Chapter 9 Principles of Management

Management
Process of integrating resources for accomplishment of objectives
organization
Group of people working together in a structures and coordinated way to achieve goals
authority
delegation from top to lower levels of management and the right of mangers to direct others and take action because of their position
Accountability
A state of being responsible to one’s self, to some organization, or even to the public.
efficiency
Doing things right
effectiveness
doing the right things
managerial efficiency
the ability to get things done correctly, means getting the most output from the least amount of input.
First-line managers
generally responsible for managing employees
Middle Managers
coordinate activities that implement policies of the organization and facilitate activities at a technical level
Top managers
develop a vision for the organizations future, are responsible for overall management, establish operating policies, and guide organizational interactions with the environment.
General Managers
responsible for all activities of a unit
Functional managers
responsible for only one area of organizational activity, such as the bar.
Katz
Identified three basic skills- technical, human, and conceptual
Technical skill
involves understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity
Human skill
working with people and understanding their behavior
Conceptual skill
the ability to view the organization as a whole
Planning
Management functions of determining in advance what should happen
Goals
the desired future conditions that individuals, groups, or organizations strive to achieve.
Objectives
goals, or end points that set the direction for all managerial planning
Policies
guidelines for the organization
Procedures
sequence of activities
methods
define steps for implementation
Standing plans
plans for repetitive action, used over and over again
Single use plans
not repeated but remain as part of the historical records of the organization. ex: programs projects budgets
strategic planning
continuous and systematic process in which people make decisions about intended future outcomes, how outcomes are to be accomplished, and how success is measured and evaluated. (top management)
short-range plans
covers 1 year or less (first line supervisors)
Long-range plans
covers 1-5 year period (middle managers)
organizing
process of grouping activities, delegation authority to accomplish activities, providing for coordination of relationships, and facilitating decision making.
delegation
assigning job activities and authority to a specific employee within the organization
staffing
recruitment, selection, training, and development of people who will be most effective in helping the organization meets their goals
Leading/Directing
Management function of directing human resources for the accomplishment of objectives
includes:
moral
employee satisfaction
productivity
communication
Recruitment & selection
Orientation & training
Performance Appraisal
Compensation
Staffing involves:
Controlling
Management function of ensuring that plans are being followed.
Involves-
measuring actual performance and compare to desired performance/standards
analyze deviations between actual and desired performance
take actions in correct unacceptable deviations
Regulatory Agencies
Joint Commission
NJ department of health
Span of management
Number of employees that can be effectively supervised by one manager
Formal authority
authority that exists because of position in the organization
Acceptance authority
Authority based on the employee’s acceptance of that authority
Authority of competence
Authority based on manager’s competence or expertise
Departmentalization
Process of grouping jobs according to some local arrangement
Vertical division of labor
based on establishment of lines authority (hierarchy)
chain of command
clear and distinct lines of authority within the organization
parity principle
authority and responsibility conicide
Horizontal division of labor
Emphasis on encouraging employees to share ideas across all levels and departments (even)
Line position
A position in the direct chain of command
Staff position
Position intended to provide expertise, advice, and support for line positions
line authority
formal authority created by the organizational hierarchy
staff authority
based on expertise in specialized activities
organization chart
graphic portrayal of organization structure
depicts basic relationships of positions and function
specifies the formal authority and communication network of the organization
Job analysis
study of all aspects of the job
job description
list of duties, working conditions and tools and equipment needed to do the job
Job specification
list of abilities, skills and other credentials needed to do the job
Job enlargement
increase the number of tasks an employee performs to prevent boredom
job enrichment
increase the variety and number of tasks as well as control employee has over his job