in terms of ______. This increased accountability has forced
marketers to address tough challenges and develop new measurement approaches
audit is a systematic inspection by an outside firm of accounting records including analyses, tests, and
confirmations.3 The outcome is an assessment of the firm’s financial health in the form of a report.
on the other hand, is a more externally, consumer-focused exercise to assess
the health of the brand, uncover its sources of brand equity, and suggest ways to improve and
leverage its equity. A brand audit requires understanding the sources of brand equity from the
perspective of both the firm and the consumer
• War rooms of every single marketing and branding effort related to a product that are posted to visually see everything the company has done to sell a product.
The brand inventory therefore provides useful information for interpreting follow-up research such as the brand exploratory we discuss next.
understanding what consumers think and feel about the brand and act toward it in order to better
understand sources of brand equity as well as any possible barriers.
It has preliminary activities
First, in many cases, a number of prior ________ studies may exist and be relevant. It is important
to dig through company archives to uncover reports that may have been buried, and perhaps even
beliefs about consumer perceptions for the brand and competitive brands
(1) what customers currently _____ about the brand (and thus find credible),
(2) what customers will _____ in the brand,
(3) what the firm is currently _____ about the brand, and
(4) where the firm would like to _____ the brand
few, target market consumers. They are often defined in terms
of demographic, psychographic, geographic, or other descriptive
attitudinal or behavioral information
usually through quantitative measures of brand performance on a number of key dimensions that
marketers can identify in the brand audit or other means.
• You should track the ______, ________ and ________ of a brand in a product category in that order
How to conduct
• Identify _____ to track, and when and where to track them
How to interpret
• Decide on appropriate ________ and design targets with allowance for competitive considerations and the nature of the category and identify the determinants of brand equity
awareness and image, using both recall and recognition measures and moving from more general
to more specific questions
• How easy is it to do business with GE?
• How concerned is GE with its customers?
• How approachable is GE?
• How accessible is GE?
and developed countries—then you may need a broader set of background measures to
to monitor nonusers of the brand or even of the product category as a whole, for example, to
suggest potential segmentation strategies.
for monitoring brand associations is continuous tracking studies, which collect information from
consumers continually over time. The advantage of continuous tracking is that it smoothes out aberrations
or unusual marketing activities or events like a high profile new digital campaign or an unlikely
occurrence in the marketing environment to provide a more representative set of baseline measures.
to improve the understanding and use of the brand equity concept within a firm. Three
major steps help to implement a brand equity management system: creating brand charters, assembling
brand equity reports, and defining brand equity responsibilities
called, that provides relevant guidelines to marketing managers within the company as well as to
key marketing partners outside the company such as marketing research suppliers or ad agency
• 1. Define the firm’s view of branding and brand _____
• 2. Describe the _____ of key brands
• 3. Specify the actual and desired equity for brands at all levels of brand ______
• 4. Explain how brand equity is measured in terms of ______ studies
• 5. Suggests how marketers should manage ______
• 6. Outline how to devise marketing ________ along specific tactical guidelines.
• 7. Specify the proper ______ of the brand.
as why it is happening. It should include all relevant internal measures of operational efficiency
and effectiveness and external measures of brand performance and sources and outcomes of
Provide comprehensive but actionable summaries of brand-related information
• 2. Investment of resources doesn’t stop at _______
• 3. Graphics and _______ matter
• 4. Execs should focus on what can be measured today but learn how to improve in the ______
must clearly define organizational _____
Organizational design and structures
managing marketing partners
must clearly define organizational
• 2. Make the brand accessible
• 3. Reinforce the brand continuously
• 4. Make brand education an ongoing program
• 5. Reward on-brand behaviors
• 6. Align hiring practices
and embrace the brand meaning. Nordstrom,
whose brand relies on top-notch customer service, empowers
sales associates to approve exchanges without
can get brand knowledge and answers to their brand-related
questions. Ernst & Young launched “The Branding Zone” on
its intranet to provide employees easy access to information
about its branding, marketing, and advertising programs.
the brand meaning with employees beyond the initial
rollout of an internal branding program. Southwest Airlines
continually reinforces its brand promise of “a symbol of
freedom” through ongoing programs and activities with a
employees with inspiring and informative training. Ritz-
Carlton ensures that each employee participates in an
intensive orientation called “The Gold Standard” that includes
principles to improve service delivery and maximize
employees for exceptional support of the brand strategy
should coincide with the roll-out of an internal branding
program. Prior to its merger with United, Continental Airlines
rewarded employees with cash bonuses each month
that the airline ranked in the top five of on-time airlines.
to develop criteria and screening procedures to ensure
that new hires are good fits for the company’s brand
culture. Pret A Manger sandwich shops has such a carefully
honed screener that only 20 percent of applicants end up