Chapter Nine

The first official hunting season may have been estblished in
the 13th century by Kublai Khan.
Goal of wildlife conservation
to ensure the wise use and management of renewable resources
Preservation
saving natural resources, but with no consumptive use of them
Conservation
Wise use of natural resources, without wasting them
Wildlife management
Science and practice of maintaining wildlife populations and their habitats
Habitat
complete environmental requirements of an animal for survival: food, water, cover, space, and arrangement
No North American animal has become extinct because of sport hunting
True
North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
set of seven guiding principles for managing wildlife resources created by the US and Canada
Seven Principles (shortened versi
– wildlife is public property
– wildlife cannot be slaughtered for commercial use
– wildlife is allocated by law
– wildlife shall be taken legally and ethically in the spirit of “fair chase”
– wildlife is an international resource
– wildlife management, use, conservation shall be based on sound scientific knowledge/principles
– hunting, fishing, trapping shall be democratic
What is the biggest cause for threatened and endangered species?
Urbanization
Basic needs of life
nourishment, procreation, rest
Food and water
necessary to all wildlife
Space
necessary for adequate food among wildlife, territorial space for mating/nesting, and freedom from stress-related diseases
Arrangement
ideally places food, water, cover, and space in a small area so that animals minimize their energy while fulfilling basic life needs
Edge effect
the consequence of placing two contrasting ecosystems adjacent to one another
Balancing Act
habitats must be balanced to support wildlife, remove a certain plant/animal from the community and the community might not survive
Carrying Capacity
the number of animals the habitat can support throughout the year without damage to the animals or to the habitat; the number of animals a habitat can support all year
Birth Rate
the ratio of number of young born to females of a species to total population of that species over one year
Death Rate
the ratio of number of deaths in a species to the total population of that species spanning one year
Succession
Natural progression of vegetation and wildlife in an area
Predator
animal that kills other animals for food
Factors that limit the potential production of wildlife
– disease/parasites
– starvation
– predators
– pollution
– accidents
– old age
– hunting
Regulating hunting has never caused a wildlife population to become…
endangered or threatened
Funding from __________ has helped many game and non-game species recover from dwindling populations
hunting licences
Beneficial Habitat Management Practice
– brush pile creation
– controlled burning
– diking
– ditching
– food plots and planning
– mechanical brush or grass control
– nuisance plant or animal control
– timber cutting
– water holdings