Chapter 8 Quality Management

*** Definition of quality
The degree to which the project fulfills requirements
Quality Management
Creating and following policies and procedures to ensure that a project meets the defined needs it was intended to meet from the customer’s perspective.
Quality Theorist
Juran – 80/20 principle. advocate of top management involvement, fitness for use.
Deming – 14 pts to total quality management. Plan Do Check Act (PDCA)
Crosby – concept of cost of poor quality and advocated zero defects. prevention over inspection. “conformance to requirements:
Perform Quality Assurance
Quality planning. Focus on meeting the requirements. done in executing process when project work is being done.
Gold Plating
Giving the customers extras i.e extra functionality, extra scopte etc.
Prevention over Inspection
Quality must be planned in not INSPECTED IN!!!
Marginal Analysis
Looking for the point where the benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental cost to achieve that quality.

i.e sometimes added attention to something like quality does not always produce added value. When that point is reached stop trying to improve quality

Continuous Improvement = (Kaizen)
Continuously looking for small improvements in quality.
Kai – to alter
zen – make better or improve.
Just in Time (JIT)
Forces attention on quality. Having materials delivered when needed or shortly before. High level of quality practices not enough material for waste or rework
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Focuses on finding ways to continuously improve the quality of their products and business practices at every level of the organization
Responsibility for Quality
Pm has the ultimate responsibility for the quality of the product. Each team member must check his/her work.
Impact of Poor quality
Increased cost
decreased profit
low morale
low customer sat
increased risk
rework
schedule delays
Differences between
Plan Quality management
Perform Quality Assurance
Control Quality
Plan Quality Management – Focuses on defining quality for the project and planning how it will be achieved.

Perform Quality Assurance – Executing process, focus on work being done. Ensure the team is following organizational policies, standards, and processes. The PM can evaluate if processes need improvement

Control Quality – M&C process Examines the actual deliverable. Ensure the deliverables are correct and meet the planned level of quality. find the source of problems and provide recommendations.

Plan Quality Management
PM needs org process assets, enterprise env factors, stakeholder register, requirements doc, and risk register. Identify all relevant organizational or industry practices, standards, and requirements for the quality of the project. Then plan how to meet those quality standards. Main result is the quality management plan
United nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)
Standard that governs international sales transactions
ISO 9000
Created by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help ensure that organizations have quality procedures and that they follow them. Does NOT tell you what quality should be or recommend a system.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Sets standards for the safety of American workers
Cost Benefit Analysis
PM weighs the benefits versus the cost of quality efforts to determine the appropriate quality level and requirements for the project.
Cost of Quality (COQ)
Making sure the project is not spending too much to achieve a particular level of quality. The cost of conformance should be lower than the cost of noncomformance.
7 Quality tools 7QC
Cause and Effect diagram
Flowchart
Checksheet
Pareto diagram
Histogram
Control Chart
Scatter diagram
Cause and Effect Diagram (fishbone/Ishikawa)
Is it better to fix a defect or get the root cause of the defect?

1. A creative way to look at the cause of a problem or to identify the best way to plan and clarify the definition of quality
2. Helps stimulate thinking, organize thoughts, and generate discussions
3. Can be used to explore the factors that will result in a desired future outcome.

Flowchart (process map)
Shows how a process or system flows from beginning to end. how the elements inter relate, alternative paths, inputs/outputs,
Can be used in all 2 Quality Management processes
Plan Quality Management
Control Quality Management
Checksheet (Tally sheet)
Checklist that can be used to keep track of data such as quality problems uncovered during inspections. Used in Plan QM and in Control Quality. primary purpose is to gather data. I.e how often a defect occurs.
Quality checklist
May be a list of items to inspect or steps to be performed. used to verify a required action has taken place or has been included.
Pareto Diagram (Pareto Chart)
Bar chart that arranges the results from most frequent to least frequent to help identify which root causes are resulting in the most problems.

**
1. Help focus attention on the most critical issues
2. Prioritize potential “causes” of the problems
3. Separate the critical few from the uncritical many

Pareto principle (80/20)
80% of problems are due to 20% of the root causes.
Histogram
Displays in bars or columns. Helps Identify which problems are worth dealing with. Presents data in no particular order and w/o reference to time.
Control Chart
SET UP in Plan QM to define quality on the project. Determine mean, specification limits, and control limits.

USED in Control Quality to help determine if the results of a process are within acceptable limits.

Can be used to monitor project performance figures such as cost and schedule variance. Most commonly it monitors production and other processes to see if the results are within acceptable limits. (in control).

Upper and Lower Control Limits
* Two dashed lines on a control chart (acceptable range)
Indicate what is stable versus unstable
Normally calculated on a +/- 3 sigma or standard dev but can go as high as +/- 6 sigma
* Data points outside this range are thought to be out of control
Mean (Average)
Indicated by a line in the middle of the control chart. middle of the range of acceptable variation.
Specification limits
Represent the customers expectations or contractual requirements for performance and quality. inputs from the customer.

Control limits must be stricter than the specification limits. Spec limits are outside of the upper and lower control limits. = better quality than what is req’d by the customer.

Out of Control
Process is out of control when either two things happen
1. Data point falls outside the upper and lower control limits.
2. There are non random data points these may be w/in the upper and lower control limits.
Rule of Seven
process is out of control if 7 non random data points inside the upper and lower control limits that are all on one side of the mean.
Assignable cause/Special Cause Variation
Signifies that a process is out of control. A data point or series of data points falls outside the control limits and requires investigation to determine the cause of the variation.
Scatter Diagram (Correlation Chart)
Tracks 2 variables to determine their relationship. Regression/trend line is calculated to show the correlation of variables and can then be used for estimation and forecasting.
Benchmarking
Looking at other projects to get ideas for improvement on the current project and provide a basis for measuring quality performance.
Design of Experiments (DOE)
Experimentation to determine statistically what variables will improve quality. Fast and accurate
Statistical Sampling
Taking a sampling to inspect. Done if Individual sampling takes too long, costs too much, or is destructive. Sample size and frequency are determined in the Plan QM process actual sampling is done in the control Quality process.
SiX Sigma and standard deviation
How much variance from the mean.
1 sigma = 68.27%
3 sigma = 99.73%
6 sigma = 99.99999998%
Outputs of Plan Quality Management
* Quality Management Plan
* Quality metrics
* Quality checklist
* Process Improvement Plan
* Project Management Plan and Project Updates
Quality Audits
Check standard processes, policies, practices are being followed and looking for new lessons learned etc.
Affinity diagrams
Can help organize and group results of a root cause analysis.
Tree Diagrams
Useful for decision analysis. organize data map out relationships and decompose processes to find a solution.
Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)
Typically used in conjunction with tree diagrams. Decompose a goals into the steps required to achieve it.
Interrelationship Diagraphs
Allows you to see and analyze the relationships among numerous different issues.
Matrix Diagrams
Used for Data analysis. Visual representation of the relationship between two or more sets of items.
Prioritization Matrices
Matrix diagram that is useful for decision analysis about process improvement and quality management plan components that need to change.
Network diagrams can be used to improve TIME Management processes.
Outputs of Perform Quality Assurance
* Change requests including recommended corrective and preventative actions and defect repair
* Updated standards, processes, and quality systems
* Updated PM plan and project documents.
Control Quality Process
Ensuring a certain level of quality in a deliverable whether it be a product, service, or result. Control = measure. measures to see if products/services meet quality standards

Helps insure customer acceptance confirming and documenting the achievement of agreed to requirments

* Mutual Exclusivity
Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if they cannot both occur in a single trial. i.e flipping a coin once cannot result in both a head and tail.
*Probability
likelihood that something will occur. usually a decimal or fraction on a scale to one.
* Normal Distribution
Bell Curve used to measure variation. Probability density distribution
* Statistical Independance
Probability of one even occurring does not affect the probability of another event occurring. i.e The probability of rolling a six on a die is statistically independent from the probability of getting a five on the next roll.
* Control Quality Tools and Techniques
* Cause and Affect Diagram
* Flow chart
* Checksheet
* Pareto Diagram
* Histogram
* Control chart
* Scatter Diagram

Plan Quality Management uses these tools to define quality. Control Quality uses these tools to make sure standards have been met or evaluate how to solve a quality problem

Outputs of Control Quality
* Measurements
* Validated Changes
* Work Performance Info
* Updates to the project Management Plan and Plan docs
* Change requests including recommended corrective and preventative actions and defect repair
* Lessons Learned
* Verified deliverables
PAC = Planning Assurance and Control
Processes: Plan Quality Management, Perform Quality Assurance, Quality Control

* If the situation is looking forward most likely a Planning function for Quality

* If the situation is looking back in time at processes and procedures, it is most likely part of quality assurance

* If the situation is looking back in time at project results, it is most likely part of quality control