Chapter 7 Consumer Behavior

How do you prevent forgetting?
make the information stand out. differentiate it. we remember song lyrics or 1 # in a bunch of letters. %retained drops drastically. 20min already forgot 58%
Define Consumer Behavior
describes how consumers make purchase decisions and how they use and dispose of the purchased goods. Includes factors that influence purchase decisions.
ex. satisfries BK
What factors influence purchase?
social reference groups, personal influences (lifestyle/personality), psychological, and situational.
How Congruency can affect retrieval.
ex. healthy choice = green
what we would assimilate or expect it to be. trigger.
What is the Von Restorff Effect?
do the opposite of what they expect. stand out.
ex. infinity car ad. not showing the car.
5 Steps in the Consumer Decision Making Process. (RIAPP)
Information Search
Alternatives Evaluation
Post Purchase Behavior
Tedd Levitt
People don’t buy products, they buy solutions to problems.
Need Recognition (step 1 of consumer decision making process)
recognize imbalance between present/actual state and preferred/ideal state.
Bling H2O was an example for…
Need Recognition. ideal vs. actual state.
Information Search (step 2 of consumer decision making process)
how much info you have, how easy it was to find, value you place on it. Length of time depends on product and knowledge.
Evoked Set Model
the way informations search can take place:
All Brands
Known (Awareness Set) — Unknown Brands
Unacceptable– Acceptable (consideration set)– Overlooked
Purchased Brands — Rejected Brands
Evaluate Alternatives (step 3 of consumer decision making process)
Consumers use criteria to evaluate alternatives.
careful and logical
seek advice
(you weigh attributes or rank brands)
Compensatory Models (decision strategy)
cost-benefit analysis. which one do the pros outweigh the cons.
Non-compensatory Models (decision strategy)
immediate rejection based on some factor. no ability to overcome.
What are the 3 consumer decision strategies?
Multi-attribute (importance)
Conjunctive (minimum)
Lexicographic (best & importance)
Multi-Attribute (decision strategy)
list outcomes and rate on importance. compensatory. weighted total after multiplication.
Conjunctive Rule (decision strategy)
set minimum standards. reject brands that do not meet ALL minimum thresholds. non-compensatory.
Graduation is an example of which decision strategy model?
conjunctive rule.
Lexicographic Rule (decision strategy)
“best on most important attribute”
rank the attributes in order of importance. which is best on the most important attribute? non-compensatory
Purchase Decision (step 4 of consumer decision making process)
brand to purchase is selected, not bought yet.
choice can be altered by opinion of others and unexpected aspects.
Post purchase Evaluation (step 5 of consumer decision making process)
Cognitive Dissonance: buyers remorse. emotional distress.
Cognitive dissonance graph explanation
where A and B cross after purchase point = dissonance.
buyers regret fills the interior until they cross again at Successful Dissonance Resolution.
The 4 influences in the Consumer Decision Making Process (PSPS)
The 7 Social Influences (in the consumer making decision process)
Culture, Sub-Culture, Family, Global, Group, Social Class, Gender Roles
That are the 2 types of reference groups and their subgroups:
Direct Member: Primary and Secondary
Indirect. Aspirational and Non-Aspirational
Uniter States Social Class is made up of which 3 classes?
Upper 15%, Middle 65%, and Lower 20%
What are the 7 determinants of Social Class? (LILO-FEP)
What are the 6 personal influences? (PLAVAS)
Personality (behaviors)
Lifestyle (how you spend your time)
Vocation (Occupation)
Affluence (finances)
Self-Identity (concept of ideal self)
Lifestyle (pLavas)
quantative investigation of a consumers values, personality, lifestyle activities interests or opinions.
external characteristics.
Personality (Plavas)
consistent patterns of behavior in social situations.
Internal characteristics
Define Dogmatism
opem/closed mindedness
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Self-Monitoring
ability to look to others of cues to behavior
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Need for Cognition
pleasure of thinking gained from information
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Innovativeness
have to have the latest
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Materialism
need to posses
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Compulsive consumption
have to spend it
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Define Variety/Novelty Seeking
different experience
(example of marketing related personality trait)
Lasagna Packaging and Cars named after food are examples of what personal influence?
the personality of color.
Psychological Influences (LAMP)
Perception (lamP psychological influence)
Selective… Exposure, Distortion, and Retention.
*notice some stimuli and ignore other
change information that conflicts with them
remembers only what is important
Godiva chocolate was used as an example of what psychological influence?
marketing implications of Perception (lamP)
Consumer Attitudes/ Beliefs (lAmp)
Attitudes: one dimensional, consistent response towards object
Beliefs: objective/subjective. the knowledge a consumer has about objects
The importance of Attitudes.
Thinking Feeling Doing
Cognitive- guide thinking
Affective- influence feeling
Connative- affect doing
Central Route Processing (attitude formation)
highly motivated/involved effort. focused because you care
Peripheral Route Processing (attitude formation)
on the side, not as important.
What is the Theory of Reasoned Action? (Behavioral Intentions model)
can I predict your behavior based on beliefs and influences?
BI-behavioral intentions
Aact- Your attitude
SN-Influence others have on you.
When do attitudes predict behavior?
involvement/effort, knowledge, confidence, and/or peer-pressure are high.