Chapter 6-PMP

what does time management include?
time management includes the processes to manage the timely completion of the project.
What are the Project Time Management Processes
– Plan schedule Management
– Define Activities
– Sequence Activities
– Estimate Activity Resources
– Estimate Activity Durations
– Develop Schedule
– Control Schedule
What is a schedule model?
a schedule model is a representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedules along with other scheduling artifacts
what does the Schedule Management Plan include?
the project management plan processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan.. This is a subsidiary to the Project Management Plan. The selected method defines the framework and algorithms used in the scheduling tool to create the schedule model. Some of the better known scheduling methods include critical path method (CPM) and critical chain method (CCM)
Where will the majority of effort in the project time management knowledge are occur?
The majority of effort in the project time management knowledge area will occur in the “control schedule” process to ensure completion of project work in a timely manner.
What is used in order to create the project schedule?
You will need “Project Information”
Includes the following:
– Activities
– Resources
– Durations
– Constraints
– calendars
– Milestones
– Lags, etc
Plan Schedule Management Process
is the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule. The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how the project schedule will be managed throughout the project.
Is the schedule management plan another component of the Project Management Plan?
Yes is sho is!!!! Get it right get it tight son!!
6.1- Plan Schedule Management
Inputs: project management plan, project charter, EEF, OPA

Tools: Expert Judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings.

Outputs: schedule management plan

Define Activities process
is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables. They key benefit of this process is to break down work packages into activities that provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, executing, monitoring, and controlling the project work.
How are work packages decomposed?
work packages are typically decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work effort required to complete the work package.
Should you involve team members in the decomposition process?
YES. Involving team members in the decomposition can lead to better and more accurate results.
What are activity attributes?
multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions
6.2 – Define Activities
Inputs – Schedule management plan, scope baseline, EEF, and OPA

Tools: Decomposition, rolling wave planning, expert judgment

Outputs: Activity List, activity attributes, Milestone list

Sequence Activities Process
is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. the key benefit of this process is that it defines the logical sequence of work to obtain the greatest efficiency given at all project constraints.
6.3 – Sequence Activities
Inputs: schedule management plan, activity list, activity attributes, milestone list, project scope statement, EEF, and OPA

Tools: Precedence diagramming method (PDM), dependency determination, leads and lags

Output: Project schedule network diagrams, project document updates.

What are the four dependencies that PDM has?
*PDM has four dependencies/logical links:*
• Finish to start (FS)
• Finish to finish (FF)
• Start to start (SS)
• Start to finish (SF)
what depencies are most common?
In PDM FS is the most common and SF is the least common
Mandatory dependencies are also referred to as..
“Hard” dependencies or logic
Discretionary dependencies are also referred to as..
“Soft” logic or dependencies or logic
What different categories can a dependency be?
Dependencies can be mandatory/discretionary or internal/external
Estimate Activity Resources Process
is the process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. The key benefit of this process is that it identifies the type, quantity, and characteristics of resources required to complete the activity.
6.4 – Estimate Activity Resources
Inputs: schedule management plan, activity list, activity attributes, resource calendars, risk register, activity cost estimates, EEF, OPA

Tools:expert judgement, alternative analysis, published data, bottom-up estimating, project management software

Outputs: Activity resource requirement, resource breakdown structure, project documents updates

Estimate Activity Durations process
is the process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources. The key of the process is that it provides the amount of time each activity will take to complete, which is a major input into the develop schedule process.
6.5 Estimate Activity Durations
Inputs: SMP, Activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resources calendars, project scope statement, risk register, resource breakdown structure, EEF, OPA

Tools: Expert judgment, analogous estimating, parametric estimating, three-point estimating, group decision-making techniques, reserve analysis, resource optimization techniques (resource leveling, resource smoothing, etc)

Outputs: activity duration and project documents update.

Develop Schedule process
is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule contraints to create the project schedule model. The key benefit of this process is that by entering schedule activities, durations, resources, resource availabilities, and logical relationships into the scheduling tool it generates a schedule model with planned dates for completing project activities.
Why are leads and lags applied?
leads and lags are applied during the network anaylsis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities.
What are two forms of schedule compression?
crashing and fast tracking
6.6 Develop Schedule
Inputs: SMP, Activity list, activity attributes, project schedule network diagrams, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, activity duration estimates, project scope statement, risk register, project staff assignments, resource breakdown structure, EEF, OPA

Tools: schedule network analysis, CPM, CCM, modeling techniques, leads and lags, schedule compression, scheduling tool

Outputs: schedule baseline, project schedule, schedule data, project calendars, project management plan updates, project document updates.

Control Schedule Process
is the process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan. The key benefit to this process is that it provides the means to recognize the deviation from the plan and take corrective and preventative actions and thus minimize risk.
What does performance reviews include?
Performance Reviews includes the earned value management! (includes SV, SPI, etc
6.7 Control Schedule
Inputs: Project management plan, Project schedule, work performance data, project calendars, schedule data, OPA

Tools: Performance reviews, Project management software, resource optimization techniques (resource leveling and resource smoothing), modeling techniques (what-if analysis and simulation), leads and lags, schedule compression techniques (crashing/fast tracking), and scheduling tool

Outputs: work performance information, schedule forecasts, change request, project management plan updates, project document updates, OPA updates

What are some resource optimization techniques?
resource leveling and resouce smoothing
What are some modeling techniques?
what-if analysis and simulation
What are some schedule compression techniques?
crashing and fast tracking
rolling wave planning
is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level. It is a form of progressive elaboration. Therefore, work can exist at various levels of detail depending on where it is in the project life cycle.
is the amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.
the amount of time whereby a sucessor activity will be delayed with respect to predecessor activity
is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project and project deliverables into smaller , more manageable parts.
activity list
is a comprehensive list that includes all schedule acitvities required on the project
activity attributes
extend the description of the activity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity
is a significant point or event in a project. A milestone list is a list identifying all project milestones and indiactes whether the mileston is mandatory, such a those required by contract, or optional, such as those based upon historical information. The key characteristic about a milestone is that it has no duration.
Precedence Diagramming Method – this is a tool and technique used for sequencing activities. It is a technique used for constructing a schedule modeling which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which activities are performed.
Activity on Nodeis one mthod of representing precedence diragramming and the method most commonly used today.
Predecessor Activity
is an activity that logically comes BEFORE a dependent activity in a schedule.
Successor Activity
is an acitvity that logically comes AFTER another activity in a schedule
Project Schedule Network Diagram
is a graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as DEPENDENCIES, among the project schedule activities.
Resource Calendar
is a calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available. Information, on which resources (such as human resouces, equipment, and material) are potentially available during planned activity period, is used for estimating resources utilization. Resource calendars specify when and how long identified project resources will be availble during the project.
Risk register
a document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded.
Bottom-up estimating
is method (tool/technique) for estimating PROJECT DURATION or COST by aggragating the estimates of the lower-level components of WBS and then moving updward
Resource Breakdwon structure
provides a hierarchial structure of the identified resources by category and reource type.
Analagous Estimating
is a technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or project using historical data from a similar activity project. Analogous estimating uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight, and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for future project.
When is analogous estimating most reliable?
Anaogous estiamating is most reliable when the previous acitvities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the project team members preparing the estimate have the needed expertise.
Parametric estimating
just multiplying the quantity or work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work
Three-Point Estimating
the accuracy of a single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. This concept originated with the program evaluation and review technique (PERT). Pert uses three estimates to define an approx. range for an activity’s duration:

Most Likely – the realistic expectations based on resources, dependencies, etc.
Optimistic – best case scenario
Pessimistic – worst case scenario

Triangular Distribution
tE = (tO + tM + tP) / 3

where O- is optimistic
M – most likely
P- Pessimistic

Beta Distribution
(from the traditional PERT technique):

tE = (tO + 4tM +tP) / 6

Group Decision-Making Technique
is an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions.
Reserve Analysis
estimates may also be produced for the amount of management reserve of time for the project, Management reserves are a specified amount of the project duration withheld for management control purposes and are reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. (for the unknown-unknowns)
*Unknown – knowns
Resource Leveling
a technique in which start and finish dates are sdjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply. Resource leveling can be used when shared or critically required resources are only available at certain times, or in limited quantities, or over-allocated, such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same time period.
Resource smoothing
a technique that adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. Thus resource smoothing may not be able to optimize all resources
Modeling techiques
What-if scenario analysis or Simulation (Monte Carlo Simulation)
Monte Carlo Analysis
in which a distribution of possible activity duration is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcomes for the total project
technique used to shorten the duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. (ex – approving overtime). Crashing works only for the activities on the critical path where additional resources will shorten the activity’s duration.
Fast Tracking
a schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. Fast tracking only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten the project duration.
Schedule Network Analysis
a technique that calculates the early start, early finish, late start, and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitations by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network.
The ciritcal path method
is a method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
Critical Path
is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through the project, which determines the shortest possible project duration.
*The critical path method is used to calculate the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.
*Critical path is normally characterized by zero total float on the critical path.
*Any activity on the critical path is called a critical path activity
Critical Path Activity
any activity on the critical path
Critical Chain Method (CCM)
is a schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
Feeding Buffers
are placed at each point where a chain of dependent activities that are not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain. Buffers protect the critical chain form slippage along the feeding chains.
Performance Reviews
measure , compare, and analyze schedule performance such as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remaining duration for WIP.
Earned Value Management
Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI), are used to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline
Schedule Forecasts
are estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes earned value performance indicators that could impact the project in the future.