Chapter 5: Self and Identity

personal characteristics
are anything we use to describe our unique qualities and traits
self perceptions
are observations of our behavior and its consequences
role identities
are the internalized expectations associated with different positions
self identities
are the kind of person we see ourselves and presents ourselves as
affect control theory
incorporates elements of symbolic interactionism and identity theory to explain the role of emotion in identity processes
physical self
is a dimension of the Twenty statements test, and it refers to our physical characteristics, such as hair color or height
oceanic self
is a dimension of the twenty statements test and it refers to a holistic description of the self
reflective self
is a dimension of the twenty statements test and it refers to our feelings and traits, such as being shy or nice
social self
is a dimension of the twenty statements test and it refers to our roles and statuses, such as student, daughter/son, or gender
is a process in which we construct a sense of who we are through interaction with others
vicarious experience
is a way of building mastery by seeing other people perform tasks; it shows us that the task is accomplishable
identity control theory
is an interactionist theory that argues that individuals have a tendency to seek confirmation of self-meaning
identity theory
is an interactionist theory that describes how society shares our sense of self and how those views affect our behavior
social identity theory
is based on the principle that we carry self-definitions that match all the categories to which we belong
is our internalized, stable sense of who we are
is our perceptions of our ability to control things important to us
is our sense that we are important to other people in the world
is part of dramaturgical sociology and it refers to the region where we relax our impression management efforts
is part of dramaturgical sociology and it refers to the place where we present ourselves to others
is the part of the self that includes an organized set of attitudes toward the self
is the part of the self that is active, engaging in interactions with others
Dramaturgical Sociology
is the study of how we present ourselves, playing roles and managing impressions during interactions with other people
self-consistency motive
a drive to maintain a consistent sense of self
Social Identities
a form of self-definition used in social identity theory based on our group affiliations
self-fulfilling prophecy
a process in which expectations produce a reality consistent with assumptions
situated self
a temporally based sense of who we are
any way in which we try to protect our own and others’ presentation of self
social categories
identities related to social groups to which we belong
in social identity theory, the process through which we draw sharp dividing lines between group membership categories and assign people (including ourselves) to relevent categories
is social identity theory the process through which we make comparisons that favor our own groups
emotional arousal
inferences about our abilities based on our emotional states that we use to build our sens of mastery
verbal persuasion
information from others about our abilities used to derive mastery
judgements we make of ourselves based others’ views
psychological centrality
our ability to shift aspects of the self to become more or less important to our overall self-concept
impressions given off
the actual impression the other person has of you
self-esteem motive
the desire to maintain positive self images
impressions given
the impression you believe that you are giving
the outcome of the self process at a given point in time, the sum total of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves as an object
the positive or negative evaluation of our self
the social construction of identities through the use of personal stories
the use of symbols and language to communicate internally
impression management
the ways individuals seek to control the impressions they convey to other people
reflected appraisals
the ways that we believe others view us
personal accomplishments
used in the development of mastery, being able to achieve what we start out to do
social comparisons
using other people as a point of reference for our thoughts feelings and behaviors.