Chapter 9 – Electronic Commerce Software

companies can do business online using their own servers and server software, an approach called:
self-hosting
virtually all Internet Service Providers (ISPs) also offer web hosting services and sometimes call themselves _______________; these firms, which often offer web server management and rent application software (such as databases, shopping carts, and content management programs) to businesses sometimes call themselves _______________ or _______________
commerce service providers (CSPs)

managed service providers (MSPs)

application service providers (ASPs)

_______________ means that the client’s web site is on a server that hosts other web sites simultaneously
shared hosting
with _______________, the service provider makes a web server available to the client, but the client does not share the web server with other clients of the service provider
dedicated hosting
with _______________, the service provider rents a physical space to the client to install its own web server hardware
co-location (also spelled collocation or colocation)
many hosting services provide web server hardware and software combinations that are _______________, which means they can be adapted to meet changing requirements when their clients grow
scalable
What four terms are often used interchangeably?
Internet service providers (ISPs), commerce service providers (CSPs), managed service providers (MSPs), application service providers (ASPs)
What are the three basic elements that all electronic commerce software must provide?
1. catalog display
2. shopping cart capabilities
3. transaction processing
a _______________ is an organized listing of goods and services offered for sale
catalog
a _______________ is a simple list, tagged with HTML codes, that can be displayed on a single web page or a series of related web pages
static catalog
a _______________ stores information about items in a database, usually on a separate computer, which is accessible to the server that is running the web site itself
dynamic catalog
besides offering a well-organized catalog, most sites with many products provide an _______________, which is a software that allows customers to enter descriptive search terms so they can quickly find a web page containing what they want to purchase
internal search engine
HTTP messaging, which is the foundation of the web, is a _______________, meaning it does not retain information from one transmission session to another
stateless system
_______________ software can adjust pricing in real time based on customer category, past purchase volume (in units or dollars), order size, or any other variable that the seller chooses
dynamic pricing management
_______________ software allows sellers to create special offers (promotions) on specific products in response to variations in customer demand, seasonal preferences, introductions of new product varieties or package sizes, and any other variable chosen
promotion management
_______________ software can connect a seller’s shopping cart directly to the fulfillment service provider’s computers so that shipping can be triggered by the shopping cart software automatically when the sale transaction is completed
fulfillment integration
_______________ software allows customers to post reviews of products
product review management
_______________ triggers are software tools that respond to a customer’s product selection with suggestions for related products or refills for products that have consumable elements (such as blades or razors)
product recommendation
_______________ software enables the shopping cart to retain a record of what customers have added to their shopping cart when their session has terminated for some reason
abandoned cart management
_______________ occurs when the shopper proceeds to the virtual checkout counter by clicking a checkout button
transaction processing
a _______________ is a collection of information that is stored on a computer in a highly structured way
database
the rules a business establishes about its database structure are carefully thought out and take into account how the company does business (its _______________ ) and how the company can reduce the likelihood that errors and inconsistencies will develop in the database
business rules
a _______________ (or _______________) is a software that makes it easy for users to enter, edit, update, and retrieve information in a database
database manager

database management software

large companies that have operations in many locations must make their data available to users in all locations; large information systems that store the same data in many different physical locations are called _______________ and the databases within those systems are called _______________
distributed information systems

distributed database systems

_______________ is software that takes information about sales and inventory shipments from the electronic commerce software and transmits it to accounting and inventory management software in a form that these systems can read
middleware
making a company’s information systems work together is called _______________ and is an important goal of companies when they install middleware
interoperability
a program that performs a specific function, such as creating invoices, calculating payroll, or processing payments received from customers, is called an _______________, _______________, or more simply, an _______________
application program

application software

application

an _______________ is a computer that takes the request messages received by the web server and runs application programs that performs some kind of action based on the contents of the request message
application server
the actions that the application server software performs are determined by the rules used in the business; these rules are called _______________; an example of a business rule is that when a customer logs in, their password must be checked against the password in the database
business logic
in recent years, many IT departments have devoted significant resources to the creation of links among scattered applications so that the organization’s business logic can be interconnected; the creation and management of these links is called _______________
enterprise application integration
In what two types are application servers usually grouped?
1. page-based application systems
2. component-based application systems
_______________ return pages gathered by scripts that include the rules for presenting data on the web page with the business logic
page-based application systems
an increasing number of businesses use a _______________ that separates the presentation logic from the business logic
component-based application system
_______________ software packages are business systems that integrate all facets of a business, including accounting, logistics, manufacturing, marketing, planning, project management, and treasury functions
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
often, smaller businesses cannot afford to buy a full ERP software implementation; however, they can purchase products such as _______________ that offer subscriptions to ERP software for all sizes of businesses; instead of installing and customizing ERP software on their own computer network, the business uses a web browser to access the ERP software on the vendor’s site
NetSuite
the practice of offering software use online is called _______________
software as a service (SaaS)
the W3C defines _______________ as software systems that support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network
web services
a general name for the ways programs interconnect with each other is _______________; when the interaction is done over the web, the techniques are called _______________
application program interface (API)

web APIs

the first widely-used approach to web services was _______________, which is a message-passing protocol that defines how to send marked-up data from one software application to another across a network
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
two other commonly-used specifications for web services are the _______________, which is used to describe the logic unit characteristics of each web service, and the _______________, which works as a sort of address book to identify the locations of web services and their associated WSDL descriptions
Web Service Description Language (WSDL)

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration Specification (UDDI)

in 2000, Roy Fielding outlined a principle called _______________ that describes the way the web uses networking architecture to identify and locate web pages and the elements (graphics, audio clips, and so on) that make up those pages
Representational State Transfer (REST)
Web services that are built on the REST model are said to use _______________ and are sometimes called _______________
RESTful design

RESTful applications

_______________ provide small businesses with a basic web site, online store design tools, storefront templates, and an easy-to-use interface
mall-style CSPs
software used in large online business operations is sometimes called _______________
enterprise-class software
_______________ helps companies control the large amounts of text, graphics, and media files that have become crucial to doing business
content management software
companies are using systems to help them manage the knowledge itself rather than documentary representations of that knowledge (content management software); the software that has developed to meet this goal is called _______________
knowledge management (KM) software
_______________ helps companies coordinate planning and operations with their partners in the industry supply chains of which they are members
supply chain management (SCM) software
What are the two types of supply chain management software?
1. planning
2. execution
_______________ must obtain data from operations software that conducts activities such as sales automation, customer service center operations, and marketing campaigns
customer relationship management (CRM) software