Chapter 7 marketing 301

d
Business-to-business marketing refers to selling goods or services to all of the following EXCEPT
A) manufacturers.
B) the federal government.
C) institutions, like hospitals.
D) consumers.
E) retailers.
c
Paul bought a laptop computer for personal use—mainly gaming—and another one for use in his consulting business. How would you classify his purchases?
A) Both were B2C purchases.
B) Both were B2B purchases.
C) The first was a B2C purchase, and the second was B2B.
D) The first was a B2B purchase, and the second was B2C.
E) The first was a C2C purchase, and the second was B2C.
c
Which of the following is NOT a type of reseller?
A) Retailer
B) Wholesaler
C) Manufacturer
D) Distributor
E) All of these are resellers.
c
The B2B buying process is similar to the B2C process, though it differs in many ways. For example, the B2B equivalents of the Information Search and Alternative Evaluation steps of the B2C buying process are
A) simpler and less detailed.
B) internal functions of a firm and of little interest to the marketer.
C) more formal and structured.
D) not as important, and therefore, often not used.
E) merged together in one step.
c
Your firm has recently completed your response to an RFP from a large manufacturer. Your team’s next step will be to

A) contact the manufacturer to obtain the product specifications.
B) celebrate the new business you have just been won.
C) wait for the manufacturer to analyze the proposal.
D) revise your production schedule to build in the extra work.
E) none of the above. The RFP—response from proposal—means your firm did not win this business.

c
The end of the B2B buying process does not end with the receipt of the purchased goods or services. Most companies will

A) use reverse auctions to get rid of products they mistakenly purchased.
B) evaluate organizational culture.
C) assess performance of the selected vendor.
D) return merchandise they did not use.
E) attempt to renegotiate payment terms.

b
Sylvia supervises the print shop in a large nonprofit organization. Her machine operators frequently complain to her about a particular piece of equipment that continually malfunctions. After she made a formal request to replace the equipment, she was asked to serve on a committee to advise the CFO on the kind of new equipment to purchase. Sylvia is most likely taking on the role of _____ in this buying center.

A) User
B) Initiator
C) Purchaser
D) Decider
E) Gatekeeper

a
Organizational culture reflects the values, traditions and customs that guide employee’s behavior. In the context of the buying center, there are a number of recognized cultures of critical importance to B2B marketers. Which of the following is NOT one of these buying cultures?

A) Ethical
B) Autocratic
C) Democratic
D) Consensus
E) Consultative

c
For which of the following buying situations is the buying decision most likely to be quite simple?

A) a new buy
B) a modified rebuy
C) a straight rebuy
D) either a new buy or a modified rebuy
E) a buy that involves an RFP

e
Which type of buying center uses one person to make a decision but solicits input from others before doing so?

A) autocratic
B) democratic
C) consensus
D) egalitarian
E) consultative

B2B marketing
the process of buying and selling goods or services to be used in the production of other goods and services, for consumption by the buying organization, or for resale by wholesalers and retailers
derived demand
the linkage between consumers demand for a company output and its purchase of necessary inputs to manufacture or assemble that particular output
B2B markets
Resellers, institutions, government, manufacturers and service providers
resellers
marketing intermediaries that resell manufactured products without significantly altering their form
wholesalers
those firms engaged in buying, taking time to, often storing and physically handling goods in large quantities, then reselling the goods to retailers or industrial or business users
distributors
a type of reseller or marketing intermediary that resells manufactured products without significantly altering their form. They often buy from manufacturers and sell to other businesses like retailers in a B2B transaction
request for proposals (RFP)
a process through which buying organizations invite alternative suppliers to bid on supplying their required components
web portal
an internet site whose purpose is to be a major starting point for users when they connect to the web.

smaller companies may lack the ability to attract broad attention to their quests so they use them.

buying center
the group of people typically responsible for the buying decisions in large organizations
initiator
the buying center participant who first suggests buying the particular product or service
influencer
the buying center participant whose views influence other members of the buying center in making the final decision
decider
the buying center participant who ultimately determines any part of or the entire buying decision- whether to buy, what to buy, how to buy, or where to buy
buyer
the buying center participant who handles the paperwork of the actual purchase
user
the person who consumes or uses the product or service purchased by the buying center
gatekeeper
the buying center participant who controls information or access to decision makers and influencers
organizational culture
reflects the set of values, traditions, and customs that guide an employees behavior.
autocractic, democratic, consultative, and consenus
corporate buying center cultures can be divided into four general types:
autocratic buying center
a buying center in which one person makes the decision alone, though there may be multiple participants
democratic buying center
a buying center in which the majority rules in making decision
consultative buying centers
a buying center in which one person makes the decision but he or she solicits input from others before doing so
consensus buying center
a buying center in which all members of the team must reach a collective agreement that they can support a particular purchase
new buy
in a B2B setting, a purchase of a good or service for the first time; the buying decision is likely to be quite involved because the buyer or the buying organization does not have any experience with the item
modified rebuy
refers to when the buyer has a purchased a similar product in the past but has decided to change some specifications, such as the desired price, quality level, customer service level, options, or so forth
straight rebuys
refers to when the buyer or buying organization simply buys additional units of products that have previously been purchased
user
B2B and B2C transaction difference is the ultimate __________ of that product or service.
constant contact
this firm provides a centralized dashboard for small businesses to manage their social media accounts, as well as templates for posts and help on creating social media campaigns.

one of the leaders in small business social media managaement by narrowing its efforts on this key market segment.

manufacturers and service
the most visible types of B2B transactions are those in which ____________________ and ________________ providers sell to other businesses.
postpurchase
B2C buying situations customers evaluate their purchase decision and sometimes experience _________________ cognitive dissonance.
white papers
the majority of B2B marketers use ________ __________ for their marketing efforts and the majority of B2B buyers regularly read them prior to making a purchase.
white paper
a good ______ ___________ provides information about the industry and its challenges in an educational context.
white papers
the goal of ________ _______ is to provide valuable information that a business person can easily understand and that will help the company address its problems with new solutions.
modified
current vendors are likely to have an advantage in aquiring the sale in a ________________ rebuy situation as long as the reason for the modification is not dissatisfaction with the vendor or its products.