of the nonprofit’s activities.
A non profit agency can perform lobbying as long as that lobbying:
a. is performed only during the lunch hour, when employees are on break
b. involves asking policy makers to pass or dismiss a certain piece of legislation in one legislative session.
c. is performed while “on” organizational time, not on personal time.
d. meets federal guidelines and does not exceed a certain percentage of the nonprofit’s activities.
a. An infographic with data and short messages
A hospital would like to post information throughout the facility to increase awareness of the potential dangers, spread, and prevention of influenza. Which format would best accomplish this?
a. An infographic with data and short messages
b. A pamphlet containing detailed information
c. Data printed for the CDC’s web site regarding influenza
d. Graphics showing proper hand washing procedures
b. fidelity
During delivery of a health promotion program, it becomes apparent the amount of time allotted to each lesson or activity is not sufficient. The person delivering the program decides to delete some content to make the lesson fit. The action could result in a lack of:

a. evaluation
b. fidelity
c. validity
d. reliability

a. tailoring a message
In a health education program, participants are asked about their readiness for change so that content in a message can be personalized. This is an example of:
a. tailoring a message
b. conducting a needs assessment
c. identifying a message source
d. analyzing message content
b. process evaluation
During a health education program, questions about whether the participants like the instructional materials and if instructors find them easy to use are examples of:
a. summative evaluation
b. process evaluation
c. impact evaluation
d. outcome evaluation
c. use a mix of strategies to involve the learner
When developing and preparing to implement an intervention, which of the following practices is most pedagogically sound?
a. change the strategy every five minutes to keep the learner engaged
b. use mostly presentation software to deliver content
c. use a mix of strategies to involve the learner
d. use the latest technology to deliver content
c. impact evaluation
To determine the immediate effects of a health education program, the health education specialist should use which type of evaluation?
a. formative evaluation
b. process evaluation
c. impact evaluation
d. outcome evaluation
d. a vision statement
Healthy children in healthy communities is an example of:
a. a goal
b. an objective
c. a mission statement
d. a vision statement
b. the participants’ perceived benefits of the program.
When reporting a program’s evaluation results to community members, the most important aspect to highlight is:
a. the extent to which program objectives were achieved through advanced statistics.
b. the participants’ perceived benefits of the program.
c. the results indicating which activities within the program intervention were most successful.
d. details of the program’s history and IRB protocol.
a. define the audience for the material
Print material was selected as the appropriate way to provide a take-home message to reinforce concepts presented during a behavior change intervention. The first step in planning the specific materials to be developed is to:
a. define the audience for the material
b. develop goals and objectives for the material
c. develop material content and graphics
d. gather information about the audience for the material
d. informal interviews, observations, and survey
Which represents primary sources that could be used for a community needs assessment?

a. published scientific studies and reports
b. united states census data, vital records, disease registries
c. state health data from the health department
d. informal interviews, observations, and survey

b. nominal
A health education specialist collects data with a “yes” or “no” response option. This is what type of data?
a. ordinal
b. nominal
c. interval
d. ratio
a. population at risk
In a community, twice as many people died over the course of one year in house fires than in car crashes. Community members demand the health education specialist immediately create a fire prevention intervention. Before planning the fire prevention intervention, the health education specialist should first determine the:
a. population at risk
b. life expectancy in the community
c point source epidemic curve.
d. odds ratio
a. GIS mapping
A health education specialist would like to present visual data regarding community assets. Which of the following can be used to achieve this?
a. GIS mapping
b. Prevalence rates
c. assets listed by address
d. presentation of public records
b. BMI, physical activity, diet, and attitudes
The following scenario is used for question 130.
A health education specialist is working with a community agency on an obesity prevention program in the community. They have decided to use BMI to measure rates of obesity at baseline and at one year, physical activity recalls and dietary logs to assess behavior weekly during the six month program, and surveys to assess attitudes at the beginning and end of the program. The evaluator will assess fidelity and acceptability of the intervention throughout the intervention.

In scenario C, which measurements are parts of the summative evaluation?
a. BMI only
b. BMI, physical activity, diet, and attitudes
c. fidelity and acceptability
d. diet and physical activity

c. does the priority population of interest use this type of technology?
A health education specialist is working with a community agency on an obesity prevention program in the community. They have decided to use BMI to measure rates of obesity at baseline and at one year, physical activity recalls and dietary logs to assess behavior weekly during the six month program, and surveys to assess attitudes at the beginning and end of the program. The evaluate will assess fidelity and acceptability of the intervention throughout the intervention.

If a health education specialist is designing an intervention to be delivered using an emerging technology, which preliminary planning question is most important?

a. which journal will publish a paper about a health intervention using this technology?
b. How much will it cost to conduct staff training on this technology?
c. does the priority population of interest use this type of technology?
d. what other health organizations are using this type of technology?

d. searching federal, state, city, and county open data portals
A HES has a limited budget and is looking for baseline data. which of the following may be a secondary data option to consider?
a. randomly sampling the priority population?
b. conducting a survey with the priority population
c. pilot testing an interview with family members and co-workers
d. searching federal, state, city, and county open data portals
a. cultural audit
A process that is used in organizations, similar to a needs assessment, assesses assumptions and values to health education/promotion. This is a:
a. cultural audit
b. strategy assessment
c. strategic plan
d. asset map
c. get the priority population to accept the program
The most critical step in the implementation process is to:
a. field test the program
b. establish a management system
c. get the priority population to accept the program
d. evaluate the program
c. perceived need
After conducting a needs assessment, a HES finds the community lacks the infrastructure to support physically active lifestyles. However, community members are more concerned about drug use in the community. in this example, drug use is a:
a. normative need
b. actual need
c. perceived need
d. political need
d. a written agreement outlining the work needed.
When working with consultants or contractors, it is necessary to secure:
a. a signed ethics agreement from the consultant or contractor
b. extra funds to cover the cost of unexpected expenditures
c. an implementation plan from the consultant or contractor
d. a written agreement outlining the work needed.
b. attack rate
A large group of tourists travels on an ocean liner to a tropical island and developed an acute, flu-like illness. The suspected cause of illness is associated with cruising on this ocean liner. Health authorities need to know the number of all passengers who became ill, as well as those who traveled on the ocean liner. which rate should the health education specialist calculate to provide information to health authorities?

a. prevalence rate
b. attack rate
c. fatality rate
d. cause-specific mortality rate

b. enabling
Following the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, which type of factor in the educational and ecological assessment would assess whether community members have adequate access to oral health care services?

a. predisposing
b. enabling
c. reinforcing
d. motivating

a. create partnership mission, goals, and outcomes
When creating a partnership, which of the following tasks should be completed first?

a. create partnership mission, goals, and outcomes
b. begin program development
c. create a memorandum of understanding
d. create a shared budget for the program

a. sometimes behaviors are influenced by other factors, such as lack of access to healthy food, that are out of a person’s control
In a meeting, community members offer suggestions for curbing the community’s obesity problem. They focus on the behaviors of individuals in the community, thinking if community members change their dietary behaviors, then the obesity problem will be solved. A HES explains the solution is not this simple because:
a. sometimes behaviors are influenced by other factors, such as lack of access to healthy food, that are out of a person’s control
b. attitudes are the only important important than behaviors when weighing factors related to obesity treatment of prevention.
c. access to healthcare is more important than behaviors when weighing factors related to obesity treatment or prevention.
d. there are other behaviors more important when trying to decrease rates of obesity in the community.
c. the partnership is not cost effective, and should be reexamined
After the end of a year-long program, a partnership is being evaluated. The evaluation reveals that the results of the program are minimal, and the expense high for both partners. However, the community supports the partnership, and both agencies enjoy working together on the program. What is likely to be the finding of the evaluation report?
a. because both agencies enjoy working together, the program should continue
b. because the community support the partnership, it should be continued
c. the partnership is not cost effective, and should be reexamined
d. the program should be repeated to see if it is more successful the second time
d. social media
A HES is assessing which resources to use in a smoking prevention campaign for a community. Because the HES wishes to focus on primary prevention, which strategy is likely to reach the intended audience?
a. news outlets
b. community intervention
c. billboards
d. social media
b. track if activities produce outputs that lead to outcomes
On use of logic models is to:
a. outline the lesson plan scope and sequence
b. track if activities produce outputs that lead to outcomes
c. identify the timing of when all of the planning should occur.
d. outline evaluation stages for the program.
a. determining the objectives of the survey
Which of the following is the first step in designing a survey?
a. determining the objectives of the survey
b. determining the questions to be used
c. determining the types of scales to be used
d. determining the specific data to be collected
c. an assessment of existing health needs and problems
Program planning begins with:
a. a measuring of social marketing process
b. an identification of the specific focus of an intervention
c. an assessment of existing health needs and problems
d. the creation of program and learning objectives
c. fact sheets from a federal health agency
A community coalition is seeking more information to understand the complexities of promoting the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among teenagers to prevent cervical cancer. The health education specialist should refer them to which type of source for the most accurate information that is also relevant and useful to the coalition?
a. a web site of a commercial pharmaceutical manufacturer
b. a systematic review of the scientific literature
c. fact sheets from a federal health agency
d. a blog from a social advocate
a. societal
Health illiteracy, economics, and poverty are considered which type of factors that cause racial and ethnic health disparities?
a. societal
b. environmental
c. individual
d. medical care
d. demonstrate how to prepare a healthy meal
If a HES wished to use the application level of Bloom’s taxonomy in an intervention aimed at decreasing saturated fat consumption, what might the HES have the priority population do?
a. outline the health benefits of decreasing fat intake
b. list foods containing saturated fats
c. compare saturated and unsaturated fats
d. demonstrate how to prepare a healthy meal
b. AHA
a HES is developing health literature about symptoms of stroke and what to steps are necessary to take action for adults in the community. What is the most valid source of information to use?
a. prevention institute
b. AHA
c. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services
d. ADA
a. critical path method
a new HIV testing intervention is being planned to support efforts to increase screening rates. The intervention is planned to start in six months. Which of the following is a proven method to create a timeline and plan for the intervention?
a. critical path method
b. epidemiology curve
c. weekly program meetings
d. strategic plan
c. implementation
The community heart health coalition was formed about one year ago, and it is now in the process of collecting needs assessment data and creating a strategic plan. This coalition is cycling through which stage of coalition development?

a. outcome
b. maintenance
c. implementation
d. formation

c. A formal presentation
A HES has collected some resources on drug use and prevention for various audiences. The CEO of a company would like to see information regarding prescription drug use. What is the best way to present this information to the CEO?
a. An infographic
b. A phamphlet produced by NIDA
c. A formal presentation
d. A literature review
a. nominal group process
A HES needs to determine specific alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use prevention needs and immediately prioritize those needs with a few experts from the priority population. Which primary data collection technique would be the best to use in this scenario?
a. nominal group process
b. focus group
c. community forum
d. electronic interviews
d. educational
A HES schedules a panel to discuss issues with program staff related to an emerging disease. This is an example of what kind of strategy?
a. policy
b. health engineering
c. communication
d. educational
d. stating the purpose of the lesson
When implementing well designed health education class lessons for adult learners, the HES should incorporate which of the following adult learning principles?
a. progressing form unknown to known material through the lesson
b. moving from complex to simple concepts throughout the lesson
c. moving as quickly as possible through the lesson
d. stating the purpose of the lesson
d. help the client identity and understand their options
Within the healthcare system, the primary function of the HES is to:
a. ensure appropriate client clinical services are being offered.
b. conduct research and implement survey regarding the availability of health services.
c. provide educational services and professional development to other clinicians
d. help the client identity and understand their options
a. establish validity and reliability for the modified instrument in the high school population.
While working with a tight timeline, a HES chooses to modify an existing instrument to measure self-efficacy in high school students. However, the original instrument was used in a college population. In order to use the instrument, the HES must:
a. establish validity and reliability for the modified instrument in the high school population.
b. modify the instrument and then proceed with data collection for evaluation.
c. not modify the instrument, since the two population are similar.
d. realize modifying an instrument makes it invalid, and this is not a proper procedure for data collection.
c. an ecological model of health
In order for partnerships to be effective, their composition needs to reflect members that are knowledgeable about the populations they serve, reflect multiple domains in consideration of relative risks and protective factors, and possess a diverse presentation. A model that facilitates this selection process is.
a. the essential public health services
b. communications feedback loops
c. an ecological model of health
d. a continuous quality improvement process.
c. increase awareness of the potential effects of the condition.
Communication aimed at patients with non-life-threatening medical conditions is primarily developed to:
a. promote open discussion of the condition with significant others.
b. provide motivation to seek medical help immediately.
c. increase awareness of the potential effects of the condition.
d. encourage consideration of nonmedical opinions.
b. deciding on salary of key personnel
Stakeholders are typically involved in the program planning process in many ways, except;
a. monitoring program operations
b. deciding on salary of key personnel
c. serving as primary users of the program
d. ensuring implementation proceeds smoothly.
a. cultural competency
In working with a community that has a large Spanish-speaking population, a health educator engages a lay-health worker early in the planning process to be sure that the program is planned, implemented, and evaluated appropriately. An advisory group is formed to assess the relevance of the program activities. These important steps are a way to help improve:
a. cultural competency
b. cultural identification
c. cultural norms
d. cultural assimilation
a. mission, vision, and values.
One of the first considerations when determining the potential appropriateness of an external organization for collaboration is an alignment of:
a. mission, vision, and values.
b. an operational budget
c. a staffing pattern
d. an organizational structure
b. Know their audience and what they have access to
A HES is working with several agencies to develop an intervention. When selecting strategies, which of the following should the health educator do first?

a Do a literature search to find the best program regardless of audience.
b. Know their audience and what they have access to
c. Use social media and other popular technologies
d Convene the agencies to discuss what strategies they think are best.

c. HaPI
A HES needs to find an instrument to measure program impact. Which database is best for this?
a. SAMSHA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
b. HRSA (Health resources services administration)
c. HaPI (health and psychological instruments)
d. MEDLINE
a. surveys administered in person
A HES is trying to decide how to collect data for program evaluation in a program to improve nutrition in a low-income community sample. The health educator is looking to randomly select a small number of participants and assess their individual attitudes toward dietary behavior change and their dietary behavior. Which of the following data collection methods would be best to get the largest response rate in this sample?
a. surveys administered in person
b. web-based surveys
c. mailed surveys
d. nominal group process