Chapter 7: Stress and well-being at work 2

The Consequences of Stress
Stress may be positive or negative. Positive stress can create a healthy, thriving work environment, while negative stress or distress and erode morale and performance.
morale= confidence, high spirit
The Yerkes-Dodson Law
Indicates that stress leads to improved performance up to an optimum point. Beyond that point, stress has a detrimental effect on performance. Thus, healthy amounts of stress r desirable to improve performance by arousing a person to action.
distress is often associated with the word stress, which r the result of prolonged activation of the stress response, mismanagement of the energy induced by the response or unique vulnerabilities in a person.
Individual distress
An extreme preoccupation with work may result in acute individual distress. In the most extreme form, it can lead to a phenomenon described by the Japanese work Karoshi, or death by overwork. Work-related psychological disorders r among the ten leading health disorders and disease in the USA. The common symptoms of psychological distress r depression, burnout, psychosomatic disorders–physical ailments with psychological origins.
Point 1
psychological distress usually leads to emotional exhaustion. It causes energy depletion. It can also be caused by the sustain emotional expression on the job. As a result, it causes work-family conflict.
is a psychological response to job stress. Three dimensions: Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced perceptions of personal accomplishment.
Rust out
it is a form of psychological distress caused by a lack of challenge, inspiration, and or opportunity on the job. Ex. A fast-food cook who flips burgers for a while may result in apathy, resentment, and diminished performance.
Behavioral problems
r another form of individual distress. This include workplace aggression, substance abuse, and accidents.
Workplace aggression
may be triggered by perceptions of injustice; interpersonal conflict can be a form of nonphysical aggression. One study suggest that this conflicts causes our bad moods.
Point 2
These three forms of individual distress–psychological disorders, medical illnesses, and behavioral problems–cause a burden of personal suffering.
Organizational distress
Three major costs of organizational distress r:
1. Participation problems
2. Performance Decrements
3. Compensation awards.
Participation problems
A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover. It means the CO spent more hiring new personnel to cover those. When covering turnover a distinction should be made between dysfunctional and functional turnover.
Dysfunctional Turnover
occurs when a CO losses a valuable employee. Replacement cost is higher because of the recruiting and retraining.
Functional turnover
Occurs when a CO loses an employee who has little or not value to the organization. The loss is consider a positive result. The up-or-out promotion policy for members of some organizations is designed to create functional turnover.
Performance Decrement
Decrement=decreasing, gradual reduction
A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair. grievances=complaint (queja)
Stress and distress play a role in production.
Compensation award
r the organizational costs from court awards for job distress.
Individual Differences in Stress-strain relationship
– Gender Effects
– Type A behavior pattern
– Personality hardiness
Gender Effects
women live six years longer than men; they also find other ways to handle stress than men. Women suffers sexual harassment more than men.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements. They r prone to coronary heart disease. Type A organizations experience stress related to a misfit between their personality type and the predominant type of the organization.
Type A Behavior Pattern Components
– sense of time urgency (hurry sickness)
– The quest for numbers of achievements.
– Status insecurity (feeling unsure deep down).
– Aggression and hostility expressed in response to frustration and conflict.
Personality Hardiness
This type resist strain reactions when subjected to stressful events more effectively. A personality characterized by commitment, control, and challenge.
Personality Hardiness: Commitment
is an engagement with one’s environment that leads to the experience of activities as interesting and enjoyable. This type r less likely to leave her organizations or experience promotion-related stress.
Personality Hardiness: Control
is an ability to influence the processes and outcomes of events that leads to the experience of activities as personal choices.
Personality Hardiness: Challenge
is the conception of change as a stimulus to personal development, which leads to the welcome experience of new activities.
Point 3
Personality Hardiness use these three components mentioned to engage in transformational coping when faced with stressful events.
Transformational Coping
is the active process of modifying one’s perception of an event in order to reduce stress. the persona needs a broader view and altering the outcome through action or by achieving a great understanding of the process. The alternative to transformational coping is regressive coping.
Regressive Coping
Characterized by a passive avoidance of events and decreased interaction with the environment. This may lead to short-term stress reduction at the cost of healthy, long-term life adjustment.
Hardy NO Hardy
Commitment Alienation
Control Powerlessness
Challenge Threat
A healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others. They handle stress by reaching to others. They r confident, enthusiastic, and persistent in facing challenges. Interpersonal attachment is emotional and psychological connectedness to another person. In contrast, there r two insecure pattern of attachments: 1. Counter-dependence and overdependence.
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people. When they face with stressful and threatening situation, they withdraw. They r characterize as a rigid, dismissing denial of other people when in stress. They exhibit fearless, aggressive, and active response to challenges, but they r not truly self-reliant.
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships. They handle stress by clinging to other people. They r characterized as a desperate, preoccupied attempt to achieve a sense of security through relationships. They exhibit an active but disorganized and anxious response to challenges. Military people experience counterproductive and overdependence in their training.
Preventive Stress Management
An organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain. Three stages of prevention that applies in the preventive medicine context as well as an organizational context.
1. Primary prevention
2. Secondary prevention
3. Tertiary Prevention
Preventive Stress Management: Primary prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.
Preventive Stress Management: Secondary Prevention
is intended to modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor. One way is to improve health and well-being.
Preventive Stress Management: Tertiary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain. An innovative approach to treat and prevent is with a full-time grief counselor. The stages of prevention can be applied to organization, individual, and comprehensive health promotion.
Organizational stress prevention
One comprehensive approach to organizational health and preventive stress management was pioneered in the US Air Force; the goal is to keep workers happy, healthy, ad on the job while increasing efficiency and productivity to their highest levels. This goal is achieved by focusing o workplace stressors, organizational, and individual form of distress, and managerial and individual strategies for preventive stress management.
Two organizational stress prevention methods:
1. Team building
2. Social support at work
Job design
It suggests that the combination of stringent demands and restricted control leads to a high-strain job. A major goal in job redesign should be to increase worker control. It can be accomplish by increasing job decision latitude such choosing the timing of work schedules, work activities, the selection and sequencing of work tools, or the selection of work teams. A second objective is to reduce uncertainty and increase predictability in the workplace.
Goal Setting
These activities r designed to increase task motivation while reducing role conflict and ambiguity. Goal setting focusses a person’s attention while directing energy into a productive channel.
Role Negotiation
It begins with the definition of a focal role within the organizational context. The person in the focal role identifies the expectation understood for the role, and organizational supervisors specify their own expectations of the person in the focal role. A negotiation of integrated role expectation follows.
Social Support Systems
-Team building.- is primarily task oriented not social-emotional, in nature. Social-emotional support in the organization is necessary for psychological well-being. One way is interpersonal communication to prevent stress.
Individual Prevention
Individuals may use a number of self-directed interventions to help prevent distress and enhance positive well-being. Such individual prevention can be of a primary, secondary, or tertiary nature.
– The primary preventions activities is optimism, time management, and leisure time activities.
– The secondary prevention activities r physical excise, relaxation, and diet.
– The tertiary prevention activities r opening up and professional help.
Individual prevention 1
1. Positive thinking.- should be practice habitually in order to be effective. We should avoid negative thinking because it can lead to depression, health problems, and low levels of achievement. Positive thinking is not ignoring stressful factors, but viewing them through a different lens. The five dimension of positive thinking r confidence/self-efficacy, hope, subjective well-being/happiness, and emotional intelligence.
Individual prevention 2
Time management.- symptoms of poor management include constant rushing, missed deadlines, work overload, overwhelmed, insufficient rest time, and indecision.
1. Set goals that r challenging but attainable.
2. Prioritize goals in terms of their relative importance.
3. Plan goals attainments through specific tasks, activities, scheduling, and delegation.
4. Praise oneself for specific achievements along the way.
Individual prevention 3
Leisure time activities provides employees an opportunity for rest and recovery form strenuous activities at home and work. The key to the effective use of leisure time is enjoyment.
Individual prevention 4
Individual exercise.- studies suggest that aerobically fit people:
1. Have lower levels of adrenaline in their blood.
2. Have a slower, stronger heart beat
3. Recover from stressful events more quickly.
Individual prevention 5
Relaxation Training is one way of natural counter-response to stress. Reading, yoga, prayer, etc.
Individual prevention 6
Diet.- large amount of sugar can stimulate the stress response. Food high in cholesterol can adversely affect blood chemistry. Good dietary practices contribute to overall health.
Individual prevention 7
Opening up.- discussing difficult experiences with another person is not always easy, but mental and physical health improves through self-disclosures.
Individual prevention 8
Professional Help.- The early detention of distress and strain reactions, coupled with prompt professional treatment can be instrumental in averting permanent physical and psychological damage, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. avert=avoid, prevent
Comprehensive Health Promotion:
Organization stress prevention programs r aimed at eliminating health risks at work, comprehensive health promotion r aimed at establishing a strong and resistant host by teaching individuals prevention and lifestyle change.