interpersonal conflict that is personal (e.g., a clash between different personalities or interpersonal styles)
interpersonal conflicts that are substantive, or content, oriented
What are the Four Sources of Interpersonal Conflicts?
(1) Personal Differences (2) Informal Deficiencies (3) Role Incompatibility (4) Environmentally Induced Stress
variations among individuals’ values and need that have been shaped by different socialization processes. Interpersonal conflicts stemming from such incompatibilities are the most difficult for a manager to resolve
breakdown in organizational communication. Conflicts based on the resulting misunderstandings tend to be common but easy to resolve
the conflict producing difference between workers whose tasks are interdependent but whose priorities differ because their responsibilities within the organization differ. The mediation of a common superior is usually the best solution
Environmentally Induced Stress
conflict fostering tension induced by such organizational factors as budget tightening or uncertainty caused by rapid, repeated change
What are Five Conflict Approaches?
(1) Forcing (2) Avoiding (3) Compromising (4) Accommodating (5) Collaborating
an assertive, uncooperative response to conflict that uses the exercise of authority to satisfy one’s own needs at the expense of another’s
a response to conflict that tries to preserve a friendly interpersonal relationship by satisfying the other party’s concerns while ignoring one’s own. It generally ends with both parties losing
an unassertive, uncooperative reaction to conflict that neglects the interests of both parties by sidestepping the issue. The resulting frustration may engender power struggles as others rush to fill the leadership vacuum
a reaction to conflict that attempts to find satisfaction for both parties by “splitting the difference.” If overused, it sends the message that settling disputes is more important than solving problems
two broad approaches or perspectives used for resolving differences or allocating scarce resources-integrative and distributive
Distributive Bargaining Perspective
negotiation tactic that requires both parties to sacrifice something to resolve the conflict – to divide up a “fixed pie”
negotiation tactic in which the focus is on collaborative ways of “expanding the pie” by avoiding fixed, incompatible positions
an approach to conflict resolution that focuses on identifying underlying problems, or issues, and brainstorming solutions
the part played in a conflict management model by the individual who first registers a complaint with another person who is the “responder”
the part played in a conflict management model by the person who is supposedly the source of the “initiator’s” problem
the conflict management role played by the third party who intervenes in a dispute between an “initiator” and a “responder”
What is the outcome of forcing?
you feel vindicated, but the other party feels defeated
What is the outcome of avoiding?
problems don’t get resolved
What is the outcome of compromising?
participants seek expedient, not effective, solutions
What is the outcome of accommodating?
other person can take advantage of you
What is the outcome of collaborating?
problem likely to be resolved
When to use avoiding?
small issue, limited time/resources
When to use accommodating?
keeping harmony, using small favor to get larger one
When to use forcing?
emergencies, only one right way exists, prevent others from taking advantage
When to use compromising?
late in conflict, partial win better than none for both parties
When to use collaborating?
important issues, time is not a problem, win-win solution is possible
What are biases that hinder negotiation?
(1) Mythical fixed Pie (2) Anchoring (3) Framing (4) Availability of Information (5) Over Confidence (6) Escalation of Commitment
What are the Four Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving?
(1) Problem Identification (2) Solution Generation (3) Action Plan Formulation (4) Implementation and Follow-Up