chapter tisa

you attitude
vital in persuasive writing. if your audience members don’t believe that you have their best interest at heart, they won’t be easily persuaded.
persuasive business messages
those that try to convince audiences to prove new projects , enter into business partnerships
marketing and sales messages
those that try to convince audience to consider and then purchase products and service
three step writing persuasive messages
plan, write, complete
planning is analyzing situation, gathering info, selecting right medium, organizing information.
writing involves
adapting to your audience and composing the message while completing involves revising messages, producing and proofreading the message and then distributing the message.
attempt to change someone’s/ audiences attitudes, beliefs or actions.more challenging to write than routine messages because they ask for one to part with something of value e.g. money in exchange for product or taking substantial action, e.g changing corporate policy.
planning for persuasion
analyze situation
gather information
select medium
organize message
analyze the situation
best persuasive messages are closely connected to your audience’s desires and interests. consider audience, audience’s needs, what you want of them, how they might resist, alternatives, how organizations culture might influence strategy.
analyze situation purpose
requesting actions
motivating decisions
changing attitudes
analyze situation the audience
demographics- age,gender,occupation, income,education,quantifiable characteristics of people.
psycho graphics- personality, attitudes, lifestyle, other psychological characteristics.
motivation – forces driving people to satisfy their needs.
gather information
persuasive messages
marketing and sales
to change someone’s attitudes or beliefs or actions
its vital to understand their motivation i.e what drives people to satisfy their needs
gathering information
done after situation analysis is complete, gather information necessary to create compelling persuasive messages.
selecting the right medium(email, social networking)
you may need multiple media to reach your entire audience.Media choices are always important, but these decisions are sensitive with persuasive messages because these messages are unexpected or even unwelcome.
human needs that influence motivation
basic physiological requirements, safety and security, affiliation and belonging, power and control, achievement, adventure and distraction. knowledge, exploration and understanding. aesthetic appreciation and self actualization.
permission based marketing
marketers ask permission before sending messages which can help companies avoid antagonizing their target audiences.
social media can be can be effective for
reaching out to to customers and potential customers however writing promotional messages requires different approach than traditional marketing and sales efforts
limit your scope to include
only information needed to help your audience take the next step towards making a favorable decision.
most persuasive messages use
indirect approach. the choice of approach is influenced by your position or authority within the organization, relative to your audiences.
Persuasive messages are often
unexpected or even unwelcome, so the you attitude is crucial. organizational culture can influence persuasion as much as social culture.
audiences often respond unfavorably to
over the top language, so keep your writing simple and straightforward.
organizing information
persuasive messages are about the receiver and not the sender of the message,limiting scope is about zeroing in on the heart of the matter, i.e. centering in on one problem or opportunity your audience truly cares about.
since nature of persuasion is to convince people
to change their attitudes, beliefs or actions, MOST persuasive messages use indirect approach. that means you will want to explain reasons and build interest before asking for a decision or action or perhaps before revealing purpose.
In contrast when you have a close relationship
with your audience, the message is welcome or at least neutral, the direct approach can be neutral. for business messages, choice between the direct and indirect approach is also influenced by the extent of your authority, expertise or power in an organization.
if you are a highly regarded tech expert
with years of experience, you might use the direct approach, in a message to top executives. in contrast, if you aren’t well known, indirect approach will be more successful.
writing persuasive messages to encourage positive response
-use positive polite language.
-understand and respect cultural differences.
-be sensitive to organizational cultures.
take steps to establish credibility.
when trying to persuade a skeptical/hostile audience
convince people that you know what you are talking about and not trying to mislead them.use simple language to avoid suspicions of fantastic claims and emotional manipulations. provide objective evidence for the claims and promises you make. identify your sources esp if audience respects them.
persuading skeptical /hostile audience
-establish common ground by emphasizing beliefs,attitudes,background experiences you have in common with the audience. Be objective and present fair and logical arguments. display your willingness to keep your audience’s best interest at heart.
persuading skeptical /hostile audiences
persuade with logic,evidence and compelling narratives rather than trying to coerce with high pressure, hard sell tactics.
persuading skeptical hostile audiences
Whenever possible try to build your credibility before you present a major proposal or ask for a major decision. The way, audiences don’t have to evaluate both you and your message at the same time.
completing persuasive messages.
careless production undermines your credibility, so revise and proofread with care.
credibility is essential element of persuasion
so the production quality of your messages is vital. if your message shows signs of carelessness or incompetence, people might think you are careless or incompetent.
when you evaluate your content
try to judge your argument objectively and try not to overestimate your credibility. when revising for clarity and conciseness, carefully match the purpose and organization to audience needs. ask experienced colleagues who know your audience well to review draft.
complete the message
-evaluate the content. revise for clarity and conciseness. ask a colleague to review overall design elements. proofread for mechanical error. distribute the message.
frame the argument (the AIDA model)
-useful approach for many persuasive messages.
many persuasive messages follow some variation of indirect approach.
one of the most commonly used variations is called AIDA model, which organizes your presentation into four phases. attention to encourage audience to want to hear your problem,idea or new product. interest, provide additional detail that prompts audience members to imagine how they might benefit.
help audience members embrace your idea by explaining how the change will benefit them and answering potential objections.
suggest specific action you want your audience to take, include a deadline, when applicable.AIDA model is tailor made for using indirect approach allowing you to save your main idea for the action phase, can also work with direct approach.
use main idea as attention-getter, build interest with your argument. create desire with evidence , emphasize your main idea in the action phase with specific action you want your audience to take.make sure subject line catches reader’s eye first with indirect approach without revealing main idea.
if you put your request in the subject line
you are likely to get a quick no, before you’ve had a chance to present your arguments. instead of “request for development budget to add automated IM response system” write reducing the cost of customer support inquiries.
It essentially talks at audiences, not with them.
it focuses on one time events ,not long term relationships. sell problem b4 attempting to sell the solution, few people r interested in hearing solutions to problems they don’t know about or don’t know exist.
a unidirectional model that talks at audiences, not with them. 2. AIDA is built around a single event, such as asking an audience for a decision rather than building on a mutually beneficial long term relationship. conversational approach is more compatible with today’s social media.
reinforce your position
believable evidence.
metaphors and stories.
powerful words.
audience benefits.
emotional appeals
attempt to connect with the reader’s feelings or sympathies.logical appeals are based on the reader’s notion of reason; these appeals can use analogy, induction or deduction.
using logical appeals carries
with it the ethical responsibility to avoid faulty logic.
emotion inspired words
freedom, success, prestige, compassion, free and comfort. such emotions put audience in a certain frame of mind and help people accept your message.
marketing & sales messages
rely heavily on emotional appeals.non persuasive business messages rely more on logic.even if your audience reaches a conclusion based on emotions, you will be looked at for logical support.
logical appeal
uses one of three types of reasoning.
1. analogy. =specific evidence by convincing
2. induction.= work from previous evidence 2 general conclusion.
3. deduction= from generalization to a specific conclusion
to avoid faulty logic; practise
avoid hasty generalizations.
avoid circular reasoning.avoid attacking an opponent. avoid over simplifying a complex issue.avoid cause-effect assumptions.avoid faulty analogies.
reinforcing your position
believable evidence.
metaphors and stories.
powerful words.
audience benefits.
use vivid language and abstractions carefully and honestly.
choose your words carefully
to trigger the desired responses.even powerful persuasive messages can encounter audience resistance. if you expect to encounter strong resistance, present all sides of an issue.
Brief, often amusing stories can help your audience grasp the meaning and importance of your arguments.if you’re asking for something, your audience members will find it easier to grant your request if they stand to benefit from it as well.
anticipate objection
positive communication.
balanced approach.
anticipating objection
even compelling ideas and exciting projects can encounter objections as tendency to resist change. address them b4 audience brings it up to remove the potential negative elements and keep focus on positive communication.
if proposal is to switch to lower cost materials
emphasize the new materials are just as good as good as existing materials. demonstrate broad appreciation of the issue and imply confidence in your message.
if audience is unbiased
present all sides of a situation, as you cover each option, explain pros and cons, you’ll gain additional credibility if you present these options b4 presenting your recommendation or decision.
with unbiased audiences
if u can, involve your audience in the design of the solution, people are more likely to support ideas they create.
mistakes to avoid in persuasive communication
the hard sell.
resisting compromise.
relying solely on great arguments.
assuming that persuasion is a one shot effort.
hard sell
don’t push, no one likes being persuaded into making a decision and communicators who take this approach come across as self serving.
don’t let confidence or ethusiasm
lead you to some common mistakes in persuasive communication. if you encounter strong resistance, present all sides of an issue.
examples of persuasive business messages
request action.
present ideas.
make claims.
start process by
analyzing the audience and assessing competition.most persuasive business messages involve a request for action. sometimes the objective of persuasive messages
persuasive request for action
its anticipated so direct approach is fine. in others you’ll need to introduce your intention indirectly and the AIDA model or similar approach is ideal for this purpose.
writing requests for action
open with attention getting device and show readers you understand their concerns. use interest and desire sections of your message to demonstrate that you have good reason for making such a request.
requests for action
goal is to gain credibility for yourself and be believable, close with request for specific action.
persuasive presentation of ideas
to convince audience to reexamine long held opinions or admit the possibility of new ways of thinking.
persuasive claims and requests for adjustment.
most claims are routine messages and use the direct approach.key ingredient in good persuasive claim are a complete and specific review of the facts and a confident positive tone, keep in mind that you have a right to be satisfied with every transaction.
developing marketing and sales messages
marketing and sales messages use many of the same techniques as persuasive business messages with emphasis on commercial transaction. marketing messages user potential buyers through purchasing process without asking for an immediate decision.
sales messages
encourage potential buyers to make a purchase or order decision then and there.,tasks include introducing new brands to the public, providing competitive comparisons, encouraging customers to visit websites for more information info about availability of products or service.
purchase objections
high price.
poor quality.
compatibility issues.
perceived risk.
understanding the purchase decision
from the perspective of a buyer is a vital step in framing an effective marketing or sales message.promotional messages have to compete for the attention of the audience. selling points focus on the product, benefits focus on user.anticipating objections is crucial to effective marketing and sales messagese
the persuasive appeal
get attention.
generate interest.
increase desire.
motivate action.
getting attention feature benefits.
genuine news. common ground. personal appeals.
insider information. promise of saving. samples and demos. problem solutions.
building interest.
build intrigue. support promises. counter objections.expand on and support the promises in your attention getting opening. add details and audience benefits to increase desire for the product or service.
increasing desire.
add details and audience benefits .use strong colorful language without overdoing it to keep readers interested.
stress benefits.focus on claims.
motivating action
e.g offer discount for the first 1000 people who order and put deadline on offer.after you’ve generated sufficient interest and desire, you’re ready to persuade readers to take the preferred action.
conversation marketing
promotes the interactive participation of customers and other audiences.
when motivating action
motivate action. reinforce benefits. keep it simple.
conversational marketing
interactive participation in the driving force of conversational marketing.
Using blogs, wikis, online forums, and social networking sites to collect feedback from customers
social commerce
A subset of e-commerce that uses social media to assist in marketing and purchasing products.
promotional messages for social media
facilitate community building.
listen at least as much as you talk.
initiate and respond to conversations within the community. provide information that people want,identify and support your champions. be authentic,transparent and real.
more promotional messages for social media
don’t rely on the news media to distribute your messages. integrate conventional marketing and sales strategies at the right time and the right places.
maintaining ethical and legal standards
be truthful and non deceptive.
backup claims with evidence.
bait and switch advertising is illegal.
marketing messages and websites aimed at children are subject to special rules.don’t use bait and switch tactics.
more on maintaining ethical legal standards
be ware of contractual obligations. respect the rights of individuals.—marketers have a responsibility to stay up to date on laws and regulations that restrict promotional messages.