Chapter 8 Project Quality Management

Quality
the degree to which a set of characteristics fulfills requirements. must be on an equal level with project scope, time and cost.
conformance to requirements
the project’s processes and products meet written specifications
fitness for use
a product can be used as it was intended
project quality management
ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
project quality management processes
planning quality management, performing quality assurance, performing quality control.
1. planning quality management
identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them; a metric is a standard of measurement.
2. performing quality assurance
periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
3. performing quality control
monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards.
plan quality management outputs
quality management plan, process improvement involvement plan, quality metrics, quality checklists, and project documents updates. PLANNING PHASE
perform quality assurance outputs
change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, and organizational process asset updates. EXECUTING PHASE
perform quality control
quality control measurements, validated changes, validated deliverable, work performance information, change requests, project management plan updates, project documents updates, and organizational process asset updates. MONITORING & CONTROLLING PHASE
planning quality
implies the ability to anticipate situations and prepare actions to bring about the desired outcome.
design of experiments
a technique that helps identify which variables have the most influence on the overall outcome of a process.
scope aspects of IT projects
functionality, features, system outputs, performance, reliability, maintainability.
functionality
the degree to which a system performs its intended function.
features
the system’s special characteristics that appeal to users.
system outputs
are the screens and reports the system generates.
performance
addresses how well a product or service performs the customer’s intended use.
reliability
the ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions.
maintainability
addresses the ease of performing maintenance on a product.
project managers
ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects.
quality assurance
includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project.
kaizen
another goal of quality improvement, Japanese word for improvement or change for the better.
lean
involves evaluating processes to maximize customer value while minimizing waste.
benchmarking
generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other products within or outside the performing organization.
quality audit
a structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects.
kanban five core properties
visual workflow, limit work-in-process, measure and manage flow, make processes policies explicit, use models to recognize improvement opportunities.
main outputs quality control
acceptance decisions, rework, process adjustments
acceptance decisions
determine if the products or services produced as part of the project will be accepted or rejected.
rework
action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with product requirements, specifications, or other stakeholder expectations.
process adjustments
correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements.
seven basic tools of quality
cause-and-effect diagrams, control chart, checksheet, scatter diagram, histogram, Pareto chart, flowcharts
cause-effect-diagrams
trace complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations. help you find the root cause of a problem.
fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams
a diagram that traces complaints about quality problems back to the responsible production operations to help find the root cause.
5 whys
a technique in which you repeatedly ask the question “Why?” to help peel away the layers of symptoms that can lead to the root cause of a problem.
control chart
a graphic display of data that illustrates the results of a process over time.
seven run rule
states that if seven data points in a row are all below the mean, above the mean, or are all increasing or decreasing, then the process needs to be examined for non-random problems
checksheet
used to collect and analyze data.
It is sometimes called a tally sheet or checklist, depending on its format
scatter diagram
helps to show if there is a relationship between two variables.
The closer data points are to a diagonal line, the more closely the two variables are related
histogram
is a bar graph of a distribution of variables
pareto chart
a histogram that can help you identify and prioritize problem areas.
pareto analysis
also called the 80-20 rule, meaning that 80 percent of problems are often due to 20 percent of the causes
flowcharts
graphic displays of the logic and flow of processes that help you analyze how problems occur and how processes can be improved, show activities, decision points, and the order of how information is processed.
statistical sampling
involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.
run chart
displays the history and pattern of variation of a process over time.
six sigma
a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success. uniquely driven by close understanding of customer needs, disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical analysis, and diligent attention to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes.
standard deviation
measures how much variation exists in a distribution and there is relatively greater variability.
normal distribution
a bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical around the mean or average value of the population (the data being analyzed).
yield
represents the number of units handled correctly through the process steps.
DMAIC
a systematic, closed-loop process for continued improvement that is scientific and fact based, stands for define, measure, analyze, improve and control.
Define
define the problem/opportunity, process, and customer requirements
measure
define measures, then collect, compile and display data
analyze
scrutinize process details to find improvement opportunities
improve
generate solutions and ideas for improving the problem
control
track and verify the stability of the improvements and the predictability of the solution
defect
any instance in which the product or service fails to meet customer requirements.
six 9s of quality
a measure of quality control equal to 1 fault in 1 million opportunities.
unit test
done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure that it is as defect-free as possible.
integration testing
occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped components.
system testing
tests the entire system as one entity.
user acceptance testing
an independent test performed by end users prior to accepting the delivered system.
cost of quality
the cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformance.
conformance
delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use
cost of conformance
taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations.
five major cost categories related to quality
prevention cost, appraisal cost, internal failure cost, external failure cost, measurement and test equipment costs.
prevention cost
the cost of planning and executing a project so that it is error-free or within an acceptable error range.
appraisal cost
the cost of evaluating processes and their outputs to ensure that a project is error-free or within an acceptable error range.
internal failure cost
a cost incurred to correct an identified defect before the customer receives the product.
external failure cost
cost that relates to all errors not detected and corrected before delivery to the customer.
measurement and test equipment costs
the capital cost of equipment used to perform prevention and appraisal activities
software defect
anything that must be changed before delivery of the program
modern quality management
requires customer satisfaction, prefers prevention to inspection, recognizes management responsibility for quality
malcom baldrige national quality award
originated in 1987 to recognize companies that have achieved a level of world-class competition through quality management
ISO 9000
a quality system standard developed by the ISO, is a three-part, continuous cycle of planning, controlling, and documenting quality in an organization.
maturity models
frameworks for helping organizations improve their processes and systems
software quality function deployment model integration
a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes
CMMI levels
incomplete, performed, managed, defined, quantitatively managed, optimizing