Chapter 7- Energy Balance and Obesity- Nutr. 202

What is the relationship between energy balance and body weight?
Energy balance is the energy taken in and the energy taken out. If the net of energy balance is negative, the body weight should decrease. If the net of energy balance is positive, the body weight should increase. (More energy taken in than given off)
What are the components of total energy expenditure?
-BMR
-Resting Energy expenditure
-Physical Activity
Basal Metabolic Rate
energy metabolism that occurs after walking in the morning, at least 12 hours after the last meal—includes energy for functions that sustain life (breathing, heart beat, kidneys, liver, brain)
Resting Energy Expenditure
calories burned while sitting or sleeping; make up most of calories burned per day
Physical Activity
voluntary physical effort including daily activities, exercise, or physical labor
What are the BMI ranges for underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese?
-Underweight- under 18.5
-Normal- 18.5 – 24.9
-Overweight- 25- 29.5
-Obese- Over 30
How do you calculate BMI?
weight in kg/(height in meters)^2
What are limitations of BMI?
-A BMI does not distinguish between fat and muscle.
-Various Ethnicities
-Sex
-Elderly
What are factors that influence energy burned during exercise?
What are the components of body composition?
Total body mass= (lean tissue mass + fat mass + water)
What are the two categories of body fat?
Essential fat and storage fat
Storage fat
Fat in adipose tissue underneath the skin and fat that pads the essential organs
Essential fat
fat required for normal physiological functioning
What is the equation for TEE?
665.1 + (9.563 X weight in Kg) + (1.85 x height in cm) – (4.676 x age)
Gynoid Pattern
fat over muscle and under skin at hips and thighs (subcutaneous fat)
Android Pattern
Body fat can be stored under the abdominal muscle around the internal organs—”visceral fat”—associated with increased risk for chronic conditions due to excess fat
Osteoporosis
condition associated with decreased bone mass and bone density that can result in increased risk of bone fracture.
Who are those at greater risk for osteoporosis?
o Older age
o Women
o Being Underweight
o Tobacco Users
What are the causes of obesity in our society?
As a society obesity is caused by moving less and eating more. If part of a social network is obese, individual ideas of acceptable weight increases. Healthy and affordable food is hard to purchase in some areas.
Leptin
This is a hormone released by fat cells to signal the brain that the body has had enough to eat.
Ghrelin
hunger stimulating hormone that is produced by cells lining the stomach when stomach is empty—increases with weight loss
-After eating, the release of Ghrelin decreases.
Neuropeptide Y
neurotransmitter-increases food intake and blood glucose levels, promoting the storage of energy in fat cells
Hunger
the need to eat, may be triggered by low blood glucose and low glycogen
Appetite
desire to eat, triggered by sight/smell of food
Why are fad diets unsuccessful in long term?
•Fad diets are unrealistic and difficult to follow long term.
•Many categorize foods as “good” or “bad” and encourage dieters to eliminate certain foods. The key to success of weight loss or maintenance is to establish a diet and physical activity plans that can be followed for a lifetime.
Describe the recommendations for successful long-term weight loss and maintenance.
•Promote small, moderate lifestyle changes
•To reduce energy in and energy burned, decrease portion sizes and increase daily physical activity.
•Decrease calorie intake- balanced diet integrating all food groups is encouraged to promote long-term weight management
oConsume more 1) fruits, vegetables, and whole grains 2) Low fat dairy choices 3) Protein from lean meats and vegetable sources
•Physical Activity- Incorporate planned physical activity into daily routine—moderate health activity for 30 minutes/5 days a week
•Behavior- why you eat as what you eat
Vertical Gastric Sleeve
part of the stomach is removed
-Because of a smaller stomach, there is less room for food (restriction)
Adjustable Gastric Banding
adjustable band fits around upper part of stomach
-Restriction
Roux-en- Y Gastric Bypass
-Small pouch created from stomach
-Part of the small intestine bypassed
-Restriction and absorption
What are the recommendations for treating childhood obesity?
•Weight maintenance is advised
•Gain weight and grow into their weight
•By restricting calories, it can inhibit growth during rapid development phases
The only time it is advised for children to lose weight is when their BMI is in the 95th percentile and they’re younger than age 7 with a health complication.