Chapter 6 – Weight Management

Body Composition
lean body mass+ body fat
3-5%
Essential fat for men
10-12%
Essential fat for women
Women Body Fat Categories
10-12% essential
14-20% athletic fat
21-24% fitness fat
25-31% acceptable fat
>32% obese
Men Body Fat Categories
3-5% essential
6-13% athletic fat
14-17% fitness fat
18-25% acceptable fat
>26% obese
BMR & RMR
estimates how many calories you would burn if you were to do nothing but rest for 2 hours
growing, are tall, and have greater muscle mass
BMR and RMR are highest in people who are
Overweight/Obese Health Problems
high bp, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, fatty liver disease, fertility problems, pregnancy complications
metabolic syndrome
(having three or more of the following): a large waistline, high triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high bp, high fasting blood glucose
BMI calculation
weight (kg)/height (m)squared
Healthy BMI
18.8-24.9
Overweight BMI
25
30
Obese BMI
Methods of determining % body fat
hydrostatic weighing, bod pod, skin caliper, bioelectrical impedance, DEXA
twice
Obese individuals have a mortality rate ________ that of non-obese
Type 1 diabetes
pancreas produces little/no insulin. No signal is sent instructing the cell to transport glucose and glucose builds up in blood stream (newborn to early 20’s)
INSULIN DEPENDENT
type 2 diabetes
pancreas produces too little insulin and/or body cells are resistant to it. Some insulin binds to receptors on cells surface, but signal to transport glucose is blocked. Glucose builds up in bloodstream
– body reacting to extremity (obesity)
is reversible
Too lean
body fat less than 10% for women and 5% for men
reproduction problems, circulatory disorders, immune system disorders
Too lean linked to problems such as
osteoporosis, disordered eating, menstrual disorders
Female Athlete Triad
metabolism, hormones, fat cells
Physiological factors contributing to excess body fat
Anaerobic exercise
burns simple sugars, short bursts of high intensity exercise
aerobic exercise
burn more fat, last more than 20 min, uses all major muscle groups, work at moderate intensity level or higher
Appetit suppressants
weight loss tends to level off after 4-6 months
Surgery
– for severely obese (BMI of 40 or higher)
– Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass
– Liposuction
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
restricts food intake (less than 1-2 ounces)
Hydrostatic weighing
lean mass sinks, fat mass floats
+/- 1-3% accurate
bod pod
air displacement, volumetric change
+/- 1-2% accurate
skinfold measurement
determine superficial fat, measure thickness of layer of subcutaneous fat (measure 3 points)
+/- 3% accurate
DEXA
used to measure bone density as well, low dose x-rays, reads soft tissue and bone mass
+/- 1-3% accurate
BIA
electricity flows well through water and muscle, does not flow well through fat, resistance measured.
+/- 5% accurate