Chapter 9- Power and Politics

Power
the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. most important aspect of power is dependency. greater B’s dependance on A, greater A’s power
power vs leadership
power does not require group goal compatibility, merely dependence. leadership on the other hand requires some congruence between the goals. focuses on the downward influence on followers
formal power
based on an individual’s position in an organization
coercive power
depends on fear of negative results from failing to comply; rests on (threat of) application of physical sanctions
reward power
people comply becasuse it produces positive benefits; financial or nonfinancial
legitimate power
represents formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization; broader than power to coerce and reward
personal power
comes from individuals’ unique characteristics: basis = expertise and admiration of others
expert power
influence weilded as a result of expertise, skill, or knowledge
referent power
based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. if i like/admire you, you can exercise power over me because i want to please you
legitimacy
relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizaitonal power or ules
rational persuasion
presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable
inspirational appeals
developing emotional commitemtn by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations
consultation
increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how to accomplish plan
exchange
rewarding the target with beenfits or favors in exchange for following a request
personal appeals
asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty
integration
using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request
pressure
using warnings, repeated demands, and threats
coalitions
enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree
political skill
ability to influence others to enhance their own objectives, more effective users of all influence tactics
Politics
when employees in organizations convert their power into action, engaged in politics
organizational politics
focus on the use of power to affect decision making in an organization, or on self-serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviors
political behavior
consists of activities that are not required as part of an indiv’s formal role but that attempt to influence the distribution of adv and disadv in an organization
legitimate political behavior
refers to normal every day politics- ie complaining to supervisor, bypassing chain of command, etc
illigiimate political behvior
sabotage, whistle blowing, symbolic protests. violates implied rules of the game
politicking
people within organizations will use whatever influence they have to taint the facts to support their goals and interests
Machiavellian personality
characterized by the will to manipulate and the desire for power
role ambiguity
prescribed employee behaviors are not clear
zero-sum approach
reward “pie” as fixed, so any gain one person or group achieves has to come at expense of another group or person
defensive behaviors
reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change; how employees respond when they see politics as a threat
avoiding action
overconforming, buck passing, playing dumb, stretching, stalling
avoiding blame
buffing, playing safe, justifying, scapegoating, misrepresenting
avoiding change
prevention, self-protection
impression management (IM)
the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.
impression management techniques
conformity, favors, excuses, apologies, self-promotion, enhancement, flattery, exemplification
conformity
agreeing with someone else’s opinion to gain their approval. form of ingratiation
favors
doing something nice for a person to gain approval. form of ingratiation
excuses
explanatio of a predicament to minimize apparent severity. defensive IM technique
apologies
admitting responsibiliy. defensive IM technique
self-promotion
highlighting one’s best qualities. self-focused IM technique
enhancement
claiming something you did is more valuable than inreality. self focused IM technique
flattery
complimenting others about their virtues in order to appear virtues. assertive IM technique
exemplification
doing more than you need to in an effort to show how dedicated and hard working you are. assertive IM technique