Chapter 8 Marketing Planning Process

A connected series of operations designed to bring about a particular result (Webster)
National political campaigns focus on. . .
key states and voter groups
Advertising campaigns
Structured and sequential activities
Shared objectives and strategies
Common elements of an advertising campaign
Graphic layout
Strategic message
Benefit statement
Brand personality
Executional elements
Campaigns are built with. . .
plans & strategies
Advertising campaign plans are written by. . .
By the advertisers
By their advertising agencies
Or (most likely) both
Steps in strategic planning
Background research/analyze the situation
Set goals and objectives
Develop strategies
Make tactical decisions
Implement the plan
Monitor and evaluate the plan
The campaign plan includes
A creative plan
A media plan
*may also have strategies and plans for sales promotion and PR
Creative plan may be called. . .
Creative strategy
Creative blueprint
Creative platform
Creative brief
Advertising campaign planning process
Company mission/vision
Business plan
Marketing plan
Communication plan & objectives
Communication strategies (advertising, PR, sales promotion, direct marketing, etc.)
Overall goals and values, your “reason for being”
What you want to accomplish
How you are going to accomplish it
Specific action that helps meet strategic goals – tactics must be on strategy
Mission -> Objectives -> Strategies -> Tactics
The Value Ladder
– Customer benefit
– Product benefit
Target audience
Person or group to whom advertising is directed
Primary target
the target audience
Secondary target
usually, the trade
Statistical description of target audience
Psychological traits of target audience
Sales promotion
Use of incentives (a small bribe) to develop or stimulate sales
Public relations
Publicity through non-paid media
*Publics are a PR version target audience
Situation analysis
Beginning section of plan where current situation is being evaluated
SWOT analysis
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
Percentage of the audience exposed to a media vehicle or schedule
Average number of times audience has had the opportunity to see the message
GRPs (Gross Rating Points)
The sum of the ratings points (a point is one percent of the audience)
TRPs (Target Rating Points)
This is a subset, measuring rating points for the target group
CPM (Cost Per thousand)
How much it costs to reach a thousand people (the “M” is the Roman numeral for thousand)
CPP (Cost Per Point)
How much it costs to buy a “point” of the broadcast audience
Percentage of an audience tuned to a specific station
People are strategic
they look out for their own best interests
People are bombarded with. . .
*a key concern is getting through clutter
People (and advertising) work. . .
from both logic and emotion
The Lavidge-Steiner Learning Model
How people “learn” ads
Awareness -> Knowledge -> Liking -> Preference -> Conviction -> Purchase
The Planning Process
Marketing objective and strategy (The 5 Ps)
Advertising objective and strategy
Creative strategy (message conception and creation)
Media strategy (media selection and weighting)
– other plans and strategies (sales promotion, PR, etc.)
1. Situation analysis
2. Research
3. Problems and opportunities
Goal Setting
4. Marketing objective
5. Budget
Building the Plan
6. Strategies (e.g., targeting, positioning)
7. Creative
8. Media
9. Sales promotion
+ other appropriate IMC plans and strategies
10. Evaluation
1. Situation Analysis
Also called background review
Summation of current knowledge:
– Current users
– Seasonality
– Geography
– Creative requirements
– Purchase cycle
– Competitive review
– And anything else that might help you understand your situation
2. Research
Secondary research first
Primary research second
Three areas:
– Target audience
– Factors that motivate purchase behavior
– Unique brand characteristics
Research techniques
Qualitative research: focus groups, one-on-one (depth) interviews, ethnography (a form of research focusing on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of socio-cultural phenomena)
Quantitative research: surveys, observations, experiments
3. Problems & Opportunities
Also known as the SWOT analysis
4. The Objectives
The marketing objective is a number
It is the goal of your marketing activities
– usually it is a sales or volume goal
– may also include market share goal
– it may be difficult to get to, but the final answer is simple and measurable
5. The Budget
Elements of the budget include:
– advertising
– sales promotion
– PR and marketing event
– all other
6. Strategies
Advertising strategies state how you will fulfill the objectives
Which in turn determines the objectives and strategies for:
– advertising creative
– advertising media
– sales promotion, PR, etc.
7. Advertising Creative
Creating the advertising message:
Target audience
Tone & manner
8. Advertising Media
Media objectives usually include:
Target audience
Reach and frequency
-The media plan will work to achieve those objectives in the most efficient way
A good media plan considers. . .
Media exposure
– OTS (opportunity to see, hear, read. . .)
Media effectiveness
– GRP (TRP) – overall impact of the plan
– Reach
– Frequency
Media efficiency
9. Sales Promotion & PR
Sales promotion = win/free/save
– Tangible motivation to buy
– An incentive or small bribe
– To both consumers and the trade
Public relations (MPR) =
– Product publicity opportunities
-Third party endorsement and “influencers” (columnists, talk show hosts, etc.)
– May also include event marketing
10. Evaluation
Campaign starts and ends with research
Methods include:
– Qualitative and quantitative research
– Tracking studies
– Attitude, usage, and awareness studies
Persuasion effects:
– Learn – feel – do (cognitive – affective – behavioral)