Chapters 1-3

Customers pay money for those products that they believe to be useful in satisfying their needs and wants. This transfer of money for goods or services is best described as _____.
a. benefits
b. segmentation
c. transformational marketing
d. exchange
e. cost behavior analysis
_______ represents the process by which goods, services or ideas are used and transformed into value.
a. Value transfer
b. Cost conversion
c. Benefits conversion
d. Consumption
e. Utilization analysis
When consumers recognize they have an unmet need, they usually seek out specific products that will satisfy them. They are willing to give up money and effort to find the products. This process that consumers go through to satisfy their needs is best described as the _____ process.
a. branding
b. consumption
c. exchange
d. positioning
e. advertising
Which of the following is based on the belief that firm performance is enhanced through repeat business?
a. Cause marketing
b. Transaction marketing
c. Internal marketing
d. Test marketing
e. Relationship marketing
_____ refer to direct contacts between the firm and a customer.
a. Touchpoints
b. Intersections
c. Target segments
d. Exchanges
e. Counterpoints
Consumer orientation primarily emphasizes:
a. the need to monitor and understand competitor actions in the marketplace and organization.
b. the need for secondary stakeholders in the company’s functioning.
c. the need for consumer value and satisfaction above all other parameters of success.
d. the need to communicate information about customers and competitors throughout the organization as the key to success.
e. the need to consider the company’s bottomline over its customer base.
Which of the following is true of the stakeholder marketing orientation?
a. Firms with this type of orientation recognize that more than just the buyer and seller are involved in the marketing process.
b. It is a way of doing business in which the actions and decision making of the institution prioritize consumer value and satisfaction above all other concerns.
c. It is an organizational culture that embodies the importance of creating value for customers among all employees.
d. It stresses solely on the need to monitor and understand competitor actions in the marketplace and the need to communicate information about competitors throughout the organization.
e. In this type of orientation, innovation is geared primarily toward making the production process as efficient and economic as possible.
Obtaining resources from consumers in return for the value they create is a basic tenet of the _____, which is a theory explaining why companies succeed or fail.
a. cognitive resource theory
b. resource-advantage theory
c. need hierarchy theory
d. resource curse theory
e. resource-elaboration theory
Two common interpretive research orientations are _____.
a. regression and cluster analysis
b. psychology and sociology
c. phenomenology and ethnography
d. primary and secondary
e. qualitative and quantitative
_____ represents the study of consumption as a “lived experience” and relies on casual interviews with consumers from whom the researcher has won confidence and trust.
a. Unobtrusive research
b. Archival research
c. Ethnography
d. Phenomenology
e. Netnography
_____ has roots in anthropology and involves analyzing the artifacts associated with consumption.
a. Factor analysis
b. Phenomenology
c. Ethnography
d. Action research
e. Epidemiology
The _____ represents consumer behavior theory illustrating factors that shape consumption-related behaviors that ultimately determine the value associated with consumption.
a. Consumer Behavior Framework (CBF)
b. Consumer Value Framework (CVF)
c. Consumption Process Framework (CPF)
d. Customer Relationship Framework (CRF)
e. Marketing-Consumer Framework (MCF)
Which of the following is at the heart of the consumer value framework and the focus of marketing efforts?
a. Utilitarian and hedonic values
b. Personal values
c. Consumer perception
d. Environment
e. Cultural values
Which of the following is an element of consumer psychology?
a. Environment
b. Media
c. Implicit memory
d. Culture
e. Emotional intelligence
Which of the following is an internal influence on consumer value?
a. Costs
b. Learning
c. Social class
d. Time
e. Family
Which of the following is an external influence on consumer value?
a. Personal values
b. Attitude
c. Needs
d. Perception
e. Reference groups
An automobile marketer is interested in studying the internal influences that affect the psychology of the potential buyers of luxury automobiles. Which of the following would this marketer be interested in studying?
a. Lifestyles of luxury car buyers
b. Political choices of potential buyers
c. Social status of potential buyers
d. Buyers’ attitudes toward different brands
e. The accessories that car owners prefer
A basic _____ premise is that customers form relationships with companies as opposed to companies conducting individual transactions with customers.
a. Consumer Behavior Framework
b. Customer Relationship Management
c. Marketing Consumer Framework
d. Relationship Quality Management
e. Consumption Process Framework
According to the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) orientation:
a. each customer represents just a single sale rather than a potential stream of resources.
b. customers who switch providers each time they make a purchase tend to be more profitable than loyal customers due to their wide range of purchases.
c. the most profitable customers are those who search for information about a product online and then buy it in a brick-and-mortar store.
d. customers form relationships with companies as opposed to companies conducting individual transactions with customers.
e. a strong, or high-quality, relationship is typified by a consumer who buys different brands of a product each time a need for that product arises.
_____ reflects the connectedness between a consumer and a retailer, a brand, or service provider.
a. Hedonic value
b. Interconnectivity
c. Synergy
d. Consumption
e. Relationship quality
When a consumer realizes high value from an exchange with a company, _____ improves.
a. relationship quality
b. internalization
c. emotional contagion
d. augmented quality
e. elasticity
_____ are things that can be thought of as part of the consumer.
a. External influences
b. Innate influences
c. Internal influences
d. Social influences
e. Personal influences
Which of the following terms refers to the thinking or mental processes that go on as we process and store things that can become knowledge?
a. Cognition
b. Schema
c. Affect
d. Synergy
e. Internalization
Since childhood, Meg’s parents always told her that milk is good for health. As a result, Meg developed a liking for milk and started drinking it regularly. In this case, Meg’s thinking or mental process is referred to as _____.
a. sensitization
b. affect
c. emotional contagion
d. emotional intelligence
e. cognition
_____ refers to the feelings that are experienced during consumption activities or associated with specific objects.
a. Cognition
b. Internalization
c. Affect
d. Habituation
e. Utilitarian value
Characteristics and traits, including personality and lifestyles, that help define a consumer are referred to as _____.
a. value enhancers
b. individual identifiers
c. discriminators
d. individual differences
e. exemplars
Which of the following environments includes the people and groups who help shape a consumer’s everyday experiences?
a. Emotional environment
b. Internal environment
c. Social environment
d. Macro environment
e. Micro environment
Amy is a member of the readers’ club in her school. Before she buys any new book, she checks what is popular with the others in her club. Amy’s readers’ club is part of her _____ that influences Amy’s everyday experiences.
a. internal environment
b. value network
c. relationship network
d. emotional environment
e. social environment
_____ are unique to a time or place that can affect consumer decision making and the value received from consumption.
a. Situational influences
b. Temporal factors
c. Social influences
d. Internal factors
e. Socio-environmental factors
The presence of music in an environment may shape consumer behavior and even change buying patterns. In this case, music is an example of a _____.
a. social influence
b. situational influence
c. socio-economic factor
d. hedonic factor
e. perceptional influence
Which of the following terms refers to a personal assessment of the net worth a consumer obtains from an activity?
a. Quality
b. Experience
c. Prestige
d. Value
e. Effort
_____ captures how much gratification a consumer receives from consumption.
a. Opportunity cost
b. Internal rate of return
c. Value
d. Emotional contagion
e. Sunk cost
Two main types of values are _____.
a. internal and external
b. utilitarian and hedonic
c. personal and social
d. primary and secondary
e. temporal and stable
_____ value is derived from a product that helps a consumer solve problems and accomplish tasks that are a part of being a consumer.
a. Utilitarian
b. Functional
c. Terminal
d. Purchase
e. End-state
Sam needed a new pair of bicycle pedals. After visiting several stores to find the right ones, he purchased a pair from a local store called All Things Sports and was satisfied that his needs were met. Which of the following best describes the type of value Sam received?
a. End-state value
b. Premium value
c. Terminal value
d. Utilitarian value
e. Purchase value
_____ value is the immediate gratification that comes from experiencing some activity.
a. Hedonic
b. Utilitarian
c. End-state
d. Process
e. Terminal
Natalie and her friends enjoy visiting upscale stores together even if they do not purchase anything. For them, the experience of shopping is an end in itself, not just a means to an end. While shopping, which of the following types of values do Natalie and her friends experience?
a. Utilitarian value
b. Pleasure-seeking value
c. Hedonic value
d. Experiential value
e. Augmented value
Which of the following is true about the two basic types of values?
a. Utilitarian value is an end in and of itself rather than a means to an end.
b. Hedonic value is very emotional and subjective in nature.
c. Utilitarian value is the immediate gratification that comes from experiencing some activity.
d. Utilitarian value is immediate whereas hedonic value is delayed.
e. Hedonic value is provided by an activity because the activity allows something good to happen or be accomplished.
Which of the following terms refers to the way a company goes about creating value for its customers?
a. Schema
b. Marketing strategy
c. Social inclusion
d. Blueprint
e. Focus
When firms fail to realize how their products provide value, they run the risk of developing _____.
a. marketing myopia
b. cognitive dissonance
c. negative affect
d. marketing dissonance
e. marketing disconnect
_____ strategy deals with how the firm will be defined and sets general goals.
a. Corporate
b. Marketing
c. Tactical
d. Top-level
e. Meta
Which of the following is an example of a marketing tactic?
a. Implementing a new technology in order to reduce costs over the next few years
b. Analyzing the budget for the next two years
c. Focusing on the five-year plan
d. Distributing a product only through discount stores
e. Setting the company’s sales goal
A(n) _____product includes the original product plus the extra things needed to increase the value from consumption.
a. augmented
b. secondary
c. complete
d. enhanced
e. terminal
The business practice wherein companies operate with the understanding that products provide value in multiple ways is called the _____ concept.
a. net worth
b. total value
c. value marketing
d. product value
e. multifaceted product
While buying a car, a potential buyer takes into consideration several aspects of the car, such as its design, quality, ease of servicing, speed, and mileage. An automobile company, that takes into consideration all these aspects while manufacturing and selling its cars, is said to be practicing the _____ concept.
a. value marketing
b. multifaceted product
c. total value
d. product value
e. net worth
The realization that a consumer is necessary and must play a part in order to produce value is the major premise underlying the concept of _____.
a. synergy
b. value integration
c. value internalization
d. value co-creation
e. dyadic valuation
Which of the following is an element of the marketing mix?
a. Quality
b. Pricing
c. Design
d. Use
e. Span
The market segment a company will serve with a specific marketing mix is referred to as the _____ market.
a. target
b. primary
c. elementary
d. capital
e. dominant
_____ is the separation of a market into groups based on the different demand curves associated with each group.
a. Market zoning
b. Market augmentation
c. Market positioning
d. Market segmentation
e. Market selection
_____ refers to a marketplace condition in which consumers do not view all competing products as identical to one another.
a. Product positioning
b. Product differentiation
c. Marketing positioning
d. Competitive advantage
e. Market differentiation
Consumers do not view all types of coffee as identical to one another. Some prefer iced coffee, while others will only drink non-fat latte. Still others will only drink chai latte or a cappuccino. This marketplace condition in which consumers do not view all competing products as identical to one another is called _____.
a. product differentiation
b. product variation
c. market segmentation
d. perceptual differentiation
e. selective perception
Which of the following is used to depict graphically the positioning of competing products?
a. Product blueprint
b. Schema
c. Perceptual map
d. Product map
e. Demand curve
The approximate worth of a customer to a company in economic terms is known as the _____.
a. net present value (NPV)
b. customer lifetime value (CLV)
c. customer present value (CPV)
d. customer future value (CFV)
e. total customer value (TCV)
Customer lifetime value includes the net present value of the stream of profits over a customer’s lifetime and _____.
a. the costs associated with satisfying that customer
b. the costs associated with keeping that customer for more than 10 years
c. the retention rate for all customers
d. opportunity cost saved from having loyal customers
e. the worth attributed to the equity a good customer can bring
_____ refers to a change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and a stimulus.
a. Cognitive dissonance
b. Emotional labor
c. Self-concordance
d. Emotional contagion
e. Learning
Many store brand packages look similar to national brand packages. This is done with the hope that consumers’ awareness and interpretation of the package design might lead them to think of the less expensive store brand as qualitatively comparable with the more expensive national brand. This is an attempt to influence consumers’ _____.
a. disposition
b. motivation
c. perception
d. sensitization
e. anticipation
The first step in the perceptual process is called _____ and refers to the process of bringing some stimulus within the proximity of a consumer so that it can be sensed by one of the five human senses.
a. attention
b. exposure
c. comprehension
d. reaction
e. retention
Which of the following terms describes a consumer’s immediate response after exposure to a stimulus?
a. Sensation
b. Retention
c. Comprehension
d. Attention
e. Simulation
Natalie walked by a bakery and her first response was a feeling of desire for something tasty because of the alluring aroma coming from the store. Which of the following terms refers to this instantaneous response that Natalie experienced?
a. Retention
b. Comprehension
c. Simulation
d. Attention
e. Sensation
_____ refers to the purposeful allocation of information processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus.
a. Reaction
b. Comprehension
c. Sensation
d. Attention
e. Retention
The attempt to derive meaning from information is known as _____.
a. motivation
b. reaction
c. comprehension
d. simulation
e. sensation
_____ is the process by which the human brain assembles the sensory evidence into something recognizable.
a. Cognitive dissonance
b. Cognitive inertia
c. Cognitive organization
d. Cognitive disequilibrium
e. Cognitive distortions
A light brown, slightly sticky, sweet, round food with a hole in the middle is easily recognized as a doughnut in nearly every part of the world. Which of the following consumer reactions to a stimulus is demonstrated in this example?
a. Accommodation
b. Assimilation
c. Simulation
d. Distortion
e. Contrast
Which of the following reactions occurs when a stimulus has characteristics such that individuals readily recognize it as an example of a specific category?
a. Assimilation
b. Accommodation
c. Contrast
d. Distortion
e. Anticipation
Consumers confront a barrage of marketing messages each day. Banner ads on websites, billboards, and print media are some of the agents through which these messages are communicated to the consumers. However, most consumers “see” only a few of these messages and screen out the rest. This process of filtering out stimuli is known as _____.
a. selective precipitation
b. selective retention
c. selective distortion
d. selective exposure
e. selective filtration
IKEA is a large retail store that offers an endless list of products. Every time Richard goes to IKEA, he makes a note of the things he needs and avoids wasting time exploring the other products on display at the store. Which of the following processes is exemplified by Richard’s act of filtering out products he does not need?
a. Selective attention
b. Selective precipitation
c. Selective abstraction
d. Selective filtration
e. Selective distortion
Susan has an aversion for Zoco, a fast food chain. When a health journal reports on an ingredient used by Zoco as having a potential health risk, Susan’s aversion is strengthened. Now, Susan advises all her friends and relatives to avoid Zoco, even though other fast food chains use the same ingredient. Which of the following offers the most likely explanation for Susan’s reaction to the journal report?
a. Selective filtration
b. Selective satisfaction
c. Selective distortion
d. Selective neutrality
e. Selective precipitation
_____ involves screening out most stimuli and exposing oneself to only a small portion of stimuli.
a. Selective neutrality
b. Selective exposure
c. Selective filtration
d. Filtered exposure
e. Exposure distortion
Selective distortion is the process by which:
a. marketers manipulate information to influence consumers.
b. consumers form opinions about one brand over another based on the information provided by marketers.
c. consumers screen out most stimuli and attend to only a small portion of stimuli.
d. marketers determine the minimum strength of stimulus necessary to influence a consumer.
e. consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs.
Which of the following terms refers to the way in which the human brain senses low-strength stimuli, that is, stimuli that occur below the level of conscious awareness?
a. Sequential processing
b. Subliminal processing
c. Centralized processing
d. Threshold processing
e. Parallel distributed processing
The strength of a(n) _____ stimulus is lower than the absolute threshold of perception.
a. conditioned
b. aversive
c. subliminal
d. supraliminal
e. discriminative
The behavior change induced when the human brain processes stimuli that occur below the level of human consciousness is known as _____.
a. selective distortion
b. subliminal discrimination
c. selective attention
d. subliminal persuasion
e. preattentive effect
Which of the following concepts represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same?
a. Absolute difference
b. Just noticeable difference (JND)
c. Subliminal difference
d. Distortive difference
e. Incremental difference
Which of the following laws states that as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases, a consumer’s ability to detect differences between two levels of the stimulus decreases?
a. Law of Diminishing Differences
b. Law of Just Noticeable Differences
c. Skinner’s Law
d. Pavlov’s Law
e. Weber’s Law
A state implemented a much needed hike in gasoline prices, increasing it by $2. This was followed by a public outcry against the price rise. A year later, the state further increased gasoline prices by half a dollar. This time round, the public accepted it as essential even though there was a general murmur of dissatisfaction. Which of the following will best explain the reason for the public’s acceptance?
a. Preattentive effect
b. Skinner’s Law
c. Weber’s Law
d. Mere association effect
e. Mere exposure effect
The just meaningful difference (JMD) represents:
a. the smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence consumer consumption and choice.
b. how consumers interpret different information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs.
c. the contrast reaction that occurs when a stimulus has characteristics that can be readily recognized as an example of a specific category.
d. how consumers form opinions about one brand over another based on the information provided by marketers.
e. the process by which consumers filter out unwanted details when they are exposed to a stimulus.
_____ memory represents stored information concerning stimuli one is exposed to but does not pay attention to.
a. Autobiographical
b. Implicit
c. Episodic
d. Semantic
e. Declarative
Sara gets information on different competing products and their prices on the Internet and utilizes the data gathered to settle for the best product in the market. In this example, the data gathered by Sara is most likely to be stored in _____ memory.
a. explicit
b. buffer
c. semantic
d. declarative
e. implicit
Implicit memory creates _____ effects, which is learning that is developed in the absence of attention.
a. subliminal
b. mere exposure
c. preattentive
d. mere association
e. distortive
Which of the following statements is true of the mere exposure effect?
a. The mere exposure effect is created in the presence of attention.
b. The increased liking associated with the mere exposure effect is difficult to elicit.
c. The size of the effect is not very strong relative to an effect created by a strong cohesive argument.
d. The mere exposure effect works best when the consumer has a high involvement in processing the object.
e. The mere exposure effect has the greatest effect on old and familiar objects.
John has very little knowledge of cheese and seldom buys it. However, when he is invited to dinner by a friend, a self-confessed cheese lover, John feels obligated to buy cheese for him. When he comes back home after dinner, John finds that the Stilton cheese he randomly chose and bought was displayed on the calendar in his kitchen. Which of the following is most likely to account for John’s choice of cheese?
a. Mere exposure effect
b. Just meaningful difference
c. Skinner’s Law
d. Weber’s Law
e. Just noticeable difference
One way marketers are dealing with the declining effectiveness of traditional advertising due to technology, such as digital video recorders allowing viewers to zoom past commercials, is to get their products integrated into television programs. In some shows, actors are seen driving a Toyota Prius or drinking Pepsi. This sort of advertising is an example of _____.
a. subliminal advertising
b. product placement
c. overt advertising
d. crowd manipulation
e. conquesting
Attention that is beyond the conscious control of the consumer and that occurs as the result of exposure to surprising or novel stimuli is known as _____ attention.
a. involuntary
b. selective
c. split
d. explicit
e. joint
Which of the following is a natural reflex that occurs as a response to a threat from the environment and represents a protective behavior?
a. Galant reflex
b. Plantar reflex
c. Orientation reflex
d. Masseter reflex
e. Rooting reflex
Which of the following statements is true regarding the factors that gain consumers’ attention?
a. All things equal, a consumer is more likely to pay attention to a weaker stimuli than to a stronger stimuli.
b. Contrasting stimuli are extremely ineffective in getting attention.
c. All else equal, smaller items garner more attention than larger ones.
d. In general, a moving object will get more attention than a stationary one.
e. Surprising stimuli are less likely to get consumers’ attention.
_____ refers to the personal relevance a consumer feels towards a particular product.
a. Involvement
b. Commitment
c. Reliability
d. Relativity
e. Compatibility
Which of the following approaches to learning focuses on changes in one’s conduct that occur as conditioned responses to stimuli, without concern for the cognitive mechanics of the process?
a. Connectivist approach
b. Transformative approach
c. Constructivist approach
d. Behaviorist approach
e. Cognitve approach
_____ learning occurs when behavior is modified through a consumer-stimulus interaction without a cognitive effort to understand a stimulus.
a. Tangential
b. Unintentional
c. Formal
d. Observational
e. Avoidance
Most consumers set out to specifically learn information about cars before making a purchase. Many search the Internet and visit dealerships before finalizing the purchase. Which of the following types of learning does this represent?
a. Intentional learning
b. Formal learning
c. Episodic learning
d. Avoidance learning
e. Associative learning
Sandra and her husband are considering the purchase of a new washer and dryer. They don’t know much about high efficiency appliances, so they search the Internet, talk to friends and family, and visit several stores so that they can make a good decision. Sandra and her husband are engaged in _____ learning.
a. formal
b. episodic
c. intentional
d. rote
e. avoidance
Which of the following perspectives to learning focuses on the cognitive processes associated with comprehension that lead to consumer learning?
a. Behaviorist perspective
b. Transformative perspective
c. Constructivist perspective
d. Information processing perspective
e. Connectivist perspective
Which of the following is true of the information processing perspective to learning?
a. It assumes that the human brain is a “black box.”
b. It assumes that all cognitive processes are behaviors themselves.
c. It assumes that consumers directly respond to the stimuli to which they are exposed.
d. It assumes that changes in thought and knowledge precipitate behavioral changes.
e. It assumes that no description of what happens inside the human body can adequately explain human behavior.
_____ refers to a change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction.
a. Observational learning
b. Avoidance learning
c. Operant conditioning
d. Instrumental conditioning
e. Classical conditioning