Health Belief Model
According to which theory or model do people assess the threat of an emerging disease by assessing their perceived susceptibility against the severity of the disease?
Focus on how new and different the program is from what exists
A health education specialist is considering how people might adopt a program in order to understand how best to tailor specific messages. If the health education specialist wants to get the first people to adopt the program using the Diffusion of Innovations, which strategy might be best?
In a priority population, the infant mortality rate and overall death rate for mothers with less than a high school education is almost twice as high as mothers with 13 or more years of education. These are examples of:
Data storage is an example of which type of technology need?
Newsletters, community meetings, public service announcements, and social networking sites are examples of:
Smoking bans in restaurants are which type of strategy in a community-based smoking prevention program?
Which section of an original research paper presents evidence tested against the stated hypothesis or research questions and presents the statistical findings?
It explains the benefits, risks, and participation is voluntary and may be terminated at any time
Which of the following statements about informed consent is correct?
The generalizability of the findings
The health department administrator just returned from a meeting where someone used a focus group to gather data and now has a great idea. The administrator tasks the health education specialist with conducting a focus group of low income citizens from the south side of town to answer questions about which heart disease intervention the department should offer city wide. Knowing the limitations of this strategy, the health education specialist is rightfully concerned about:
What tactics should be used to influence people?
When developing advocacy plans, which questions would be considered last?
A health education specialist is asked to find school health resources for physical activity. The most appropriate bibliographic database to search is:
revealed prior to hiring
While hiring new employees, the health education specialist should contact the candidates’ professional references and validate the employee’s degrees. In doing so, discrepancies may be:
The health education specialist has core substance abuse prevention coalition members in place and is currently broadening group representation. Some new members only contribute money to the coalition and are categorized as:
A group of health education specialists run into a situation where they need to elicit specialized guidance and expert opinion on a specific health topic in order to aid in decision-making. Of the following, which type of group should be consulted?
consumption, medication compliance, and self-care are considered which type of factors related to health
Program components being implemented in the correct order
Health departments and worksites are implementing a new health education/promotion program to increase influenza vaccine rates for adults in a five county area. What will the project lead focus on to assess the fidelity of implementation?
How receptive the community of target population is to the proposed policy or advocacy effort
When choosing a policy or issue to advocate on with a legislator, which criteria should be considered first?
The health education specialist is working with a local community to institute a smoke free environment in local businesses, agencies, and restaurants throughout the entire community. What type of health strategy would the health education specialist implement in the community?
a health education specialist is identifying the types of activities to be included in a health education/promotion program. In a logic model, these activities would be included in:
in the social ecological model, a school or worksite would fall under which factor or level
change the core elements that make the program effective
A local health department has decided to adopt an evidence-based program for obesity prevention with educational materials that are not completely compatible with the community it serves. In the process of adapting the materials to make them more suitable for the population, the health education specialist should be cautious not to:
retain scales to cover an entire domain, rather than select one question for a complex domain
If selecting items from an existing instrument, which of the following is the correct procedure?
publish articles in peer-reviewed journals on the importance of professional development
with so many changes in health education and health-related policy on a daily basis, it is essential that health education specialists advocate for professional development for the field. Which of the following is a way to advocate for professional development in the field of health education?
Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act
A health education specialist is developing a new Web site as part of an intervention for people with visual disabilities. Which law should the health education specialist review and consider when developing the Web site?
Effective communications should include feedback loops through which intentions, ideas, and information can be exchanged
Which of the following is true about successful partnerships?
Starting a community petition drive
Which of the following is an example of grassroots advocacy?
considered an infrastructure/supply need:
if mobile devices were not given to the priority population, which ethical principal might have been breached, especially in terms of program delivery?
which of the following could be considered a financial resource for the program
A hospital is expanding outreach services and facilities with a new unit focused on prevention and the treatment of chronic disease. The health education specialist is tasked with gathering local data on these conditions. Which is the most useful rate to use?
Identify the audience
A foodborne outbreak has closed three local restaurants, and epidemiologists and food safety staff are hoping to identify the outbreak source. Health education specialist and communication specialists plan to use earned media to educate local community members about the outbreak. What should the health education specialists and communication specialists do first?
Adapt the lesson to the learners needs so they are able to understand the information or skill
A health education specialist notices one of the lessons is not working as planned. What is the appropriate way to proceed?
In planning a health education/promotion program, a health education specialist needs to develop a timeline for delivery of the intervention. Which of the following accomplishes this task?
Join a professional health education organization
A health educator has just begun his career after graduation. He is trying to make contacts with other professionals so that he can network and share ideas. Which of the following ways is the best way to achieve this?
Use peripheral stimuli, such as pictures or video to increase attention
During flu season, health education specialists often try to promote the flu vaccine to the general public. According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, a person who does not feel susceptible to the flu might not pay attention to messages promoting the vaccines. How might a health education specialist craft a message in order to target this person?
The health education specialist would use a prioritization matrix in which phase of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model?
Which of the following is a common way to illustrate alignment of programs with the organization’s mission and goals?
A community agency is targeting a variety of social ecological levels to help reduce drug use in the community. Some of the levels will take substantially more time to target. Rather than wait for all aspects of the intervention to be ready, the agency looks to begin with one level and then will add in other levels over time. This is an example of:
A evaluation of a program has been conducted, and a health education specialist is preparing a report in a very tight timeline. Though all sections of the report are important for clarity and content, on which section should he health education specialist spend the most time since it likely will be read more closely by stakeholders?
To deal with the greatest drawback to a multilevel strategy intervention, which of the following models should be followed?
A health education specialist would like to use a planning tool that outlines when specific tasks are to be accomplished before, during, and after a program. The health education specialist would also like to track actual accomplishment of these tasks using this same tool. Which of the following methods would be most useful?
Lack of seat belt use
Which of the following is an example of a behavioral factor that must be considered to assess the root causes of racial and ethnic disparities?
Look for evidence-based interventions and use existing protocols and materials, if possible
When considering materials to use for a health education/promotion program, which of the following should a health education specialist do first?
Identify partners and stakeholders who can help with sustainability during the planning process
A health education specialist is creating a program and is concerned about sustainability of the program. Which of the following actions creates the greatest likelihood for sustainability?
Photovoice or story telling from the students’ point of view
A health education specialist would like to attend a school board meeting to discuss safety issues in the school. Though multiple forms of data will be used, which of the following will cause a more emotional reaction to evidence the necessity of an intervention?
the impact of messages
Reach, recall, and media impressions are common metrics used to evaluate:
A health education specialist has been asked to collect qualitative data from participants. Given a short time period to collect data, which method takes the least amount of time?
all of the information could be inaccurate
A health education specialist finds a website called The Teen Pregnancy Place, which provides a discussion board where pregnant and parenting teens can obtain advice and make friends online. It is unclear who developed the material or sponsors the site. A fact sheet regarding the weekly development of a fetus is provided, but no references are cited for the information is contains. A links page directs visitors to other websites for resources, services, and product related to pregnancy and parenting. Visitors to the website should assume that:
the healthy hearts coalition emails all PTA/PTO members and asks them to contact their district school board members to vote for the healthy snacks in school policy. This appeal is considered:
to seek someone with specialized skills not available internally
which one of the following is typically considered a good reason for a public health agency to seek outside help from someone other than a staff member?
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
which organization is a reliable source for data related to disabilities resulting from automobile crashes that would be used in health education program planning?
counseling for decision-making
a client comes to the health education specialist for health counseling and coaching. The client feels stress associated with unresolved conflict and poor coping patterns. The health coach decides to use which of the following approaches/theoretical orientations to counseling in order to meet this specific client need?
use a logic model to show how the program aligns with the organization’s mission
if a health education specialist is trying to gain support for a program within an organization, which is one way to illustrate a rationale for the program to key stakeholders?
consider the nature of the audience and the purpose of the program
in the process of selecting the most appropriate educational method to use in a health education program, which of the following guidelines should be used?
use community-based participatory research
one of the ways to comprehensively engage the priority population in the program planning, implementation, and evaluation process is to:
when planning a cardiovascular disease prevention program following the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model, data on high fatty acid intake would fall into which assessment phase?
use graphs or charts, rather than tables or numbers, to show rates of illness or injury
which of the following statements contains accurate principles to address low health literacy?
“being realistic, prudent, diplomatic and frugal” is part of which standard for effective evaluation?
among program participants, smoking rates will decrease by 35 percent in 12 months is an example of a/an:
an implementation guide
to help improve intervention fidelity, a health education specialist should create:
Breach of confidentiality
a health education specialist gives data from an evaluation regarding drug use in a community to a community volunteer to enter. Some of the participants wrote their name on top of the survey. What ethical issue has occurred?
training participants will be able to list three resources for patients who report sexual misconduct by the end of the training session
which of the following is a SMART training objective?
By 2018, volunteers will distribute informational fliers to at least 50% of program participants. This is an example of which type of objective?
A health education specialist is planning a comprehensive community-based strategy to promote physical activity. In the planning process, the health education specialist would like to use the Social marketing model. If he/she takes into account the physiological impact of exercise for a sedentary person (muscle soreness), which of 4 P’s is he/she addressing?
attitudes (knowledge, beliefs, values)
which outcomes would be considered short-term outcomes in a program?
Fidelity and acceptability
which measurements are parts of a formative evaluation? (process evaluation)
changing text size or statistics
which of the following are considered “safe” changes to materials or program activities when using a packaged health education program?
how many cigarettes do you smoke per day?
A health education specialist wans to collect ratio data on smoking rates. Which of the following questions would achieve this level of measurement?
establish the relevance of the information to learners
in health education presentations, which of the following is an appropriate guideline to promote learning?
Observation (direct surveillance)
you are asked to measure actual use of a walking trail in a local community. Which of the following methods is best to measure actual use of the trail over a period of a week?
you are monitoring program implementation, and find several lessons were not implemented as originally planned. This illustrates lack of:
by outlining specific portions of the priority population to focus on
when creating a marketing plan, you must segment the audience. How does this occur?
an organization is undergoing restructuring because of budgetary cuts, which in turn impact health promotion efforts. Which approach to organizational change is occurring?
Health education specialists in a local health department are trying to understand mental health conditions common in those with chronic illness such as diabetes and cancer. Which of the following resources would be the best database to find mental health research articles?
the implementation team needs to know their tasks and associated due dates, and you need a relatively simple way to track the team’s projected and actual tasks completion progress. Create a:
ensure the program was culturally appropriate and relevant
in developing a program for overweight adolescents, you consider the adolescents’ attitude, beliefs, and values regarding diet and physical activity. Knowing this helps you to:
producing a public service announcement for local radio
you want to raise awareness among a general audience of the dangers of second-hand smoke. Which delivery method would reach a broader audience?
feedback that allows you to make changes before implementing the campaign would be which type of evaluation?
a web-based quantitative survey
you do not have the additional staff to assist with data collection, data entry, or analysis, and have a tight timeline for data collection and analysis. Which of the following is a feasible method for you to collect data on attitudes toward antismoking legislation in a region?
collaborations or partnerships
what other sustainability domain or element should you explore for sustaining the program?
support groups for smokers in a cessation program
an informal channel for communicating information about smoking policies at the work site could include:
Author’s credentials, web site’s purpose, and references
you are asked to provide a school district with accurate web-based resources for their sexuality education program. What key items would you assess?
build trust and respect between the learners and instructor(s)
a university is working with community health workers, an American-Indian tribe, and the Tribal Health Organization to implement a diabetes prevention program. Two day training is being planned for the community health workers to ensure proper program delivery. What should the trainers do to create an inclusive learning environment??
a fact sheet about the issue
when starting the advocacy process, you should develop:
specify job performance
when facilitating a training workshop on a new electronic medical records system at a clinic, you are following the steps for successful training programs. You are confident in implementing the training steps, as there is little difference between this process and general health education program implementation, except for the need to:
is the information compatible with the community context?
which of the following questions does NOT help to assess the accuracy of a resource?
ensure program objectives are met
the trainer’s primary responsibility is to:
you must analyze the meaning of the data collected during the assessment and determine health education/promotion needs. If you aggregate the data, which cognitive process of qualitative research are you focusing on?
if you wish to use online surveys because of the ease of data collection, but the priority population struggles with technology, this is a breach of which ethical principle of managing technology?
only visit sites that end in .gov, .org, or .edu
an older citizen is overwhelmed by the amount of information on the topic of breast cancer on the internet. One way to help him easily limit his search is to tell him to:
first consider how the priority population prefers to get their information
if you are wishing to target subgroups of the priority population, you should:
in a community-based heart disease intervention, mass hypertension screenings at the shopping mall were used as the “kick off” activity. Which level of prevention are the screenings?
“individuals participating in the health education program will be able to identify three ways to protect their skin from the sun by the end of the program”
example of a correctly written Learning Objective:
an advocacy plan
goals, organizational considerations, constituents, allies, opponents, targets, and tactics are all elements of:
Advocacy evaluation often involves careful tracking of implementation throughout the advocacy effort. What type of program evaluation is this considered?
forgetting to inform participants about the risks associated with physical activity before having the participants begin a program is an example of:
conducting a capacity assessment focuses on identifying community:
before implementing a program, you should develop “how to” materials for implementing the program, this is called:
this organization accredits undergraduate teacher preparation programs:
personal characteristics of the instructor
you need to conduct training for individuals who will be delivering the intervention, which of the following is a critical consideration when conducting training?
the videos and accompanying workbook activities chosen for an intervention are pretested then revised and improved right before the start of the intervention. This type of evaluation is:
when writing objectives for the worksite exercise promotion intervention, you wish to measure any morbidity, mortality, and health status change occurring as a result of the intervention. which type of objective would you write?
published data from a CDC article
which method represents a secondary source for a needs assessment?
using a written questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey about personal alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use behaviors was administered to a priority population. The priority population for the survey did not respond. You need to find other evidence that the behaviors occurred or did not occur using:
the school wellness committee placed speed bumps on all school parking lots bordering school playgrounds. This is an example of which type of intervention strategy?
You are managing a mobile health intervention collecting demographic and behavioral information about the participants. After discovering a breach in the program’s data and storage system, what is the manager’s most pressing ethical issue?
when creating a marketing plan for a program, which of the following should be identified first
U.S. Census databases
you are developing a tobacco prevention program and looking for evidence-based interventions as part of your planning process, the least helpful resource would be:
meets federal guidelines and does not exceed a certain percentage of the nonprofit activities
a nonprofit agency can perform lobbying as long as that lobbying:
an infographic with data and short messages
a hospital would like to post information throughout the facility to increase awareness of the potential dangers, spread, and prevention of influenza. Which format would best accomplish this?
during delivery of a health promotion program, it becomes apparent the amount of time allotted to each lesson or activity is not sufficient. The person delivering the program decides to delete some of the content to make the lesson fit. This action could result in a lack of:
tailoring a message
participants are asked about their readiness for change so that the content in a message can be personalized. this is an example of:
questions about whether the participants like the instructional materials and if instructors find them easy to use are examples of:
use a mix of strategies to involve the learner
when developing and preparing to implement an intervention which of the following practices is most pedagogically sound?
to determine the immediate effects of a health education program, you should use which type of evaluation?
a vision statement
Healthy Children in healthy communities is an example of:
the participants” perceived benefits of the program
when reporting a program’s evaluation results to community members, the most important aspect to highlight is:
define the audience for the material
print material was selected as the appropriate way to provide a take-home message to reinforce concepts during a behavior change intervention. The first step in planning the specific materials to be developed is to:
informal interviews, observations, and surveys
which represents primary sources that could be used for a community needs assessment?
you collect data with “yes” and “no” response options. This is what type of data?
population at risk
in a community, twice as many people died over the course of one year in house fires than in a car crash. Community members demand you create a fire prevention intervention. Before planning the fire prevention intervention, you should first determine the:
you would like to present visual data regarding community assets. Which of the following can be used to achieve this?
BMI, physical activity, diet, and attitudes
parts of the summative evaluation:
does the priority population of interest use this type of technology?
if a health education specialist is designing an intervention to be delivered using an emerging technology, which preliminary planning question is most important?
searching federal, state, city, and county open data portals
you have a limited budget and are looking for baseline data, which of the following may be a secondary data option to consider?
a process that is used in organizations, similar to a needs assessment, assess assumptions and values related to health education/promotion. This is a:
get the priority population to accept the program
the most critical step in the implementation process is to:
you find the community lacks the infrastructure to support physically active lifestyles. However, community members are more concerned about drug use in the community. Drug use, in this example, is a:
a written agreement outlining the work needed
when working with consultant or contractors, it is necessary to secure:
a large group of tourists traveled on an ocean liner to a tropical island and developed an acute, flu like illness. The suspect cause of illness is associated with cruising on this ocean liner. Health authorities needs to know the number of all passengers who became ill, as well as those who traveled on the ocean liner. Which rate should you calculate to provide information to the authorities?
which type of factor in the educational and ecological assessment would assess whether community members have adequate access to oral health care services?
create partnership mission, goals, and outcomes
when creating a partnership, which of the following tasks should be done first?
sometimes behaviors are influenced by other factors, such as lack of access to health food, that are out of a person’s control
the focus of an obesity problem is on the behaviors of the individuals in the community, thinking if members change their diet behaviors then the obesity problem will be solved. You explain the solution is not this simple because:
the partnership is not cost effective, and should be reexamined
a partnership is being evaluated and reveals that the results of the program are minimal and the expense is high for both partners. However, the community supports the partnership and both agencies enjoy working together. What is likely to be the finding of the evaluation report?
you are assessing which resources to use in a smoking prevention campaign and wish to focus on primary prevention. Which strategy is likely to reach the intended audience?
track if activities produce outputs that lead to outcomes
one use of logic models is:
determining the objectives of the survey
first step in designing a survey:
an assessment of existing health needs and problems
program planning begins with:
fact sheets from a federal health agency
You should refer a community coalition to which type of source for the most accurate information that is also relevant and use to the coalition?
health illiteracy, economics, and poverty are considered which type of factors that cause racial and ethnic health disparities?
demonstrate how to prepare a healthy meal
you wish to use the application level of Bloom’s taxonomy in an intervention aimed at decreasing saturated fat consumption, what might you have the priority population do?
American Heart Association
you are developing health literature about symptoms of stroke and what steps are necessary to take action for adults in the community, what is a valid source of information to use?
Critical Path Method
a proven method to create a timeline and plan for an intervention starting in six months:
a coalition is collecting needs assessment data and creating a strategic plan. The coalition is cycling through which stage of coalition development?
a formal presentation
you have collected some resources on drug use and prevention for various audiences. The CEO of a company would like to see information regarding prescription drug abuse. What is the best way to present this to the CEO?
Nominal group process
you need to determine specific alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use prevention needs and immediately prioritize those needs with a few experts from the priority population, which primary data collection technique is best for this?
you schedule a panel to discuss issues with program staff related to an emerging disease. This is an example of what kind of strategy?
stating the purpose of the lesson
when implementing well designed health education class lessons for adult learners, you should incorporate which of the following learning principles?
help the client identify and understand their options
within the healthcare system , the primary function of your role is to:
establish validity and reliability for the modified instrument in the high school population
you choose to modify an existing instrument to measure self-efficacy in high schoolers, however the instrument was used in college population, in order to use this instrument you must:
an ecological model of health
in order for partnerships to be effective, their composition needs to reflect members that are knowledgeable about the populations they serve, reflect multiple domains in consideration of relative risks and protective factors, and possess a diverse representation. A model that facilitates this selection process is:
increase awareness of the potential effects of the condition
communication aimed at patients with non-life threatening medical conditions is primarily developed to:
deciding on salary of key personnel
stakeholders are typically involved in the program planning process in many ways, except:
in working with a community that has a large Spanish-speaking population, you engage a lay-health worker early in the planning process to be sure that the program is planned, implemented, and evaluated appropriately. An advisory group is formed to assess the relevance of the program activities. These important steps are a way to help improve:
mission, vision, and values
one of the first considerations when determining the potential appropriateness of an external organization for collaboration is an alignment of:
know their audience and what they have access to
you are working with several agencies to develop an intervention. When selecting strategies, which of the following should the health educator do first?
You need to find an instrument to measure program impact. Which database is best for this?
surveys administered in person
you are trying to decide how to collect data for program evaluation in a program to improve nutrition in a low-income community sample. You are looking to randomly select a small number of participants and assess their individual attitudes toward dietary behavior change and their dietary behavior. Which of the following data collection methods would be best to get the largest response rate in this sample?